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Overview

Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test

Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test

also known as: Alpha Tocopherol , Vitamin E1

Vitamin E is a term used to refer to eight molecules, which are divided into two categories: Tocopherol and tocotrienols. Each category is further divided up into alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ) vitamins. The vitamin α-Tocopherol is considered to be the ‘main’ vitamin. Vitamin E was one of the first two antioxidant compounds to be sold as dietary supplements, the second being vitamin C. It is sometimes used as the ‘reference’ antioxidant compound when fat soluble compounds are being researched. Vitamin E may function as a signaling molecule within cells and for phosphate groups. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It may help protect your cells from damage. This essential nutrient occurs naturally in many foods. It’s also available as a dietary supplement. Sometimes, it’s in processed foods. Vitamin E is fat-soluble. This means your body stores and uses it as needed.

The method of preparing a product having high vitamin E potency which comprises subjecting soybean oil to high-vacuum unobstructed path distillation to effect separation of a Tocopherol concentrate comprising not more than 2 percent of the original oil, said Tocopherol concentrate being in its naturally occurring form in which it has relatively low vitamin E potency, and increasing the vitamin E potency of said concentrate by halo ethylating and reducing the halo ethylated product to alpha Tocopherol.

Many people use vitamin E supplements in the hopes that the vitamin's antioxidant properties will prevent or treat disease · Vitamin E deficiency. Taking vitamin E by mouth is effective for preventing and treating vitamin E deficiency. · Movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency. The genetic movement disorder called ataxia causes severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplements are used as part of the treatment for ataxia. Blood disorder (beta-thalassemia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to benefit children with the blood disorder called beta-thalessemia and vitamin E deficiency.
A method for the chemical assay of vitamin E in animal tissues is described here which appears to be accurate and precise and to give values for biologically active Tocopherol. It is based on the procedure previously described for vitamin E in foods · With certain modifications. In addition, the vitamin E content of a number of tissues from normal humans of both sexes has been determined and is presented. The method of analysis for vitamin E in foods consists of the following steps: · Homogenization · Extraction of vitamin E (and lipids) · Concentration of vitamin E by molecular distillation
Specimen
Serum, protected from light
Volume
0.7 mL
Container
Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube; amber plastic transport tube with amber-top. (If amber tubes are unavailable, cover standard transport tube completely, top and bottom, with aluminum foil. Identify specimen with patient name directly on the container and on the outside of the aluminum foil. Secure with tape.) For amber plastic transport tube and amber-top, order LabCorp N° 23598..
Type Gender Age-Group Value
Vitamin E
Unisex
All age groups
5.4 - 40 ng/ml
Average price range of the test is between Rs.1465 to Rs.10000 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

Table of Content

What is Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test?
Preparation for Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test
Uses of Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test
Procedure for Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test
Specimen Requirements
Normal values for Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test
Price for Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Test
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Popular Questions & Answers

Hello sir can please suggest me best antioxidants for skin face and body as well?

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Hello sir can please suggest me best antioxidants for skin face and body as well?
Vitamin E. Vitamin E (tocopherol) is an antioxidant that is present in the skin and found in various foods, such as vegetables, seeds and meat. ( ... Lycopene. ... Green Tea. ...
1 person found this helpful

I am 24 years old and I have stretch mark on my thighs and stomach and hips y and how to reduce/clear them.

BHMS
Homeopath, Howrah
Hello, these stretch mark occurs if your weight is reduced after increase. Dont worry they will reduce slowly just exercise regularly including yoga and walking.

Sir I am using evion vitamin e 200 mg with combination of vitamin c 500 mg. Did there is any side effect of prostate cancer.

General Physician, Chennai
Sir I am using evion vitamin e 200 mg with combination of vitamin c 500 mg. Did there is any side effect of prostate ...
Vitamin E supplements are good source of Antioxidants that protect cells from the damaging effects of free radicals. Unless you have any symptoms of deficiency you need not bind to vitamin supplements. You can take natural dietary supplements rich in vitamin E Food Numerous foods provide vitamin E. Nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils are among the best sources of alpha-tocopherol, and significant amounts are available in green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals. Most vitamin E is in the form of gamma-tocopherol from soybean, canola, corn, and other vegetable oils.
2 people found this helpful

The person who smokes, how can he prevent his lungs from tar. Means how can we reduce the level of tar from the lungs of a smoker?

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry, MBA (Healthcare)
Psychiatrist, Davanagere
1. Don’t Smoke This one is a no-brainer, the detrimental effect of cigarette smoke on the lungs has been known and documented for over a hundred years… yet some people continue to do it. Smoking deposits harmful and obstructive tar in the lungs, not to mention a phone-book sized list of chemicals. The chemicals in cigarette smoke, like carbon monoxide, inhibit mechanical lung function and contribute to the development of big, big problems like emphysema and cancer. Smoking is bad for your health and it’s bad for everyone around you. There’s no need to rehash what we all know, let’s just shut the book on this one- don’t smoke! 2. Perform Lung Cleansing Exercises Did you know breathing exercises can strengthen your lungs and help clear toxins? Just as bicep curls will strengthen your arms, deep breathing exercises will strengthen your lungs and clear your airways. Deep breathing provides a secondary benefit in that they deliver more nourishing oxygen to your body. Shallow breathing is often a product of weak lung function or sedentary habits. It’s a bad habit and if you’re guilty, stop! Once or twice a day, find a quiet place and perform the deep breathing exercises that tap into the full capacity of your lungs! 3. Eat Lung Cleansing Foods Did you know pistachios, plantain leaf, and cayenne pepper are all foods that promote healthy lung function? Pistachios contain gamma-tocopherol, a type of vitamin E that is believed to reduce risk of lung cancer. Plantain leaf, popular in Latin American cuisine, is useful suppressing mucous and may help respiratory problems that involve congestion. Cayenne peppers are potent foods whose benefits are equal to their heat. Cayenne has been shown to relieve irritation which is great news when you’re suffering from coughs and sore throats. 4. Reduce Your Indoor Air Pollution Exposure Indoor environments can be contaminated with over 1,000 species of mold and mildew. Pet dander is a common indoor pollutant that is notorious for antagonizing allergies. Synthetic, chemical-based cleaning products are toxic substances with toxic fumes, just check the warning label! (and make your own natural alternatives instead). Upholstery, carpet, paint, and building materials are also all common sources of indoor pollution. The indoor air pollution problem is compounded by the fact that home construction has become more airtight in the last 30 years which traps pollutants inside. A drafty house may not seem the most efficient when the electricity bill arrives but there is something to be said about the constant airflow. Aside from ridding your home of the sources of pollution, air exchange systems and indoor air purification systems are good proactive approaches to purifying the air in your home. 5. Make a Castor Oil Pack for Lung Cleansing Castor oil packs are easy to make at home and work great for drawing toxins out of the body! Castor oil has long been appreciated as a general health tonic and is believed to stimulate lymphatic circulation and waste elimination. Castor oil packs are placed on the chest, perhaps similar to vapor rubs, and are thought to break up congestion and toxins. Easy, effective, and inexpensive, try it! 6. Take Lung Cleansing Herbs Plants like oregano, orange peel, elecampane, eucalyptus, peppermint, lungwort, osha root, chaparral, and lobelia have been used for hundreds of years, if not longer, as natural remedies for respiratory conditions. Individual herbal tinctures and extracts are available, or, rather than purchasing and taking each separately, There are natural lung cleansing supplement that contains organic and wildcrafted herbs known to support respiratory ailments, help with normal lung functions, and cleanse your lungs of harmful agents.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Vitamin E - 12 Reasons Why It Is Important!

B.Sc.(Hons), P.G.Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist,
Vitamin E - 12 Reasons Why It Is Important!

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which in total has 8 compounds, of which only one compound is useful to humans. This is also known as alpha-tocopherol and plays a vital role in antioxidation process and is believed to improve the overall ageing process.

Read on to know more about its benefits, functions, and sources.

  1. Vitamin E that is absorbed by the intestine is transferred to the liver, from where only alpha-tocopherol gets re-released into the system in small amounts. So, if your diet contains the other 7 variants, they are excreted by the liver (not required in humans).
  2. This active vitamin E controls the oxidation process in cells and prevents the release of free radicals, which is the culprit in all inflammatory processes. These can cause heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and stroke. This process is also accelerated by the environmental factors like pollution, UV rays, smoking, etc.
  3. Vitamin E is also shown to dilate blood vessels and prevent platelet clogging.
  4. Vitamin E is useful in preventing and treating diabetes and its related complications. Of note, diabetes is also considered as a chronic inflammatory process.
  5. The nervous system diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and epilepsy can benefit from Vitamin E. It reduces overall cognitive declines and helps in these disease conditions
  6. Women are particularly benefitted from vitamin E, including premenstrual cramps, painful periods, hot flashes with breast cancer, eclampsia during pregnancy, and pregnancy complications
  7. Given their role in energy formation, they help improve endurance, energy levels, and improv muscle strength and reduce muscle damage.
  8. The antioxidant effect is useful in reversing ageing skin changes including wrinkles and fine lines. Vitamin E is used widely in skin care products including creams and lotions and helps in regeneration of skin and tissue.
  9. It is useful to control hair loss, which could be due to multiple reasons, including chemotherapy or side effect of drugs.
  10. It is useful in treating allergies, asthma, respiratory infections, and skin allergies.
  11. Eye diseases like cataracts and macular degeneration which are generally age-related can be controlled with adequate intake of vitamin E.
  12. Taken with other antioxidants like niacin, it is helpful in controlling the buildup of cholesterol.

Sources:
Natural food sources contain enough amounts of this vitamin to meet normal daily requirements, and so consume the following.

  1. Green leafy vegetables, legumes, and vegetable oils
  2. Whole grains and fortified cereals
  3. Fruits and nuts and seeds
  4. Seafood, poultry, and meat
  5. Eggs
  6. Dairy products including fat-free or low-fat milk
  7. Seafood

Given its wide availability, deficiency is rare, but supplements may be required for premature babies with low-weight and in people with some genetic disorders. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dietitian-nutritionist.

10461 people found this helpful

Antioxidants And Their Delicious Sources

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Antioxidants And Their Delicious Sources

Antioxidants: What are they?

Antioxidants are free radical scavengers known to enhance our immunity. We know that fruits and vegetables with vibrant colors are great sources of antioxidants. Many times we wish that foods that taste delicious were as healthy as these fruits and veggies. Here is something to cheer you up. The foods listed below are not only tasty but also rich in antioxidants.

Antioxidants and their sources:

  • Eggs: Egg yolk contains an antioxidants called “lutein”. Lutein is known to prevent muscular degeneration and cataracts. Though the lutein content in yolk is lesser than the lutein content of the green leafy veggies, but according to some studies the lutein from yolk is more effectively absorbed due to the fat content of the yolk.
  • Tinned beans: Tinned beans contains phytochemicals. Phytochemicals repair damaged dna and also neutralize free radicals. Small red beans, dark kidney beans and black beans are rich in antioxidants. You can now enjoy your baked beans with a touch of health.
  • Whole grain pasta/noodles: These whole grain dishes contain polyphenols. Polyphenols are strong anti-cancerous elements. Whole grain pasta and noodles contain 3 to 4 times more antioxidants than the regular ones. In combination to antioxidants these foods also contain good amount of fiber that help in regulating cholesterol levels.
  • Yogurt: There is an additional health benefit to this yummy delight. Although it does not directly contain any antioxidants, it does contain riboflavin which enhances or promotes the activity of antioxidants glutathione. Riboflavin being a water soluble vitamin b, it easily flushes out of the body. You need to consume yogurt on a daily basis to be benefited.
  • Organic milk: Organic milk is the milk obtained from cows that feed on organic food. The antioxidant value of this milk is 40 to 50 times greater than the cows raised in a conventional manner. Antioxidants like vitamin e, lutein and beta carotene are present in it. Organic cheese and butter are other options you may choose.
  • Popcorn: Popcorn is not only a fast and favorite snack, but it also is good in its fiber and antioxidant content. A study carried out by the university of scranton revealed that the whole grain snack foods such as popcorn have surprisingly high levels of polyphenols which have anti-cancerous properties.
  • Natural sweeteners: Natural sweeteners like honey, maple syrup, molasses, brown sugar contain good amount of anti oxidants. Darker the color of honey, greater is its antioxidant content. The non-commercial varieties of honey contain poly phenol. Adding these natural sweeteners in your dessert instead of table sugar does have some added benefit.
  • Canola oil: Canola oil contains alpha-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol prevents the oxidation of bad cholesterol (ldl), preventing the release of free radicals. No wonder canola oil is considered to be heart-healthy oil.
9 people found this helpful

Vitamin and Trace Element Deficiencies

Homeopath,
Vitamin and Trace Element Deficiencies

Vitamin and trace element deficiencies 

Fat soluble vitamins 

Vitamin a (retinol)

• Found in dairy produce, eggs, fish oils, and liver.

• Deficiency causes night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia (corneal thickening) and follicular hyperkeratosis.


Vitamin d (cholecalciferol)

• Found in fish liver oils, dairy produce, and undergoes metabolism at the kidneys and the skin using uv light.

• Deficiency causes rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults). Proximal muscle weakness may be evident. 


Vitamin e (alpha-tocopherol)

• Widely distributed, green vegetables, and vegetable oils.

• Deficiency causes hemolytic anemia (premature infants) and gross ataxia. 

Vitamin k (k 1 = phylloquinine k 2 = menaquinone)

• Widely distributed but particularly in green vegetables. Synthesized by intestinal bacteria.

• Deficiency causes coagulation defects seen as easy bruising and hemorrhage.


Water soluble vitamins 
Vitamin b 1 (thiamine)

• Found in cereals, peas, beans, yeast, and whole-wheat fl our. It is an essential factor in carbohydrate metabolism and transketolation reactions.

• Deficiency causes dry beri-beri (sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy), wet beri-beri (high output cardiac failure and edema), wernicke–korsakoff syndrome. 


Vitamin b 2 (ribofl avin)

• Found in whole-wheat flour, meat, fish, and dairy produce. It is a coenzyme in reversible electron carriage in oxidation–reduction reactions.

• Deficiency gives angular stomatitis (fissuring and inflammation at the corners of the mouth), inflamed oral mucous membranes, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and peripheral neuropatmhy. Drugs (e. G, isoniazid, hydralazine, penicillamine) and is also seen in alcoholism and pregnancy

Vitamin b 12 (cyanocobalamin)

• Causes of a deficiency are numerous and include partial or total gastrectomy, crohn’s disease, ileal resection, jejunal diverticulae, blind loop syndrome, and tapeworm.

• Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord depression, psychosis, and opticatrophy. 

Vitamin b 9 (folic acid)

• Deficiency can be caused by poor diet, malabsorption states, coeliac disease, crohn’s disease, gastrectomy, drugs (e. G, methotrexate, phenytoin), excessive utilization (E.G, leukemia, malignancy, inflammatory disease).

• Consequences of deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, and glossitis. 

Vitamin c (ascorbic acid) 

Deficiency causes scurvy (perifoillicular haemorrhage, bleeding swollen gums, spontaneous bruising, corkscrew hair, failure of wound healing), anemia, and osteoporosis. Trace elements Copper

• Deficiency results in hypochromic and microcytic anemia, wilson’s disease, impaired bone mineralization, menks’ kinky hair syndrome (growth failure, mental defi ciency, bone lesions, brittle hair, anemia).

• Usually caused by copper malabsorption. 

Zinc deficiency causes achondromatosis enterpathica (infants develop growth retardation, hair loss, severe diarrhea, candida and bacterial infections), impaired wound healing, skin ulcers, alopecia, night blindness, confusion, apathy, and depression. 

 Magnesium severe deficiency can cause cardiac arrhythmias, paraesthesia and tetany. Iodine severe deficiency can cause cretinism (children), hypothyroidism, and goiter. 

Vitamin b 3 (niacin)

• Found in fish, liver, nuts, and whole-wheat flour.

• Deficiency causes pellagra): dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia. 

Vitamin b 6 (pyridoxine)

• Widespread distribution, also synthesized from tryptophan.

• Deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, and sideroblastic anemia. Deficiency may be provoked by a number of commonly used.

10 people found this helpful

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Food Additives

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Food Additives

Food additive advantages

Some additives improve or maintain the food's nutritive value. Vitamins a, c, d, e, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, calcium carbonate, zinc oxide and iron are often added to foods such as flour, bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, pasta, margarine, milk, iodized salt and gelatin desserts. Instead of vitamin c, you may see ascorbic acid listed. Alpha-tocopherol is another name for vitamin e, and beta carotene is a source of vitamin a. In addition to providing nutrients, food additives can help reduce spoilage, improve the appearance of foods and increase the availability of a variety of foods throughout the year.

Food additive disadvantages

Some food additives can potentially cause harmful side effects. For example, butylated hydroxyanisole, commonly known as bha, is a preservative used in foods including potato chips, crackers, beer, baked goods and cereal. It has been classified by the u. S. Department of health and human services as a preservative" reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" sulfites, which are added to baked goods, wine, condiments and snack foods, could cause hives, nausea, diarrhea and shortness of breath in some people.

Colors are additives, too
Coloring, in the form of dyes, pigments or other substances, is technically considered a food additive. These substances are often used to enhance color that's lost due to storage or processing. Pigments derived from natural sources, such as vegetables, minerals or animals, are exempt from certification. Man-made colors require testing by both the manufacturer and the fda to ensure they meet specific guidelines for purity.

Artificial preservatives can help your food last longer without becoming contaminated with food-borne illnesses, which is the reason they're found in so many different processed foods. Although all artificial preservatives used in the united states have been deemed" generally recognized as safe" by the u. S. Food and drug administration, not all of these additives are 100-percent safe for everyone. Some preservatives are associated with adverse effects, which can involve an unpleasant reaction in people sensitive to a particular additive or a potential increased risk for cancer.

Preserving food

Artificial preservatives may act as antioxidants, make food more acidic, reduce the moisture level of food, slow down the ripening process and prevent the growth of microorganisms, all of which help the food last longer. This means you can make fewer trips to the store and have less food waste because the preservatives help minimize the amount of food you buy that goes bad before you can eat it.

Limiting foodborne illnesses
Approximately one out of every six americans get a foodborne illness each year, according to the centers for disease control and prevention. Without artificial preservatives to limit the spread of the organisms that cause these illnesses, this number might be even higher. Some of these illnesses, such as botulism, can be deadly.

Potential adverse reactions

Certain preservatives, including sulfites and sodium benzoate, may cause adverse reactions in a small percentage of the population. Sulfites help limit the growth of bacteria in wine and the discoloration of dried fruit, but can cause potentially deadly allergic reactions in sensitive individuals, including rashes, low blood pressure, diarrhea, flushing, abdominal pain, asthmatic reactions and anaphylactic shock. Sodium benzoate, also called benzoic acid, is used in acidic foods to keep microorganisms from growing. In sensitive individuals, it can cause asthma, hives.

Increased cancer risk

Although sodium benzoate is usually considered safe for people who aren't sensitive to it, when combined with ascorbic acid in acidic foods it can produce benzene, which may slightly increase your risk for leukemia and other types of cancer, according to the center for science in the public interest. Nitrates and nitrites, which are often used to preserve cured meats, such as lunch meat and hot dogs, may also increase your risk for certain types of cancers, according to the u. S. Environmental protection agency.

2 people found this helpful

Health Benefits of Spinach

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Health Benefits of Spinach

Spinach has many important roles to play in maintaining a healthy body; various health benefits of spinach include the following:

Good eyesight: 
Spinach is a rich source of beta carotene, lutein and xanthine, all of which are beneficial for eyesight. Beta carotene is supplied to the eyes by cooked spinach. It can prevent people from suffering from vitamin a deficiency, itching eyes, eye ulcers and dry eyes. This is also due to some of the anti-inflammatory properties of spinach, which can reduce the puffiness or irritation in the eyes.


 Age-related macular degeneration (amd): 
Amd or retinitis pigmentosa is responsible for causing blindness. It is due to the degeneration of lutein and xanthine which form a central part of the retina. According to research conducted by the oak ridge national laboratory, the consumption of spinach can result in regaining two vital pigments and effectively preventing amd. Spinach also contains a wealth of antioxidants that reduce the harmful effects of free radicals, which are known to negatively impact vision and cause age-related conditions like glaucoma and macular degeneration as well.

Neurological benefits:
Several components of spinach like potassium, folate, and various antioxidants are known to provide neurological benefits to people who regularly consume them. According to neurology, folate reduces due the occurrence of alzheimer’s disease, so spinach is a very good idea for people who are at high risk of neural or cognitive decline. Potassium is an integral part of brain health as well, and it has been linked to increased blood flow to the brain, and heightened cognition, concentration, and neural activity.

Maintains blood pressure: 
Spinach has a very high content of potassium and a low content of sodium. This composition of minerals is very beneficial for high blood pressure patients as potassium lowers and sodium raises the blood pressure. The folate present in spinach also contributes to the reduction of hypertension and relaxes blood vessels, while maintaining proper blood flow. By reducing blood pressure and relaxing the tension of vessels and arteries, you can reduce stress on the cardiovascular system and increase oxygenation to the body’s organ systems for optimal functionality.

Strengthens muscles: 
A component of spinach, factor c0-q10, which is an antioxidant, plays an important role in strengthening muscles, especially heart muscles which continuously pump blood to all parts of the body. According to the journal of cardiovascular nursing, c0-q10 can be used to prevent and treat many cardiovascular diseases like hyperlipidemia, heart failure, hypertension and coronary heart disease.

Bone mineralization: 
Spinach is a good source of vitamin k, which functions in retaining calcium in the bone matrix, thereby leading to bone mineralization. Apart from this, other minerals like manganese, copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus also help in building up of strong bones. This in turn can prevent an individual from developing osteoporosis of the bones. These minerals are also essential for maintaining healthy teeth and nails.

Reduced risk of cataracts: 
The lutein and zeaxanthin present in spinach both act as strong antioxidants, thus preventing the eyes from the harsh effects of uv rays that can lead to cataracts. They also reduce the impact of free radicals, which can be a major cause of cataracts and other eye conditions.

Proper metabolic activity:
There is a reason why doctors recommend adding spinach in a significant way to your diet. The amount of protein found in spinach is impressive for any vegetable, and they are easily broken down by enzymes into amino acids that are essential to humans. The re-formed mammal proteins aid our muscle development and growth, our body’s ability to heal wounds, and provides a boost for our entire metabolism, encouraging all of our organ systems to function at their optimal level. Also recent study suggests that thylakoid found in spinach can curb cravings and hunger which can further help in weight loss.

Anti-ulcerative: 
It has been found that spinach and some other vegetables have the ability to protect the mucous membrane of the stomach, thereby decreasing the occurrence of gastric ulcers. Furthermore, the glycoglycerolipids found in spinach can boost the strength of the digestive tract lining, thereby preventing any unwanted inflammation in that part of the body that can cause harm.

Prevents atherosclerosis and strokes:
Atherosclerosis is caused due to the hardening of the arteries. A pigment called lutein that is found in spinach has been shown to reduce the occurrence of atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and strokes. This is due to the fact that spinach proteins tend to reduce the cholesterol and other fat deposits in the blood vessels.

Fetal development: 
Folate found in spinach is needed by a growing fetus for proper development of its new nervous system. Defects like cleft palate or spina bifida may occur due to a deficiency of folate. The vitamin a contained in spinach is advised to be consumed in higher quantities by the mother. Vitamin a is required in the lung development of the fetus as well, and can be transferred during breast-feeding, so spinach consumption should be continued after birth as well.

Anti-inflammatory capacity:
There are many anti-inflammatory compounds found in spinach, more than a dozen, in fact. They are classified into the category of methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides, and spinach is one of the most powerful vegetables when it comes to reducing inflammation throughout the body. This not only means protecting the heart from dangerous inflammation and preventing cancer, but also in reducing the inflammation and associated pain from conditions like arthritis and gout, which afflict millions of people around the world.

Anti-cancer properties: 
Spinach is made up of various important constituents that have been found to be promising in the treatment and prevention of various kinds of cancer. These include bladder, prostate, liver and lung cancers. Different constituents in spinach like folate, tocopherol and chlorophyll act via different mechanisms to treat and protect patients suffering from cancer.

Recent studies have revealed that spinach is very effective against aggressive prostate cancer, and this has been linked to epoxyxanthophylls, which are unique carotenoids, along with neoxanthin and violaxanthin, that directly reduce tumorous activity and the spread of cancer throughout the body.

Skin protection:
Different phytonutrients and pigments have been shown to protect the skin from the harmful rays of the sun, including uv rays. These not only protect, but also repair the damaged genes to some extent, thereby preventing skin cancer in the long run.

Protein source for infant growth:
‘popeye the sailor man’ is known for his obsession with spinach. The cartoon was deliberately aimed to convince children to eat spinach and get strong. Infants are advised to be fed with spinach, which is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients. These will result in proportionate development in their essential growing stages.

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