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Overview

Osteomalacia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Osteomalacia?

Weakening of the bones is referred to as Osteomalacia. It is different from osteoporosis because here the bone is formed but remodelled. In osteomalacia there is a problem in bone formation or the building process of the bone.

Main cause of osteomalacia is due to the low absorption of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is the essential for building the bone structure. Vitamin D is produced when the ultraviolet rays of the sun are absorbed by the skin. Vitamin D is also present in many foods like eggs, fish and diary products and is absorbed by the intestines. Low absorption of Vitamin D in the body may be caused due to problems in the intestine due to infection or surgery or due to problems in diet.

Causes :

Osteomalacia can cause bone fractures, muscle weakness, and bone pain in various parts of the body. In severe cases osteomalacia can cause irregular heartbeats, spasms in hands and feet, numbness in legs, hands, and mouth.

Diagnosis :

Doctors will diagnose osteomalacia by conducting tests for low doses of vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium. High levels of parathyroid hormone also indicates osteomalacia which can be due to vitamin D insufficiency. X-rays and imaging tests can indicate the possibility of fractures. These fractures are in the form of small cracks which are found throughout the body. The cracks is called looser’s transformation zone. Fractures tend to happen in people with osteomalacia even with small injuries.

Bone biopsy is conducted to understand osteomalacia the bone strength of the patients. Generally x-rays and blood tests are sufficient to under osteomalacia.

Treatment :

Treatment for osteomalacia is by taking vitamin D supplements. In cases where the person is suffering from low absorption in the intestines then the person is asked to take a diet low in key nutrients. Patients with cirrhosis and kidney failure are treated for the underlying condition. Exposure to sunlight is essential to increase the levels of vitamin D. In rare cases the patients are given vitamin D intravenously.

Among children, osteomalacia tends to cause bone deformity. In severe cases the children have to wear braces or undergo surgery to correct bone deformity.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Symptoms
Bones that fracture very easily Muscle weakness Bone pain, especially in the hips

Popular Health Tips

Contact Dermatitis - 3 Common Types You Must Know!

MD, Ex Sr Dermatologist AIIMS New Delhi
Dermatologist, Delhi
Contact Dermatitis - 3 Common Types You Must Know!

The condition which occurs on exposure to foreign substances and causes the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed is known as contact dermatitis. It is commonly known as a rash. Although most of the reactions to contact dermatitis are not serious, they can be very irritating till the itching subsides. The causes of contact dermatitis are usually case specific; they vary according to the different types of this disease.

The types of contact dermatitis are:

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition occurs when an allergic reaction is developed after exposure to foreign substances. The reaction occurs with a release of inflammatory chemicals that causes the skin to become irritated and itchy. If a person has eczema, he or she can suffer from this kind of rash. Causes of allergic contact dermatitis include:
    • Latex gloves
    • Poison Oak
    • Jewellery (gold or nickel)
    • Perfumes and chemicals in skincare and cosmetic products
  2. Irritant contact dermatitis: Contact between the skin and a toxic material causes Irritant contact dermatitis. They can be sub divided into two categories, namely chemical irritants and physical irritants. Some of the toxic substances that cause this condition include battery acid, drain cleaners, detergents, kerosene, pepper spray and bleach. The physical causes of Irritant contact dermatitis include low humidity from air conditioning, a variety of plants and so on so forth. The condition tends to become more painful, rather than itchy.
  3. Photo-contact dermatitis: This is a very uncommon type of contact dermatitis which is caused due to the exposure of some active ingredients in sunscreen to sunlight. When sunlight is not present, the sensitive chemicals in the substances are not harmful.

Symptoms 
Symptoms of contact dermatitis depend upon the causes of this condition. The symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are:

  1. Dry or oozing blisters
  2. Dry, flaky and scaly skin
  3. Redness of the skin
  4. Extreme itching
  5. Burning of the skin with or without sores
  6. Leathery or dark appearance of the skin
  7. Hives
  8. Swelling, particularly on the face, in your eyes or groin regions

Symptoms of Irritant Contact dermatitis can be slightly different. They include:

  1. Blistering
  2. Swelling
  3. Cracking due to extreme dryness
  4. Ulcerations
  5. Stiff or tightened skin
  6. Open sores that form crusts 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

2368 people found this helpful

Eardrum Rupture - Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

ECFMU, MS - ENT, MBBS, Certificate in Pediatric Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Robotic Surgery Familiarization (France)
ENT Specialist, Gurgaon
Eardrum Rupture - Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

An eardrum rupture or perforation is a little gap or tear in your eardrum and the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is a thin tissue that partitions the canal of the middle ear and outer ear. This layer vibrates when sound waves enter your ear. The vibration proceeds through the bones of the center ear. Since this vibration allows you to listen, your hearing can be affected if your eardrum is harmed. A ruptured eardrum is additionally called a perforated eardrum. Permanent hearing loss could be an end result in some cases.

A ruptured eardrum, similar to thunder; can happen all of a sudden. You may feel a sharp pain in your ear, or an ear infection that you've had for some time all of a sudden leaves. In some cases, the person may not feel any signs of the rupture.

Some of the causes for such a perforation are:

  1. Infection: Ear infections are a major reason for eardrum rupture, particularly in children. Liquids tend to deposit behind the eardrum in such cases.
  2. Exercises: Exercising can bring about pressure changes in the ear and lead to a punctured eardrum. This is known as barotrauma, and takes place when the pressure outside the ear is not the same as the pressure inside the ear. Activities that can bring about barotrauma include scuba diving or flying on plane.
  3. Other activities: Wounds can likewise burst your eardrum. Any injury to the ear or side of the head can bring about a crack.

Diagnosis: Your specialist can use a few approaches to find out whether you have a ruptured eardrum:

  1. A liquid test in which your specialist tests liquids that might spill from your ear from infection.
  2. An otoscope exam in which a specific gadget with a light is used to investigate your ear channel
  3. An audiology exam, in which your specialist tests your listening to range and eardrum limit
  4. Tympanometry, in which your specialist uses a tympanometer to test the pressure changes in your ear.

Treatment: The treatments are as follows:

  • Patching: In the event that your ear does not recuperate by itself, your specialist may fix the eardrum. Fixing includes setting a sedated paper patch over the tear in the film.
  • Antibiotics: Anti-toxins can clear up contaminations that may have prompted your eardrum break. They additionally shield you from growing new diseases from the aperture. Your specialist may endorse oral antibiotics or eardrops.
  • Surgery: In uncommon cases, surgery might be required to fix the gap in the eardrum. A surgical repair of a punctured eardrum is called tympanoplasty.

A cracked eardrum generally recuperates without any invasive measures. Many patients with cracked eardrums encounter just transitory listening problems. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ent-specialist.

3583 people found this helpful

Chap Stick (Lip Balm) - How to Choose the Right One?

MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology & Venerology & Leprosy (DDVL), DNB Dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
Chap Stick (Lip Balm) - How to Choose the Right One?

If people were asked, as to what would be the one important cosmetic without which they would not step out, it has to be the lip balm. From a time when it was mainly used during winters to avoid chapped lips to the present days when it has become an essential cosmetic product irrespective of the weather or the season, it has come a long way.

While there are still the plain ones which have petroleum jelly and help in keeping the lips moist, there are also the new flavoured and coloured options. They have also found their way into the cash counters where these attractive picks make most people impulse buyers. There are also specialised lip balms aimed at men, which are customised keeping in mind the slightly rough skin.

The lip balm has many ingredients, but the main component is waxy and could be beeswax, carnauba wax, paraffin, lanolin, or camphor. There are many organic products available which contain essential oils, shea butter, silk protein, nut oils like almond oil and cocoa butter. The main purpose is to create a protective layer on the surface of the lips to protect it from cold, dry air, and reduce damage from sun exposure. It also seals the moisture that is inherently present in the lips, thereby preventing chapping and cracking of the lips. Some cheaper products could contain hemp oils, petroleum and mineral oils.

When picking a lip balm, consider the following:

  1. Purpose: Do you want something protective or do you want something attractive? The answer to this question will decide the product you pick. If protection is the main reason, then something plain will do. If you want colours and flavours, the pick would be different. There are specialised products for men, so go indulge.
  2. Exposure to the sun: There are some lip balms which offer protection with a good SPF, so if you are likely to be out in the sun for long period, use this.
  3. Medicated: Some lip balms also contain medicinal effects against cold sores, so if you have a cold sore, use this.
  4. Do no harm: There could be lip balms which contain synthetic substances like phenol, menthol, salicylic acid, and alum. These have a tendency to dry the lips, and so not advisable in the long run.
  5. Container: While lip balm sticks are very popular, they are best for single person use, to avoid contamination.

Whatever the product you apply, it inevitably enters your system and so it is important to take a good product. Choose plant-based essences which are not just healthy but also provide a good, protective effect for the lips. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

3840 people found this helpful

Common Skin Problems That Occur From Dry Skin

MBBS, MD - DVL
Dermatologist, Hyderabad
Common Skin Problems That Occur From Dry Skin

A well moisturized and hydrated skin is a thumb rule for a healthy skin. Dry and flaky skin is not only discomforting and unpleasant to look but is also prone to many skin problems. Dry skin or xerosis dermatitis is more common among elderly. Dry skin can cause the skin to crack making it susceptible to infections. Constant scratching of dry skin due to itching is further harmful and can cause thickening and darkening of the skin. Extreme temperature especially winter with cold, dry and chilly winds can be harsh on the skin and disturb its pH level, thus causing skin problems.

Apart from external factors, internal factors such as hypothyroidism, psoriasis and type 2 diabetes can also cause dry skin.

One of the most common skin problems from dry skin is Eczema. Eczema, generally acquired in childhood is an inflammatory reaction of the skin causing the skin to become red and itchy followed by crusting and scaling. Treatment of eczema is usually a combination of creams and drugs. However, eczema does not go away that easily and its relapse rate remains quite high.

Exposure to sun for long hours can also lead to drying of the skin. Apart from this use of harsh soaps and chemical based products or prolonged use of cosmetics on the skin can inhibit the ability of skin to retain moisture.

Dry skin tends to age faster as it is prone to wrinkles. A wrinkled skin loses its charm and elasticity. The whole concept of anti ageing revolves around keeping the sun hydrated and moisturized.

Many skin problems can be prevented only by following a good skin care routine. Others may require a long-term medical treatment. Let’s look at some simple and useful ways to prevent and manage dry skin:

  1. Water: Water is not only a natural cleanser for the skin but helps in maintaining an optimum moisture level of the skin. Drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water every day.

  2. Steam baths: A warm water bath or a steam bath can help relieve skin of dryness.

  3. Oiling of the skin: People with dry skin benefit more from oiling than the use of regular moisturizers. Oiling creates a protective layer on the skin preventing it from drying for longer hours. Use of almond, olive or coconut oil is effective is treating dry skin problems.

  4. Prolonged use of room heaters: Heaters snatch moisture from the surrounding environment including your skin leaving it dull and dry. Thus sitting in heated rooms for long can dehydrate skin and must be avoided as far as possible.

  5. Water-rich fruits and vegetables: Fruits and vegetables, especially, water-rich like watermelon, bottle gourd etc. can help replenish moisture. Eat plenty of those to fight dryness. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.

2373 people found this helpful

Puberty - Things You Must Know About it!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Puberty - Things You Must Know About it!

What is puberty?
Puberty is the phase in life when the body of the child matures to become an adult. This change is mainly influenced by the developing reproductive system and it makes them capable of sexual reproduction. It a progressive change and happens over a span of few years. Girls start to develop breasts and might start menstruating whereas boys notice changes in body hair growth pattern with their voices beginning to crack.
The average age for a girl to attain puberty is found to be 11, whereas in boys, it is longer and the average age is somewhere around 12. Puberty also marks the onset of emotional maturity in kids as well.
Sometimes puberty can be seen at a very young age such as 7 or 8; this is called precocious puberty. This can make it physically and mentally taxing for a child and can be a sign of health issues.

What causes puberty?
The stimulation of the hypothalamus in the brain leads to the production of a hormone called Human Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) which signal the Pituitary Gland to produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This is responsible for sexual development.
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in girls:

The telltale signs of puberty in girls are:

  1. Development of breasts
  2. Growth of hair in areas such as armpits and genitals
  3. A growth spurt, i.e., rapid growth in height
  4. Start of menstruation or her periods
  5. Increase in body fat in certain areas of the body
  6. Development of acne
  7. “Mature” body odour

Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in boys:
The usual signs of puberty in boys are:

  1. Enlargement of the testicles or penis
  2. Pubic, underarm, or facial hair development
  3. Rapid height growth — a growth "spurt"
  4. Deepening of voice
  5. Acne
  6. "Mature" body odor
  7. Increase in hair growth in other parts of the body such as the arms and legs

Along with these signs and symptoms, other signs can be changes in mood. Boys and girls may develop sexual urges wherein you will notice an unexplained attraction to the opposite sex. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2820 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi Doc, I have type 1 diabetes and my reading are fasting 130 and after meal 180. I found that my eyeballs are swollen and it has light red cracks in it. Could you please suggest.

MBBS, MRCGP ( UK), Diploma in Diabetes (UK), DFSRH (UK), DRCOG (UK), CCT (UK)
Endocrinologist, Hyderabad
Hello, I do not think your eye symptoms are due to diabetes in particular, it could be mild conjunctivitis. Mild conjunctivitis usually settles within a few days, if the symptoms worsen then it is better if you see a eye specialist. Thank you.
1 person found this helpful

Dear sir/mam I feel pain in knee joints when I sit in squat position and some cracking sound comes from knee joints. What problem may be? What diet should be follow to avoid this problem?

Madurai Medical College, M.S orthopedics, DNB orthopedics, National University Hospital, Singapore.
Orthopedist,
Dear sir, pain maybe due to small damage in the backside of your knee cap. Need not worry. Do quadriceps exercises and stretches. If pain persists consult the doctor.
1 person found this helpful

I am suffering from my leg knee pain Sir. 1 year back, road accident, lightly crack in my knee. Daily night time lightly painful Sir, and sometimes sound my knee, cloud please t suggested me Sir.

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Bangalore
It indicates joint repair and instability, get it treated thr physiotherapy and follow up with isometric exercises for quadriceps and hamstrings and definitely it would take longer duration for healing process, mean time avoid taking stress and strain.

I have stiffness in my neck. I'm a student. I used to sit in the examination halls for hours. I have a really long and thin neck which made it really painful for my to sit and write. Now, as the problem increased I feel stiffness in neck and I wish to crack the neck bones.

MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Delhi
Dear student your neck stiffness problem is due to the prolonged hours of the posture which requires forward bending and it creates strain on both muscles and bones. I advise you change your posture regularly and not to bend too forward. Also you can take some muscle relaxant tablets if the problem is too worse or unbearable. Otherwise an ointment like volini or moove spray may be helpful for mild pain. Also do regular exercises and eat high balanced diet esp calcium rich. Good luck for your exams.

Table of Content

What is Osteomalacia?

Causes :

Diagnosis :

Treatment :

Play video
Know More About Vitamin D Deficiency
I am Dr IPS Kochar, a pediatrician and endocrine diabetologist. Today, I am going to talk on very intresting topic, Vit-D which everyone wants to know.

So, Vit-D is essential to maintain calcium. It basically maintains the bone metabolism of the body and it is done basically through absorption of calcium from the intestine and also from renal tubular absorption of calcium. When VIt-D becomes deficient, the hormone PTH is released which tries to maintain calcium and phosphorus in the body. The deficiency of Vit-D in different groups are different. You can have it in the new born periods, in the childhood period or in the adolescence.

So, in the new born period, children may have some features like staying more tired, the problems related to bones such as bow legs i.e, curving of legs. Then there may be some other problem which is called genu valgum in which they have knock knees. These are some conditions which you can find. These are called as Rickets. And this ricket is responsible for Vit-D deficiency.

In the country like India which has a plenty of sunlight, why we are still facing Vit-D deficiency?

One of the reason is that lifestyle ahs changed. We are involved in more of a technical lifestyle. The best time to absorb Vit-D is 9-11 am in which one can absorb maximum amount of Vit-D. But at this time most of us are in teh office, the children are in the schools and the housewives are inside the house. So you are hardly able to absorb Vit-D.
Secondly. there is lot of pollution which does not allow us to absorb Vit-D
Covering of the body is another major factor.
There is a smog which blocks the vit-D
The sources of vit-D are very few. Most of the vit-D is in non veg. But maximum of the Indians are vegetarian. The best sources of Vit-D are fish, eggs. The one important thing all vegetarian must know that they can take mushroom. This will help in maintaining the Vit-D level. So, there are least sources of VIt-D.

There are two types of Vit-D, Vit-D2 and Vit-D3.

Vit-D2 is Ergocalciferol and Vit-D3 is Cholecalciferol. So we can get maximum of the Vit-D from the sunlight which we are not getting. In order to cover up Vit-D deficiency, we need to consume Vit-D. Otherwise children may suffer from Bow legs or genu valgum. In the adolescence, people may suffer from osteomalacia in which there is pain in the legs and bones. So, all these conditions are aggravated.

How to overcome with the deficiency of Vit-D?

Regularly take Vit-D. You can either take it weekly form or in the daily form. Consulting a doctor will be helpful. Also, Vit-D prevents the chances of cancer, hypertension, Diabetes, repeated infection in the children. Everybody should take Vit-D either weekly or daily form.

Thank you very much.
Play video
3 Things women need to know about maintaining proper bone health
3 Things women need to know about maintaining proper bone health

Osteoporosis is slowly emerging as an epidemic in modern day India, with more and more women getting affected by it. Perhaps, it will not be an overstatement to say that by the year 2025, India will be known as the osteoporosis capital of the world. But, the good news is that treatment for osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases is developing rapidly and you can easily maintain proper bone health by making yourself aware about the issues that might affect your bones and opting for ways to prevent them.

How severely are Indian women affected by bone related problems?

With the increase in longevity in Indian women, the extent of bone-related problems is also increasing, especially among women who are close to or have been through menopause. Studies reveal that severe bone-related problems affect about 20% of Indian women between the age of 40 and 50. Some common bone disorders that have a significant impact on the health of women with increasing age are:

Osteoporosis: This condition is associated with brittle and fragile bones, prevailing as a result of tissue loss due to hormonal changes or lack of requisite amount of vitamin D or calcium in the body

Osteopenia: Its severity is more than that of osteoporosis and this condition involves the lessening of bone tissues mineral and protein content

Osteomalacia: It is a condition in which your bones become soft due to vitamin D or calcium deficiency

Arthritis: In this condition, your joints get inflamed, leading to pain and stiffness

What are the common symptoms associated with bone-related diseases?

If you observe the following signs, you might be suffering from a bone related problem:

- Experiencing pains without any known causes
- Painful joints and muscles
- Lethargy
- Difficulty in walking properly

What are the measures can you take to prevent them?

Women under the age of 20 can prevent bone-related issues by:

- Having a balanced diet
- Ensuring that your diet contains the requisite amount of protein, calcium, and vitamin D
- Participating in physical activities such as running and jogging
- Staying outdoors to get exposed to sunlight
- Maintaining proper body weight

During the perimenopausal phase (the time when a woman is about to experience menopause), she is more susceptible to bone-related issues and should take extra steps to maintain proper bone health. Some of these measures include:

- Being careful about nutrient intake
- Getting yourself checked by a gynecologist at regular intervals to ensure that you have correct bone density and vitamin D and calcium levels
- Taking calcium or vitamin D supplements, if required
- Ensuring that you have an active lifestyle


Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice