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Osteomalacia Tips

How Cracks Are Different From Fractures?

Dr. Krishna Kumar M S 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship In Arthroscopy & Sports Injury
Orthopedist, Bangalore
How Cracks Are Different From Fractures?

A fracture separates a single solid object into two or more pieces due to pressure. In medical terms, a fracture refers to a broken bone due to some kind of external trauma. A crack in the bone, on the other hand, it does not cause a clean break in the bone, there is only a separation or discontinuity in the bone material.

A crack in the bone caused due to repeated stress is often called as 'hairline fracture'. Here are the basic differences between a crack and a fracture in the bone and how to treat them:

  1. A crack or hairline fracture is rarely caused by a single injury. It is usually the result of bone fatigue, which may be caused due to repeated, concentrated stress over a long period of time and thus, it is also called as 'stress fracture'. Other bone fractures are almost always the result of sudden and severe force on the bones.
  2. The skeletal system constantly remodels itself. The cells, known as 'osteoblasts' absorb calcium and secrete bone connective tissue. If a particular site is exposed to recurrent bouts of force (which are individually not impactful enough to cause a crack), over time the osteoblasts in that region malfunction and the crack appears. Muscular exhaustion can also cause cracks in the bone. Fractures are caused due to sudden external single force trauma to the bone. Nutritional problems like deficiencies of Calcium, Phosphorus, vitamin D and excessive smoking decrease the bone mineral density and increase the chance of both cracks and fractures.
  3. Symptoms of a crack are swelling, tenderness and sharp pain in the injured region and the symptoms worsen over time. A fracture has similar symptoms and might also exhibit an external physical distortion and makes it impossible to move that part of the body that where the bone is broken.
  4. An MRI is often suggested for detecting the crack or crack-prone areas because an X-ray can only detect the crack after it widens somewhat or the bone starts paining because the rays cannot pass through the tiny gap in bone material. A fracture is easily detectable by an X-ray because the rays pass right through the break.
  5. Complete rest for six to eight weeks is the most effective way of healing a crack. Using a walking boot in case of cracks in the leg bones in also helpful. Healing fractures require extensive medical intervention. Surgical techniques like bone grafting and the insertion of metal plates are used to reposition the broken bone.

Cracks VS Fractures - How To Differentiate Between The Two?

Dr. Ashwani Maichand 86% (48 ratings)
Fellowship in Joint Replacement , M.Ch , MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Cracks VS Fractures - How To Differentiate Between The Two?

A fracture separates a single solid object into two or more pieces due to pressure. In medical terms, a fracture refers to a broken bone due to some kind of external trauma. A crack in the bone, on the other hand, does not cause a clean break in the bone - there is only a separation or discontinuity in the bone material. A crack in the bone caused due to repeated stress is often called a 'hairline fracture'.

Here are the basic differences between a crack and a fracture in the bone and how to treat them:

  1. A crack or hairline fracture is rarely caused by a single injury. It is usually the result of bone fatigue which may be caused due to repeated concentrated stress over a long period of time and thus it is also called a stress fracture. Other bone fractures are almost always the result of sudden and severe force on the bones.
  2. The skeletal system constantly remodels itself. The cells called osteoblasts absorb calcium and secrete bone connective tissue. If a particular site is exposed to recurrent bouts of force (which are individually not impactful enough to cause a crack), over time the osteoblasts in that region malfunction and the crack appears. Muscular exhaustion can also cause cracks in the bones. Fractures are caused due to sudden external single force trauma to the bone. Nutritional problems like deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D and excessive smoking decrease the bone mineral density and increase the chances of both cracks and fractures.
  3. The symptoms of a crack are swelling, tenderness and sharp pain in the injured region. The symptoms worsen over time. A fracture has similar symptoms and might also exhibit an external physical distortion and makes it impossible to move the part of the body that where the broken bone is.
  4. An MRI is better for the detection of cracks or crack-prone areas because an X-ray can only detect the crack after it widens somewhat or the bone starts paining because the rays cannot pass through the tiny gap in bone material. A fracture is easily detectable by an X-ray because the rays pass right through the break.
  5. Complete rest for six to eight weeks is the most effective way of healing a crack. Using a walking boot in case of cracks in the leg bones in also helpful. Healing fractures requires extensive medical intervention. Surgical techniques like bone grafting and insertion of metal plates are used to reposition the broken bone.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3896 people found this helpful

Contact Dermatitis - 3 Common Types You Must Know!

MD, Ex Sr Dermatologist AIIMS New Delhi
Dermatologist, Delhi
Contact Dermatitis - 3 Common Types You Must Know!

The condition which occurs on exposure to foreign substances and causes the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed is known as contact dermatitis. It is commonly known as a rash. Although most of the reactions to contact dermatitis are not serious, they can be very irritating till the itching subsides. The causes of contact dermatitis are usually case specific; they vary according to the different types of this disease.

The types of contact dermatitis are:

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition occurs when an allergic reaction is developed after exposure to foreign substances. The reaction occurs with a release of inflammatory chemicals that causes the skin to become irritated and itchy. If a person has eczema, he or she can suffer from this kind of rash. Causes of allergic contact dermatitis include:
    • Latex gloves
    • Poison Oak
    • Jewellery (gold or nickel)
    • Perfumes and chemicals in skincare and cosmetic products
  2. Irritant contact dermatitis: Contact between the skin and a toxic material causes Irritant contact dermatitis. They can be sub divided into two categories, namely chemical irritants and physical irritants. Some of the toxic substances that cause this condition include battery acid, drain cleaners, detergents, kerosene, pepper spray and bleach. The physical causes of Irritant contact dermatitis include low humidity from air conditioning, a variety of plants and so on so forth. The condition tends to become more painful, rather than itchy.
  3. Photo-contact dermatitis: This is a very uncommon type of contact dermatitis which is caused due to the exposure of some active ingredients in sunscreen to sunlight. When sunlight is not present, the sensitive chemicals in the substances are not harmful.

Symptoms 
Symptoms of contact dermatitis depend upon the causes of this condition. The symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are:

  1. Dry or oozing blisters
  2. Dry, flaky and scaly skin
  3. Redness of the skin
  4. Extreme itching
  5. Burning of the skin with or without sores
  6. Leathery or dark appearance of the skin
  7. Hives
  8. Swelling, particularly on the face, in your eyes or groin regions

Symptoms of Irritant Contact dermatitis can be slightly different. They include:

  1. Blistering
  2. Swelling
  3. Cracking due to extreme dryness
  4. Ulcerations
  5. Stiff or tightened skin
  6. Open sores that form crusts 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

2369 people found this helpful

Eardrum Rupture - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Sunil Aggarwal 92% (21 ratings)
MBBS, MS - ENT, DNB
ENT Specialist, Gurgaon
Eardrum Rupture - How Can It Be Treated?

An eardrum rupture or perforation is a little gap or tear in your eardrum and the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is a thin tissue that partitions the canal of the middle ear and outer ear. This layer vibrates when sound waves enter your ear. The vibration proceeds through the bones of the center ear. Since this vibration allows you to listen, your hearing can be affected if your eardrum is harmed. A ruptured eardrum is additionally called a perforated eardrum. Permanent hearing loss could be an end result in some cases.

A ruptured eardrum, similar to thunder; can happen all of a sudden. You may feel a sharp pain in your ear, or an ear infection that you've had for some time all of a sudden leaves. In some cases, the person may not feel any signs of the rupture.

Some of the causes for such a perforation are:

  1. Infection: Ear infections are a major reason for eardrum rupture, particularly in children. Liquids tend to deposit behind the eardrum in such cases.
  2. Exercises: Exercising can bring about pressure changes in the ear and lead to a punctured eardrum. This is known as barotrauma, and takes place when the pressure outside the ear is not the same as the pressure inside the ear. Activities that can bring about barotrauma include scuba diving or flying on plane.
  3. Other activities: Wounds can likewise burst your eardrum. Any injury to the ear or side of the head can bring about a crack.

Diagnosis: Your specialist can use a few approaches to find out whether you have a ruptured eardrum:

  1. A liquid test in which your specialist tests liquids that might spill from your ear from infection.
  2. An otoscope exam in which a specific gadget with a light is used to investigate your ear channel
  3. An audiology exam, in which your specialist tests your listening to range and eardrum limit
  4. Tympanometry, in which your specialist uses a tympanometer to test the pressure changes in your ear.

Treatment: The treatments are as follows:

  • Patching: In the event that your ear does not recuperate by itself, your specialist may fix the eardrum. Fixing includes setting a sedated paper patch over the tear in the film.
  • Antibiotics: Anti-toxins can clear up contaminations that may have prompted your eardrum break. They additionally shield you from growing new diseases from the aperture. Your specialist may endorse oral antibiotics or eardrops.
  • Surgery: In uncommon cases, surgery might be required to fix the gap in the eardrum. A surgical repair of a punctured eardrum is called tympanoplasty.

A cracked eardrum generally recuperates without any invasive measures. Many patients with cracked eardrums encounter just transitory listening problems. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ent-specialist.

2920 people found this helpful

Eardrum Rupture - Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Dr. Shashidhar 90% (59 ratings)
ECFMU, MS - ENT, MBBS, Certificate in Pediatric Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Robotic Surgery Familiarization (France)
ENT Specialist, Gurgaon
Eardrum Rupture - Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

An eardrum rupture or perforation is a little gap or tear in your eardrum and the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is a thin tissue that partitions the canal of the middle ear and outer ear. This layer vibrates when sound waves enter your ear. The vibration proceeds through the bones of the center ear. Since this vibration allows you to listen, your hearing can be affected if your eardrum is harmed. A ruptured eardrum is additionally called a perforated eardrum. Permanent hearing loss could be an end result in some cases.

A ruptured eardrum, similar to thunder; can happen all of a sudden. You may feel a sharp pain in your ear, or an ear infection that you've had for some time all of a sudden leaves. In some cases, the person may not feel any signs of the rupture.

Some of the causes for such a perforation are:

  1. Infection: Ear infections are a major reason for eardrum rupture, particularly in children. Liquids tend to deposit behind the eardrum in such cases.
  2. Exercises: Exercising can bring about pressure changes in the ear and lead to a punctured eardrum. This is known as barotrauma, and takes place when the pressure outside the ear is not the same as the pressure inside the ear. Activities that can bring about barotrauma include scuba diving or flying on plane.
  3. Other activities: Wounds can likewise burst your eardrum. Any injury to the ear or side of the head can bring about a crack.

Diagnosis: Your specialist can use a few approaches to find out whether you have a ruptured eardrum:

  1. A liquid test in which your specialist tests liquids that might spill from your ear from infection.
  2. An otoscope exam in which a specific gadget with a light is used to investigate your ear channel
  3. An audiology exam, in which your specialist tests your listening to range and eardrum limit
  4. Tympanometry, in which your specialist uses a tympanometer to test the pressure changes in your ear.

Treatment: The treatments are as follows:

  • Patching: In the event that your ear does not recuperate by itself, your specialist may fix the eardrum. Fixing includes setting a sedated paper patch over the tear in the film.
  • Antibiotics: Anti-toxins can clear up contaminations that may have prompted your eardrum break. They additionally shield you from growing new diseases from the aperture. Your specialist may endorse oral antibiotics or eardrops.
  • Surgery: In uncommon cases, surgery might be required to fix the gap in the eardrum. A surgical repair of a punctured eardrum is called tympanoplasty.

A cracked eardrum generally recuperates without any invasive measures. Many patients with cracked eardrums encounter just transitory listening problems. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ent-specialist.

3585 people found this helpful

Symptoms And Treatment Of Penis Fracture

Dr. Anuj Kumar 89% (74 ratings)
MBBS, D.E.D
Sexologist, Jhansi
Symptoms And Treatment Of Penis Fracture

Penis fracture is a condition where an erect penis suffers a fracture. An erect penis is filled with blood, in this condition, if it is bent forcefully or suddenly, it can suffer a fracture. The penis consists of two large cylinders and one smaller cylinder. During erection blood rushes to the two larger cylinders inflating them, thus turning the penis hard and erect. In this state, if it faces a sudden force, it can cause damage to the penis.

The symptoms of penis fracture are:

  1. Loss of erection almost immediately
  2. Feeling of pain in the affected area
  3. Bruising of the area
  4. A popping or cracking sound in case of sudden trauma
  5. In some cases the urethra can get damaged, causing blood to come out of it.

In case of penis fracture, one should seek medical advice immediately. If the condition is not treated then it can result in severe complications. A physical examination followed by MRI or urethrogram are used to diagnose the problem. Surgery is mostly recommended to repair the penis after the diagnosis and it should not be delayed for long. In case the surgery is delayed, scarring occurs and it can result in erectile dysfunction.

3052 people found this helpful

Chap Stick (Lip Balm) - How to Choose the Right One?

Dr. Aanchal Sehrawat 85% (93 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology & Venerology & Leprosy (DDVL), DNB Dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
Chap Stick (Lip Balm) - How to Choose the Right One?

If people were asked, as to what would be the one important cosmetic without which they would not step out, it has to be the lip balm. From a time when it was mainly used during winters to avoid chapped lips to the present days when it has become an essential cosmetic product irrespective of the weather or the season, it has come a long way.

While there are still the plain ones which have petroleum jelly and help in keeping the lips moist, there are also the new flavoured and coloured options. They have also found their way into the cash counters where these attractive picks make most people impulse buyers. There are also specialised lip balms aimed at men, which are customised keeping in mind the slightly rough skin.

The lip balm has many ingredients, but the main component is waxy and could be beeswax, carnauba wax, paraffin, lanolin, or camphor. There are many organic products available which contain essential oils, shea butter, silk protein, nut oils like almond oil and cocoa butter. The main purpose is to create a protective layer on the surface of the lips to protect it from cold, dry air, and reduce damage from sun exposure. It also seals the moisture that is inherently present in the lips, thereby preventing chapping and cracking of the lips. Some cheaper products could contain hemp oils, petroleum and mineral oils.

When picking a lip balm, consider the following:

  1. Purpose: Do you want something protective or do you want something attractive? The answer to this question will decide the product you pick. If protection is the main reason, then something plain will do. If you want colours and flavours, the pick would be different. There are specialised products for men, so go indulge.
  2. Exposure to the sun: There are some lip balms which offer protection with a good SPF, so if you are likely to be out in the sun for long period, use this.
  3. Medicated: Some lip balms also contain medicinal effects against cold sores, so if you have a cold sore, use this.
  4. Do no harm: There could be lip balms which contain synthetic substances like phenol, menthol, salicylic acid, and alum. These have a tendency to dry the lips, and so not advisable in the long run.
  5. Container: While lip balm sticks are very popular, they are best for single person use, to avoid contamination.

Whatever the product you apply, it inevitably enters your system and so it is important to take a good product. Choose plant-based essences which are not just healthy but also provide a good, protective effect for the lips. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

3840 people found this helpful

Fungal Nail Infection And it's Treatment!

Dr. Sushma Yadav 90% (191 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Bangalore
Fungal Nail Infection And it's Treatment!

Nail fungus is a very common problem. Symptoms include inflammation, swelling, yellowing, thickening or crumbling of the nail. It is usually not painful, unless the infection spreads. If left untreated, nail fungus can cause cracking, splitting and even complete loss of the nail. The good news is that nail fungus is curable and can be treated very easily. There are many specialized treatments required for bringing quickest recovery. Most people think that medications are the only solution in this regard, but this is not true as there are many therapies that are needed along with medicines so that speed of recovery can be boosted to a great extent.

Treatments for fungal nail infections:

  1. Antifungal medications: Nails are first tested thoroughly in order to get the confirmation about nail fungus. Both growth and reproduction of fungal cells are prevented by consuming these medications. Some of these medicines are used for topical or external application while others are taken orally. Some of the physicians suggest continuing, both types of medicines simultaneously for getting more powerful effects and quick recovery. However, there are a few probable side-effects that occur while taking these medicines and these include loss in taste, rashes, diarrhoea, itching, headache and others.
  2. Using antifungal nail-paint: Nowadays, you can use antifungal nail-paints so that the deepest layer of the nail can be well treated and infected parts can be healed quickly. But you have to continue the usage for a few months, or else, you will not be able to get the desirable results.
  3. Laser treatment: This treatment is one of the most powerful ones and can treat your infected nail with greater speed and accuracy. Light energy in high doses is used for treating nail infection in this case. The above treatments are really quite helpful, and you can choose any of them as per your necessity, preference and affordability.

Things you can do at home:

  1. Keep your hands and feet clean and dry
  2. Wear well fitting shoes made of natural materials and clean cotton socks, these will allow your feet to "breathe"
  3. Clip your nails to keep them short, use a separate pair of clippers or scissors for the infected nail
  4. Don't share towels and socks with other people, and ensure your towels are washed regularly
  5. Don't walk around barefoot in public pools, showers, and locker rooms, special shower shoes are available to protect your feet
  6. Consider replacing old footwear as it could be the source of the infection
  7. Treat athlete's foot as soon as possible to avoid the infection spreading to your nails 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

4021 people found this helpful

5 Ways to Tackle a Depressed Family Member!

Dr. G.P.S.Dhingra Dhingra 87% (23 ratings)
CERTIFICATE COURSE IN HOMOEOPATHIC CARDIOLOGY, M.D.(HOMOEO.)PSYCHIATRY, B.H.M.S.(BACHELOR OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE & SURGERY.)
Psychiatrist, Delhi
5 Ways to Tackle a Depressed Family Member!

Depression follows the trajectory opposite to contentment. It has adverse effects on a person's mental and physical health. Being depressive is not a choice; it is a condition. The fact that despondency is not an elected way of life is a mystery to many. People surrounding a depressed person should make conscious efforts in treating them with love and dignity. Subjecting a person to strict deadlines, stringent rules or excessive pressure could worsen their situation.   

Ways to tackle a depressed family member:

  1. Create occasions to enjoy a hearty laugh: If you have a family member suffering from depression you should probably share the benefits of laughter with him or her. Laughter is the best medicine to remedy acute depression. Look for opportunities to crack a joke or make the concerned person play with a pet. You can also take the person to watch humorous movies.
  2. "You are impossible" is the worst way of approaching a problem: In many cases a depressed person is reported with instances of negativity. Though the expressed negativity makes you feel morbid, do not give up on your family member. The person involuntarily finds reasons to feel hopeless. You should never think the case is beyond any kind of betterment.  
  3. Keep them in a positive environment: Positive ideas can counter dejection. Help the person plan for a great future. Lay stress on how important that person is to you and to the world in general. Keeping one's mind creatively occupied can prove to be effective. Music or any other passion for that matter can help a person get over phases of depression.
  4. You should not associate depression with perpetual sadness: Depression can have plenty of symptoms. The symptoms vary from one person to another. While some people lack in motivation some might want to harm themselves or others. Many become a recluse. The minute you associate depression with sadness you limit your overview of the actual problem.  
  5. Help the family member take his or her medicines diligently: While counseling helps a few patients of depression some others require medication. A bout of depression will dissuade a person from sticking to his or her medical routine. As a loved one it is your due responsibility to persuade him or her to take medicines regularly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist and ask a free question.
2926 people found this helpful

Osteoporosis - Can Yoga Help You Treat it?

Dr. Sunil Tiwari 90% (380 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), PGD IN NATURO & YOGA SCIENCE
Ayurveda, Katni
Osteoporosis - Can Yoga Help You Treat it?

Along with curing anger and stress, yoga is also beneficial in treating osteoporosis, either by itself or in combination with different medicines. Osteoporosis is an illness described by weak and diminishing bones that can result in cracks and fractures in the bones. Some of the postures that can be helpful in treating osteoporosis are as follows:

  1. Utthita trikonasana: Uttihita trikonasana is an expanded triangle posture which is helpful in curing many diseases. Along with diminishing the side effects of osteoporosis, it additionally avoids soreness, increases strength and gets rid of spinal pain. Begin this posture by standing straight with your legs separated by four feet. Then, extend the arms to the ground with the palm facing downwards. Slide the left leg across the right side of your body. You need to slide it behind the left leg. Now extend your right leg towards the left side of your body. This will leave you in a sitting position. Where your right leg is placed on top of your left leg, make sure both your knees are on top of each other. Now straighten your body to an upright position.
  2. Ardha chandrasana: This asana is also called as the half-moon posture. This posture comes under hatha yoga and is beneficial for various medical issues, for example, osteoporosis, menstrual issues, exhaustion, sciatica and stomach-related cramps. You can practice this pose to get rid of osteoporosis and appreciate a sound body.
  3. Padangusthasana: This stance delicately stretches and strengthens persistently tight hamstrings.
  4. Adho mukha svanasana: It is one of yoga's most commonly practiced postures. Adho mukha svanasana offers a definitive wholesome, reviving stretch.
  5. Utthita hasta padangustasana: In this pose, keeping up the balance while standing on one foot strengthens your endurance capabilities.
  6. Utthita parsvakonasana: Discover the flexibility in your sides of the body from your heel to your fingertips with an extended side angle pose.
  7. Utthita trikonasana: It is a broadened triangle posture and is important as a standing posture in many styles of yoga.
  8. Ardha chandrasana: Make proper balance with your leg and the lower part of your leg as you look for strength and flexibility into this adjusting posture.
  9. Parivrtta parsvakonasana: This revolved side angle pose, a variation of utthita parsvakonasana requires a considerable measure of adaptability to bend flexibly and balance on the back heel.
  10. Uttanasana: Uttanasana will awaken your hamstrings and will help you to calm your brain.
  11. Urdhva dhanurasana: Urdhva dhanurasana can help in strengthening your arms, legs, abdomen and spine all at once.
  12. Virabhadrasana: Named after a wild warrior, an incarnation of Shiva, this adaptation of a warrior pose increases the stamina.

Yoga is one of the most secure measures and medicines for osteoporosis. It is something that anyone of any age can do at any place. The advantages are numerous and dangers are few if done properly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

3175 people found this helpful
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