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Cirrhosis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is liver Cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is a medical condition where the healthy tissue of the liver is replaced by scar tissues. This makes it difficult for the liver to function properly. The scar tissue slows down the processing of natural toxins, drugs, hormones and nutrients. This occurs due to the blockage of the flow of blood through the liver. It can also slow down the manufacturing of proteins made by the liver. It can even cause death if not treated on time.

What causes liver Cirrhosis?

Liver Cirrhosis is most commonly caused due to alcohol abuse, fatty liver and hepatitis C. Other causes of Cirrhosis in the liver include:

  • Fatty liver which is associated with diabetes and obesity.
  • Acute viral infections of the liver such as hepatitis D, B and C. This is somewhat rare.
  • Blockage of the bile which transfers bile to the intestines. Bile is generally formed in the liver and it helps in digesting food. Blockage of the bile duct can also be caused due to bilary atresia. In this condition, the bile ducts are damaged or absent which causes the bile to stay in the liver. This condition usually affects babies.
  • Continuous bouts of heart failure causing fluid to build up in the liver.
  • Diseases such as cystic fibrosis, glycogen storage disease (inability of the body to process glycogen into sugar), alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency (absence of a certain enzyme in the liver).
  • Diseases and disorders which are caused by hemochromatosis (excessive iron content is deposited in the liver and other vital organs), Wilson’s disease (unusual storage of copper inside the liver) and abnormal liver functioning.
  • Rare factors like parasitic infections, exposure to environmental toxins and reaction to certain prescription drugs can also contribute to Cirrhosis.

How is Cirrhosis diagnosed?

  • Physical exam- The doctor usually performs a physical exam to see how large your liver is and observes how your liver feels. A liver affected by Cirrhosis might feel irregular and bumpy instead of smooth.
  • CT scan and ultrasound- Tests like ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT scan) and radioisotope scan is performed to analyze Cirrhosis.
  • Biopsy- During a biopsy, a tissue from the liver is taken and tested for diagnosing Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Surgery- This is usually performed in severe cases, a laparoscope is inserted through an incision inside the abdomen. After the doctor gets an entire view of the liver he performs the surgery.
Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Non communicable
Yellow skin Decreased apetite Nose bleeds Weight loss Itchy skin Weakness Swelling of the legs

Popular Health Tips

Liver Cirrhosis - 7 Ways To Deal With The Problem!

Surgical Gastroenterologist, Ernakulam
Liver Cirrhosis - 7 Ways To Deal With The Problem!

Dealing with liver Cirrhosis largely depends on its stage. While it is good to know and read about Cirrhosis, referring to some qualified medical personnel is the best course of action. If a person is already undergoing medical treatment, there are simple ways to deal with this condition.

  1. Get treated in the early stages: Liver being one of the most self-healing organs, a person has good chances of healing, if a donor donates partial-liver. A doctor eradicates the distorted portion of the liver and replaces the same with a partial transplant from the donor. For the donor, it takes about 3-4 months to grow back the donated portion of the liver, while the patient might take 10-12 months to fully recover. This is possible in the early stages of Cirrhosis.
  2. Stop the catalyst of liver Cirrhosis: It is essential to stop the underlying cause of Liver Cirrhosis. Stuff like saturated fat, alcohol, salt, OTC pain relievers, excess sugar etc should strictly need to be avoided to ensure the progression of liver Cirrhosis is slow. Studies have shown that moderate consumption of coffee can help to deal with Liver Cirrhosis.
  3. Sodium free food: It is advised by most doctors that Cirrhosis patients refrain from consuming sodium-rich food. It helps a cirrhosis patient to bypass edema and ascites. This is extremely challenging, since food without sodium tastes bland and unappetizing. It is therefore suggested that healthy herbs, paprika, pepper etc are consumed to make up for sodium.
  4. A balanced diet: A liver Cirrhosis patient should be extremely careful when it comes to choosing the right diet. They should consume lots of fresh fruits and green vegetables. While consumption of animal protein is not advised, the quota of protein should be fulfilled from peas, tofu, quinoa, etc.
  5. A good exercise regime: Patients with liver Cirrhosis should ensure that an adequate exercise regime is followed so that the muscles do not get wasted. Exercise for half an hour also helps to lose weight and negate the chances of water retention in the body. Exercise should also be followed by lots of sleep, so that the body gets enough time to recover from the stress of exercise.
  6. Avoid NSAIDs: If a person is suffering from liver Cirrhosis, using drugs such as naproxen, aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen etc should be strictly avoided for mild pain and inflammation. These drugs can be highly toxic for a person suffering from Cirrhosis. It is wise to consult a doctor before consuming any medication.
  7. Stay away from infection: A patient with liver Cirrhosis suffers from a compromised immune system. It is therefore advised that a patient stays away from possible bacteria, viral and such other chronic infection. Any infection can result in inflammation of the bile duct that causes scarring of the liver tissue.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1846 people found this helpful

Liver Cirrhosis - What You Must Know About It?

MBBS, M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, Fellow of Advanced Laparascopic Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
Liver Cirrhosis - What You Must Know About It?

The term cirrhosis refers to liver scarring due to various diseases and conditions such as chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Each time the liver gets injured, it tries to repair itself, resulting in the formation of the scar tissue. With the progression of cirrhosis, a number of tissues generate making the task of liver difficult. Since the liver is an important organ of the body due to its functionalities such as detoxification and nutrient generation, reduced function of liver poses a serious threat to the body.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis:
Unfortunately, cirrhosis doesn’t portray any conspicuous symptoms that can be easily identified until the scarring has reached a level of threat. Some of the common signs and symptoms of this disease include fatigue, nausea, itchy skin, drowsiness, enlarged breasts, testicular atrophy, fluid in the abdomen, bleeding from the mouth, leg swelling, redness in palms etc.

Causes of liver cirrhosis:
There could be an array of reasons for the occurrence of liver cirrhosis. The major causes include an accumulation of fat in the liver, chronic alcoholism and chronic hepatitis. Some of the other reasons include cystic fibrosis, bile duct deformation, Wilson’s disease, hemochromatosis, schistosomiasis, continuous consumption of medicines such as methotrexate, a disease involving glycogen storage and Aalagille syndrome.

Complications involved in liver Cirrhosis:

  1. High blood pressureCirrhosis results in slow blood movement through the passage of the liver resulting in an increased pressure on the vein that is responsible for carrying blood from the intestine to the liver. This increases the blood pressure in the body.
  2. Swelling of abdomen and legs: Portal hypertension can result in accumulation of fluid in the leg and the abdomen due to the liver’s inability to producing an important protein known as the albumin.
  3. Spleen enlargement: Portal hypertension is responsible for changing the shape of the spleen. Decreased count of WBC and the platelets indicate towards portal hypertension and cirrhosis.
  4. Bleeding: Portal hypertension doesn’t let the blood flow in its normal path. It directs the blood to flow through smaller veins. The veins, in turn, swell and burst to cause a massive amount of bleeding.

Apart from these some of the other complications involve jaundice, liver cancer, infections, bone diseases and liver failure.

Liver cirrhosis doesn’t get detected easily. It is often diagnosed with a routine blood test. Some of the lab tests that can help to identify cirrhosis include blood work to check organ function of liver and kidney. Your doctor might suggest other tests such as MRI scan, CT scan or liver biopsy.

Treatment for the underlying cause of liver cirrhosis is done to keep the disease under control. A doctor might treat you for weight loss, alcohol dependency, complications related to hepatitis, portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy. For advanced cases where the liver stops functioning, a doctor might suggest a patient go for a liver transplant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

1819 people found this helpful

Treating Gynecomastia (Enlarged Breasts in Men) With Surgery

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Visakhapatnam
Treating Gynecomastia (Enlarged Breasts in Men) With Surgery

Swollen breast tissues in men or boys caused by hormonal (testosterone and estrogen) imbalances is called gynecomastia. Both breasts or one breast, can be affected by gynecomastia. At any point in life, from birth to puberty, even in adulthood, you might develop gynecomastia. Most of the times, gynecomastia is caused by hormonal imbalances, but there might be some underlying causes as well.
Gynecomastia is normally not a serious condition, but it can be difficult to deal with the pain and embarrassment.

It can be cured with surgery or medication, if it doesn't go away on its own.

Symptoms and signs of gynecomastia include:

  • Enlarged glands in the breast tissue
  • Tenderness in the breast

The causes that trigger gynecomastia include:

  1. Hormonal changes: Testosterone and estrogen control the sexual development in men and women respectively. Estrogen is not a hormone that only women produce; men produce it too. When the production of testosterone and estrogen are thrown out of balance, gynecomastia occurs.
  2. Medication: Certain medications such as anabolic steroids, androgens, HIV/AIDS medicines, antibiotics and chemotherapy can cause gynecomastia.
  3. Drugs and alcohol: Substances such as alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, heroin and methadone cause gynecomastia.
  4. Health condition: Certain factors, such as aging, hypogonadism (hormonal disorder), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland), tumorskidney failure, cirrhosis, liver failure, malnutrition and starvation can lead to gynecomastia.
  5. Herbal products: Essential oils derived from plants such as lavender or tea tree, used in lotions or shampoos, have weak estrogenic actives. They have been said to cause gynecomastia.

Gynecomastia can be cured either with medication or surgery. Surgical options for gynecomastia are, however, limited.


There is no definitive medical treatment. The main answer for Gynecomastia is -SURGERY. It is a daycare procedure in most situations. It is done by a Surgeon, usually, a Plastic surgeon does a better job.

Anesthesia- Either Local or General anesthesia is given to make it painless.

Procedure-Through a small incision in the areola, the swelling is removed by both Liposuction of the Fat part and Excision (removal) for Breast gland part. As the incision is through the areola, the final scar is hardly visible. In extensive swellings, skin also needs to be removed, where in a scar around the areola border is visible.

Recovery- usually can go back to work in 2-3 days time. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon.

3750 people found this helpful

Cirrhosis Of Liver - A Complete Guide!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology, MNAMS
Gastroenterologist, Faridabad
Cirrhosis Of Liver - A Complete Guide!

Cirrhosis of liver is slow and gradual replacement of normal healthy liver tissue with scar tissue which results in poor liver function and blockage of flow of blood through liver which comes from intestines. As more scar tissue replaces normal healthy liver, liver begins to fail.

What causes cirrhosis?

  1. Alcohol: Amount of alcohol which can cause liver damage varies from person to person, however those who consume alcohol for long in significant amount are more prone to develop liver damage.
  2. Hepatitis B or hepatitis C: Caused by hepatitis B and C viruses, respectively, which are acquired by contact with contaminated blood (like needlestick injury, blood transfusion, injection drug abuser), sexual contact with infected person and from mother to child during childbirth.
  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): Caused by presence of extra fat in liver (after excluding significant alcohol intake) which causes inflammation and scarring leading to cirrhosis. Usually seen in patients who are overweight or obese, having diabetes, high fat in blood, high blood pressure or metabolic syndrome.
  4. Drugs causing liver injury.
  5. Others: Autoimmune hepatitis (body`s own immunity acting against liver), Wilson disease (build up of copper in body), hemochromatosis (excess of iron in body), certain bile duct disorders, etc.

What are the symptoms of cirrhosis?

  1. Early disease can present with nonspecific symptoms like weakness, fatigue (loss of energy), decrease wish to take food, vomiting or nausea, weight loss, etc.
  2. Advanced disease can present with fluid accumulation in legs (edema) or abdomen (ascites), facial puffiness, yellowish discoloration of eyes or urine (jaundice), redness of palm (palmer erythema), decrease urine output, small red lesions on skin, easy bleeding following trauma, blood coming out of mouth/anus/other body site, black colored feaces, mental confusion, flapping tremors of hand, etc. In men it can cause impotence, breast enlargement and shrinking of testis.

What are the complication of cirrhosis?

Portal hypertension: It is a common complication of cirrhosis which is due to increased pressure in portal vein. Portal vein is main blood vessel which carries blood to liver from stomach, intestines, spleen, gallbladder and pancreas. Because of scar formation in liver the normal flow of blood from these organs to liver is hampered. As a result of blockage of blood flow to liver there are few complications which can arise like accumulation of fluid in abdomen (ascites) and legs (edema), formation of enlarged veins (varices) in food pipe (esophagus), stomach, etc., enlargement of spleen (splenomegaly), mental confusion/altered behavior/altered sensorium (hepatic encephalopathy), respiratory discomfort (hepatic hydrothorax or hepato-pulmonary syndrome) or decrease urine output/rise in creatinine (hepato-renal syndrome).

  1. Increase risk of infection because of immune system dysfunction.
  2. Development of liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma)
  3. Easy brusibility or bleeding following light trauma.
  4. Gall bladder stone formation
  5. Metabolic bone disease

What are the stages of cirrhosis?

  1. Compensated cirrhosis: Liver damage is damaged but no abdominal swelling (ascites), blood in vomiting or black/red color feaces (variceal bleed), altered behavior/sensorium (hepatic encephalopathy), respiratory discomfort (hepatic hydrothorax or hepato-pulmonary syndrome) or decrease urine output/rise in creatinine (hepato-renal syndrome).
  2. Decompensated cirrhosis: Presence of abdominal swelling (ascites), blood in vomiting or black/red color feaces (variceal bleed), altered behavior/sensorium (hepatic encephalopathy), respiratory discomfort (hepatic hydrothorax or hepato-pulmonary syndrome) or decrease urine output/rise in creatinine (hepato-renal syndrome).

How cirrhosis is diagnosed?

  1. Your doctor will take good history and do proper physical examination. If there is suspicion of cirrhosis then he will subject you to some blood test, ultrasound abdomen, fibroscan/elastography, upper GI endoscopy and if needed CT scan or MRI of abdomen or liver biopsy.

  2. Ultrasound of abdomen in cirrhosis may shows coarse liver echotexture, nodular liver surface, dilated portal vein or collateral, enlarged spleen or abdominal fluid (ascites).

How to prevent cirrhosis?

Best way to avoid development of cirrhosis from predisposing stage of liver illness is to recognize and treat early. Few advices to keep liver healthy are:

  1. Dietary modification: Eat healthy balanced diet. Avoid high calorie food or drinks, saturated fat, sugar and refined carbohydrates. Keep yourself hydrated.
  2. Lifestyle modification: Maintain healthy body weight. Avoid being overweight or obese. Aerobic exercise (like brisk walk 30-45min/day atleast 5days/week) regularly helps to lower liver fat.
  3. Avoid: Avoid use of contaminated needles, sharing of items of personal hygiene (like shaving razors, toothbrush, nail clippers, etc), use of illicit drugs, self medication with over the counter drugs or using drugs beyond doctor`s advice.
    1. Practice safe protected sex
    2. Alcohol
  4. Motivate others: to stop drinking and follow hand hygiene and doctor`s advice.
  5. Hand hygiene: Wash hand with soap and water regularly before eating, after going to toilet and after touching dirty objects.
  6. Vaccination: For hepatitis A or hepatitis B, if you are not vaccinated or not already infected or unsafe antibody titre. Transmission rate of hepatitis B from mother to child at birth can be reduced with vaccination and immunization of newborn starting within 12 hours of birth as well as by using antiviral drugs (if indicated).

Prevent others from getting infected from you if you harbor virus causing liver damage.

How to treat cirrhosis?

Treatment of cirrhosis is based on cause of cirrhosis and complication of cirrhosis. Main aim of treatment in early stage of cirrhosis is to slow the progression of cirrhosis and prevent complications development

  1. Stop alcohol, antiviral drugs for hepatitis b or hepatitis C, proper sugar level if diabetes, steroid or other medications for autoimmune hepatitis, medications to reduce copper from body in patients with Wilson's disease, etc.
  2. Drugs to lower portal pressure (beta-blocker or nitrates), drugs to remove fluid from body (diuretics), drugs to lower ammonia level for encephalopathy (lactulose and others), drugs to improve kidney function (albumin, terlipressin and others).
  3. Opt for liver ransplant, If cirrhosis is life threatening or treatment of cirrhosis complication is ineffective.
  4. Low salt high protein diet
  5. Stop alcohol intake even if you have other cause of cirrhosis.
  6. Stop smoking
  7. Avoid over the counter drugs (especially pain killers)
  8. Vaccinate if not done already or infected

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.

3010 people found this helpful

Dry Mouth and Eyes - Complications Associated With It!

Diploma In HIV Medicine, MBBS
HIV Specialist, Surat
Dry Mouth and Eyes - Complications Associated With It!

An immune system disorder distinguished by dry mouth and dry eyes is known as Sjogren’s Syndrome. It can also cause dryness in places that require moisture, such as throat, nose and skin. Sjogren’s syndrome is often linked to other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus (disease in which the immune system destroys its own tissues and causes inflammations). Sjogren’s syndrome normally affects people over the age of 40, and it mostly affects women.

Sjogren’s syndrome has mainly two symptoms, and they include:

  1. Dry eyes: You feel like there is sand in your eyes as it burns and itches
  2. Dry mouth: You have difficulty speaking or swallowing

Sometimes, you might experience other symptoms as well, such as:

  1. Joint pain, stiffness and swelling
  2. Inflamed salivary glands
  3. Dry skin or skin rashes
  4. Vaginal dryness
  5. Continuous dry coughs
  6. Sustained fatigue

The exact cause of Sjogren’s syndrome is not known, but research strongly suggests that the autoimmune disease could be caused by genetic factors; especially if the illness has been found in more than one member of the family. Also, families with members suffering from type I diabetes, lupus and autoimmune thyroid disease can cause one or more members of the family to develop Sjogren’s syndrome.

The complications of Sjogren’s syndrome include:

  1. Dental cavities: Saliva protects the teeth from harmful bacteria that cause cavities. Since your mouth is dry, you become more susceptible to develop cavities.
  2. Yeast infections: Oral thrush, an oral yeast infection, is likely to develop if you have Sjogren’s syndrome.
  3. Vision problems: Dry eyes can cause corneal ulcers, sensitivity and blurred vision.
  4. Problems in the lungs, liver or kidneys: Inflammations can lead to bronchitis or pneumonia in your lungs; may cause cirrhosis or hepatitis C in your liver; and may lead to kidney malfunctions.
  5. Lymphoma: Some people with Sjogren’s syndrome might develop lymphoma, or lymph node cancer.

Peripheral neuropathy: Another complication of this illness is peripheral neuropathy, which is a tingling, burning and numbness sensation felt in your feet and hands.

Sjogren’s syndrome is either treated with drugs, or with surgery. Doctors may prescribe drugs to increase the production of saliva and to treat inflammations. Alternatively, surgery is done to either seal the tear ducts or insert silicon or collagen plugs to close the ducts temporarily. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

2634 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My husband 55 years old is taking intacept injection for last 2 years monthly once for psoriatic arthritis he has liver cirrhosis too will it cause any major side effects.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, MRCEM(UK), MEM, Diploma in Rheumatology, PGCC - Rheumatology, MACEP, FCCS
Rheumatologist, Kolkata
Hello. Intacept (Eranercept) is a biological DMARD. Its side effects include immunosuppression, which means your body has any underlying infection, it may increase in severity. If your husband have any underlying viral hepatitis or tuberculosis, then intacept may be harmful for him. But if his liver cirrhosis is not due to any viral etiology, then there is not harm in giving inj intacept to him.
1 person found this helpful

Wanted to know as my husband has water in his stomach and is chronic alcoholic what will be his consciousness please advice me as I know that alcohol is just like poison to him.

M.D. Consultant Pathologist, CCEBDM Diabetes, PGDS Sexology USA, CCMTD Thyroid, ACDMC Heart Disease, CCMH Hypertension, ECG
Sexologist, Sri Ganganagar
GET gasex syrup use.

I have been treated for liver cirrhosis before 2 years and for last 1 year I am not taking any medicines and consulting any doctors. Is there any issue. Could I smoke or drink occasionally?

FELLOWSHIP IN HEPATOBILIARY AND LIVER TRANSPLANT SURGERY, Fellowship in Abdominal Multi Organ Transplant Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
It's advisable to find out cause of cirrhosis. Avoid alcohol and smoking. Get periodically lft and screening of Liver for any tumor (CT or ultrasound with AFP)
1 person found this helpful

Dear Doctor, what would you recommend to lower the bilirubin levels and correct the ammonia serum for a patient having liver cirrhosis?

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.

Table of Content

What is liver Cirrhosis?

What causes liver Cirrhosis?

How is Cirrhosis diagnosed?

Play video
Liver Failure (Cirrhosis) And Transplant
Cirrhosis is the endpoint in patients who have chronic progressive liver disease. Patients with end-stage liver disease have a large number of symptoms and disease-related complications that affect survival and health-related quality of life.
Play video
Liver Cirrhosis

Me Dr. Sandeep Jha, Gastro and Liver Transplant Surgeon. Nirvan Superspeciality Clinic ki traf se liver cirrhosis ke bare me kuch btaunga. Iske sath myths bhi me clear krunga. Ye kya hota hai? Hepatitis - B, C, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes liver cirrhosis ke causes hain. Agar ye disease 15 years se apki body me hain to ye liver ko damage kr dete hain. Liver failure shuru hota hai. Liver sikud jata hai and hard ho jata hai. Usme blood flow nhi hota or protein nhi bnta hai. Blood purification nhi hota hai. Germs bhi is se nhi jate hain. Ek question hai jo hmesha pucha jata hai ki liver kitna damage ho gya hai. Ye hmesha pure liver ko damage krta hai. Fatty liver ke lia patient puchte hain. Fatty liver bhut common hai but iske lia apko darne ki koi jrurat nhi hai.

Hmare diet me oil and masalon ka bhut use hota hai. Exercise hmare jeevan se khtm ho jati hai. Isi reason se liver pe charbi aati hai. Iske alwa Hepatitis - B, C, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes se bhi liver fatty hota hai. Apko immediately treatment lena chaiye. Fatty liver vaise koi problem nhi deta hai but ise 5-10 years me control nhi kia gya to ye cirrhosis me convert ho jata hai. Kya cirrhosis ko roka ja skta hai? Yes, lekin iske lia treatment beginning se bhut jruri hai. Aapko Hepatitis - B, C, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, auto-immune disorder hai to in sab ka treatment bhut jruri hai. Alcohol ka addiction htane ke lia aap counseling le skte hain. Diet control, exercise and bariatric surgery se aap motape pe control kar skte hain. Prevention is better than cure. Apko regular health check-up jrur krana chaiye.

Iske kya symptoms hain? Jaundice, loss of appetite, loss of muscles, itching, peat ke upar khoon ki nason ka dikhna, peat me hernia formation, din me jyada neend aana., less urination, blood in stool, nose and mouth bleeding. Blood in vomiting, unconsciousness, breathlessness ye sare dangerous disease hain. Ho skta hai ki apko liver transplant krna pade. Iske alwa cirrhosis ke mariz ko risk rehta hai. Isko kaise pkda jaye and diagnose kia jaye? Iske lia test hain complete blood count, liver function test, kidney test, ultrasound, endoscopy, CT scan krna jruri hai. Cirrhosis ke mariz me cancer ka bhi bhut jyada risk hai. Jisko CT scan me pkda ja skta hai. Death prevention k lia apko liver transplant ki jrurat pdti hai. Cirrhosis se apki jaan ko khtra hota hai. Sharir ke 500 se jyada kaam liver krta hai. And ye baki organ bhi fail kar skta hai. Jaise kidney, lung, heart and brain. Agr jyada problem ho gyi hai to 1-5 saal hi apki umar bachi hai. Agar aap me aise koi bhi symptoms hain to saal me 60% se hi mariz zinda reh payenge. Agar ye disease advance stage pe hain to 1 saal me 20-30% mariz hi zinda reh payenge. Agar apko stage 3 cirrhosis hai to apko liver transplant ki jrurat hai. Agar apko liver cancer hai to bhi apko liver transplant ki jrurat hai. Agar iske alwa bhi apko cirrhosis ke koi sawal hain to aap mujhe Lybrate ke through contact kar skte hain.

Thank You.
Play video
Cirrhosis of Liver
Hello, I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hill, Hyderabad. I would like to talk about cirrhosis of liver and its complications and how to manage those things. Basically cirrhosis of liver is nothing but the liver get shrunken and it becomes nodular and hard so the functions of the liver comes down. The functions which are there are 600 vital functions that a liver does normally in a human being and all these functions are compromised in a patient with cirrhosis.

Most important cause for cirrhosis is always alcohol and next comes viruses called hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The evolving most increasing cause no is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease which we see on ultrasound can cause cirrhosis. Any patient in early cirrhosis may not present with any symptoms. The initial symptoms of decompensations would be:-

There will be swelling in the fluid
Swollen feet
There will be distinction of abdomen because of accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
Patients may have jaundice.
Sometimes they may present with a history of passing black color motion that means this patient is having bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. It can be most common because of the swollen blood vessels called viruses in the esophagus.
So other presentations would be disorientation. Patient can have hepatic encephalopathy, the functions of the liver because the liver acts as a filter to many toxins. All these toxins enter into your brain and cause disorientation this is called hepatic encephalopathy.

So now we will talk about the treatment of cirrhosis. Whenever we see a patient with cirrhosis, most important thing is we will try and evaluate the cause of cirrhosis. See if the patient is a chronic alcoholic. We are taking a history of all college. The first thing is to cut down and stop intake of alcohol when the patient is in early cirrhosis. It can reverse the cirrhosis to normal liver. Most important and nutritional aspects along with some supportive medication but when a patient presents with complications already, then we will be treating only the complications. Once the cirrhosis sets in and he is in CTP. By the time. you see that the patient eventually progresses most of the time. We are trying to treat the complications of cirrhosis. Then a patient presents to us with bleeding then we will find out whether it is very variceal bleeding and there is a procedure called endoscopic variceal ligation to decrease the pressure of the varices blood pressure in the esophageal varices.

We have some medications which decrease the pressure. We treat these patients and we control the bleeding and a patient presents with fluid in the stomach abdominal cavity or fluid in the legs. These patients are treated with so called restricted diet. Also we give some tablets called diuretics which increase the urine output and decrease the fluid in the legs and in the abdominal cavity and a patient presents with hepatic encephalopathy. We treat hepatic encephalopathy by medications and we try to decrease the ammonia level which is released by cleansing the gut and all those things. So all these things are managing complications of cirrhosis. Very rarely we see a patient in early cirrhosis then we treat the host.

The cirrhosis can be reversible. It is very rare but eventually when we see a patient in complications, he would always be in a stage called CTPB where he will progress to CTBC. CTBC is the end stage of cirrhosis and at that point of time the patient is left only with option of liver transplant.

Liver transplantation is again transplantation. It can be a live donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation. So Eventually when you see a patient in CTBC we have to plan for liver transplantation. In these patient he can wait maybe for 2 or 3 months meanwhile we will be managing for complications.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice