What is Osteomalacia?
Weakening of the bones is referred to as Osteomalacia. It is different from osteoporosis because here the bone is formed but remodelled. In osteomalacia there is a problem in bone formation or the building process of the bone.
Main cause of osteomalacia is due to the low absorption of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is the essential for building the bone structure. Vitamin D is produced when the ultraviolet rays of the sun are absorbed by the skin. Vitamin D is also present in many foods like eggs, fish and diary products and is absorbed by the intestines. Low absorption of Vitamin D in the body may be caused due to problems in the intestine due to infection or surgery or due to problems in diet.
Osteomalacia can cause bone fractures, muscle weakness, and bone pain in various parts of the body. In severe cases osteomalacia can cause irregular heartbeats, spasms in hands and feet, numbness in legs, hands, and mouth.
Doctors will diagnose osteomalacia by conducting tests for low doses of vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium. High levels of parathyroid hormone also indicates osteomalacia which can be due to vitamin D insufficiency. X-rays and imaging tests can indicate the possibility of fractures. These fractures are in the form of small cracks which are found throughout the body. The cracks is called looser’s transformation zone. Fractures tend to happen in people with osteomalacia even with small injuries.
Bone biopsy is conducted to understand osteomalacia the bone strength of the patients. Generally x-rays and blood tests are sufficient to under osteomalacia.
Treatment for osteomalacia is by taking vitamin D supplements. In cases where the person is suffering from low absorption in the intestines then the person is asked to take a diet low in key nutrients. Patients with cirrhosis and kidney failure are treated for the underlying condition. Exposure to sunlight is essential to increase the levels of vitamin D. In rare cases the patients are given vitamin D intravenously.
Among children, osteomalacia tends to cause bone deformity. In severe cases the children have to wear braces or undergo surgery to correct bone deformity.
The condition which occurs on exposure to foreign substances and causes the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed is known as contact dermatitis. It is commonly known as a rash. Although most of the reactions to contact dermatitis are not serious, they can be very irritating till the itching subsides. The causes of contact dermatitis are usually case specific; they vary according to the different types of this disease.
The types of contact dermatitis are:
Symptoms of contact dermatitis depend upon the causes of this condition. The symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are:
Symptoms of Irritant Contact dermatitis can be slightly different. They include:
An eardrum rupture or perforation is a little gap or tear in your eardrum and the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is a thin tissue that partitions the canal of the middle ear and outer ear. This layer vibrates when sound waves enter your ear. The vibration proceeds through the bones of the center ear. Since this vibration allows you to listen, your hearing can be affected if your eardrum is harmed. A ruptured eardrum is additionally called a perforated eardrum. Permanent hearing loss could be an end result in some cases.
A ruptured eardrum, similar to thunder; can happen all of a sudden. You may feel a sharp pain in your ear, or an ear infection that you've had for some time all of a sudden leaves. In some cases, the person may not feel any signs of the rupture.
Some of the causes for such a perforation are:
Diagnosis: Your specialist can use a few approaches to find out whether you have a ruptured eardrum:
Treatment: The treatments are as follows:
A cracked eardrum generally recuperates without any invasive measures. Many patients with cracked eardrums encounter just transitory listening problems. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ent-specialist.
If people were asked, as to what would be the one important cosmetic without which they would not step out, it has to be the lip balm. From a time when it was mainly used during winters to avoid chapped lips to the present days when it has become an essential cosmetic product irrespective of the weather or the season, it has come a long way.
While there are still the plain ones which have petroleum jelly and help in keeping the lips moist, there are also the new flavoured and coloured options. They have also found their way into the cash counters where these attractive picks make most people impulse buyers. There are also specialised lip balms aimed at men, which are customised keeping in mind the slightly rough skin.
The lip balm has many ingredients, but the main component is waxy and could be beeswax, carnauba wax, paraffin, lanolin, or camphor. There are many organic products available which contain essential oils, shea butter, silk protein, nut oils like almond oil and cocoa butter. The main purpose is to create a protective layer on the surface of the lips to protect it from cold, dry air, and reduce damage from sun exposure. It also seals the moisture that is inherently present in the lips, thereby preventing chapping and cracking of the lips. Some cheaper products could contain hemp oils, petroleum and mineral oils.
When picking a lip balm, consider the following:
Whatever the product you apply, it inevitably enters your system and so it is important to take a good product. Choose plant-based essences which are not just healthy but also provide a good, protective effect for the lips. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
A well moisturized and hydrated skin is a thumb rule for a healthy skin. Dry and flaky skin is not only discomforting and unpleasant to look but is also prone to many skin problems. Dry skin or xerosis dermatitis is more common among elderly. Dry skin can cause the skin to crack making it susceptible to infections. Constant scratching of dry skin due to itching is further harmful and can cause thickening and darkening of the skin. Extreme temperature especially winter with cold, dry and chilly winds can be harsh on the skin and disturb its pH level, thus causing skin problems.
Apart from external factors, internal factors such as hypothyroidism, psoriasis and type 2 diabetes can also cause dry skin.
One of the most common skin problems from dry skin is Eczema. Eczema, generally acquired in childhood is an inflammatory reaction of the skin causing the skin to become red and itchy followed by crusting and scaling. Treatment of eczema is usually a combination of creams and drugs. However, eczema does not go away that easily and its relapse rate remains quite high.
Exposure to sun for long hours can also lead to drying of the skin. Apart from this use of harsh soaps and chemical based products or prolonged use of cosmetics on the skin can inhibit the ability of skin to retain moisture.
Dry skin tends to age faster as it is prone to wrinkles. A wrinkled skin loses its charm and elasticity. The whole concept of anti ageing revolves around keeping the sun hydrated and moisturized.
Many skin problems can be prevented only by following a good skin care routine. Others may require a long-term medical treatment. Let’s look at some simple and useful ways to prevent and manage dry skin:
Water: Water is not only a natural cleanser for the skin but helps in maintaining an optimum moisture level of the skin. Drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water every day.
Steam baths: A warm water bath or a steam bath can help relieve skin of dryness.
Oiling of the skin: People with dry skin benefit more from oiling than the use of regular moisturizers. Oiling creates a protective layer on the skin preventing it from drying for longer hours. Use of almond, olive or coconut oil is effective is treating dry skin problems.
Prolonged use of room heaters: Heaters snatch moisture from the surrounding environment including your skin leaving it dull and dry. Thus sitting in heated rooms for long can dehydrate skin and must be avoided as far as possible.
Water-rich fruits and vegetables: Fruits and vegetables, especially, water-rich like watermelon, bottle gourd etc. can help replenish moisture. Eat plenty of those to fight dryness. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.
What is puberty?
Puberty is the phase in life when the body of the child matures to become an adult. This change is mainly influenced by the developing reproductive system and it makes them capable of sexual reproduction. It a progressive change and happens over a span of few years. Girls start to develop breasts and might start menstruating whereas boys notice changes in body hair growth pattern with their voices beginning to crack.
The average age for a girl to attain puberty is found to be 11, whereas in boys, it is longer and the average age is somewhere around 12. Puberty also marks the onset of emotional maturity in kids as well.
Sometimes puberty can be seen at a very young age such as 7 or 8; this is called precocious puberty. This can make it physically and mentally taxing for a child and can be a sign of health issues.
What causes puberty?
The stimulation of the hypothalamus in the brain leads to the production of a hormone called Human Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) which signal the Pituitary Gland to produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This is responsible for sexual development.
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in girls:
The telltale signs of puberty in girls are:
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in boys:
The usual signs of puberty in boys are:
Along with these signs and symptoms, other signs can be changes in mood. Boys and girls may develop sexual urges wherein you will notice an unexplained attraction to the opposite sex. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
What is Osteomalacia?