Common Specialities
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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Ulcerative Surgery - What Should you Know

MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Pune
Ulcerative Surgery - What Should you Know

What Is Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the colon and the rectum. It affects the mucosal lining of the large intestine (colon) and the rectum. The rectum is present just above the anus.
In this condition, patients have ulcers and abscesses in their colon and rectum.

Symptoms are seen periodically. The symptoms are severe pain in the abdomen, blood in stools and diarrhea. Anemia is seen due to decreased healthy red blood cells as a consequence of bleeding in stools.

When is surgery required?

  • The colon has ruptured
  • There is extensive bleeding
  • The treatment results in severe side effects affecting the patient's health
  • Drug therapy fails to provide results
  • When it progresses to colon cancer
  • Surgery for Ulcerative colitis

There are 2 types of surgeries:

  1. Colectomy: Surgery performed to remove the entire colon
  2. Proctocolectomy: Surgery is conducted to remove both the colon and rectum. It is considered as the standard treatment for ulcerative colitis.

Procedures for the surgery

  1. Ileostomy: The entire colon and rectum are removed and the surgeon creates an opening or stoma in the abdominal wall particularly below the waist. Stoma allows waste from the intestines to exit the body. The tip of the lower small intestine is brought through the stoma. An external bag, or pouch, is attached to the stoma. This is called a permanent ileostomy. Stools pass through this opening and collect in the pouch. The pouch must be worn at all times. Before an ileostomy, the surgeon will perform a proctocolectomy. They will perform the ileostomy in the hospital, and the patient receives a general anesthesia.
  2. Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA): This is also called a J-pouch. This is a procedure that does not require a permanent stoma. The patient is still able to eliminate stool through the anus. A pouch is constructed at the end of the ileum and attached to the anus. This is called a J- pouch. As with the ileostomy, the patient will need a proctocolectomy before an IPAA. An IPAA is done in a hospital, and the patient will receive a general anesthesia.

Side-effects
Some people experience incontinence after the surgery. Medications may help control the function of the pouch.
Some women may become infertile after the procedure.

Recovery after Surgery
Both sets of the procedure will require a four-to-six-week recovery period.

  1. Keep your diet healthy: A healthy diet is essential because good nutrition can help the body heal faster and help avoid post-operation health issues. Absorption of nutrients can be an issue after these surgeries, so eating well will help in maintaining the proper level of nutrients.
  2. Keep yourself hydrated: Hydration is important for overall health, especially for the digestive health. Drinking six to eight glasses of water per day is recommended.
  3. Manage your stress: Anxiety or emotional stress can cause stomach issues, which can aggravate the complaint.

Cartilage Damage - What Causes It?

MBBS, DNB (Orthopedics)
Orthopedist, Pune
Cartilage Damage - What Causes It?

Cartilage is a fine, rubbery elastic tissue that acts as cushion between the bones in the joint spaces. It is a connective tissue and enables the joints to move freely and smoothly. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the friction between the joints. This cartilage could either be damaged as a result of injury or degeneration as part of normal ageing process. Either of this causes friction during joint movement, causing painful, stiff movements and in some cases, even swelling of the joint spaces.

There is also a covering around the joints known as synovium. When there is a cartilage damage, this synovium is irritated, leading to increased secretion of synovial fluid, which can cause swelling in joints. There is also reduction in the range of motion of the affected joint.

Most commonly affected joints include knees, hips, shoulders, elbows and ankles. Other than degeneration that happens with ageing, cartilage damage is mainly caused by injury or trauma including fall/impact, joint dislocation, infection, ligament tear, meniscus tear, and inflammation (gout, arthritis, etc.)

Read on to know some of the most common causes for cartilage damage and ways to manage it.

Causes:

Age and trauma are the main reasons for cartilage damage.

  1. Direct blow: A heavy blow directly to any joint leads to damage (accident, sports injury, etc.).
  2. Ageing: With constant wear and tear, joints that are under constant stress are prone for damage.
  3. Obesity: This is also a common cause leading to chronic inflammation and breakdown of the joints.
  4. Limited mobility: For whatever reasons (including sedentary lifestyle), lack of movement can cause cartilage damage.

Diagnosis:

The presenting symptoms of a person with any affected joint would be pain, discomfort and stiffness with movement. In addition to history and physical examination, MRI and arthroscopy can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment:

Start with a conservative approach and gradually switch to more advanced treatments. Conservative approach includes a combination of pain killers, steroid injections, and exercise (at a clinic or at home). If these do not work, the following surgical options are available:

  1. Debridement: The affected cartilage is smoothened and the loose edges are removed to prevent rubbing and irritation. It is done using a shaver.
  2. Marrow Stimulation: Using the marrow cells, more cartilage production is stimulated. Using tiny drills, holes are drilled to form a blood clot, which triggers formation of new cartilage.
  3. Mosaicplasty: In areas of localized damage, healthy cartilage from an unaffected area is placed.
  4. Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: Cartilage that is grown in a lab for one to three months are placed into the knee or affected joint to allow for healthy tissue growth.  

Total Knee Replacement - What To Expect?

MS orth, Diploma ort
Orthopedist, Agra
Total Knee Replacement - What To Expect?

Movement of the human body is possible through various joints which work in coordination to allow for smooth painless movement. However, with age, these muscles and tendons undergo wear and tear which gradually leads to tender swollen joints and painful movement.

The knee is the largest human joint and most of the body movements (walking, running, squatting, sitting, etc.) are only possible because of the flexible knee cap. Whether with age or with injury or trauma, if the knee is affected, then total knee replacement (TKR) would be required.

Indications: With a success rate of almost 98%, knee replacement almost seems magical for arthritis patients.

Wear and tear of the knee leading to arthritis. This causes all knee movements to be painful, which can be especially distressing at night.
Injury or trauma where the knee joint is damaged beyond repair.

What to expect during surgery?

  1. Once it is decided that surgery is required, the doctor will brief you on what to expect before, during, and after the surgery.
  2. The operation is done under combined signal epidural anaesthesia, so 3 days admission is required in the hospital.
  3. The damaged portion of the knee is removed and this is replaced with an implant which is made up of titanium and cobalt chromium.
  4. Hospital stay can vary from 3 to 5 days depending on overall condition of the person.
  5. Most patients will be able to do basic movement on the very next day of the surgery.
  6. Ice pack and painkillers can be applied to control swelling.
  7. The pain will be completely gone within 15 days.
  8. In the beginning, walking with the support of parallel bars is advised (walker). This can be followed by the use of cane for the first few days to avoid overload and damage to the knees.
  9. Most people can walk the next day, though it is advisable to use a cane for the first few weeks so that knee can strengthen to support the load.
  10. Regular postoperative visits should be scheduled for up to 2 months after surgery.
  11. In addition, it is extremely important to draw up an exercise regimen and follow it to sustain and improve mobility.
  12. In the absence of regular exercise, there could be stiffness of the joint which can set in and further aggravate the situation
  13. Driving is permissible only after the doctor's advice.

Let your doctor know before going for any surgical procedure (including dental work) as people with TKR should have antibiotic coverage before any procedure.

Gall Stone Surgery - Know Everything About It!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Gall Stone Surgery - Know Everything About It!

What is gallstone surgery?

It is a surgical removal of the gallstone from the gallbladder. It is also known as cholelithotomy.

What are the Statistics of the surgery?
Approximately 90% of patients who seek treatment undergo a surgery to remove the stones and the gallbladder.

What is the role of gallstone surgery?
Gallstones which are asymptomatic generally don’t need surgical removal. Treatment depends on the size and location of the gallstones. Surgery to remove the entire gallbladder with all its stones is usually the best treatment, and it is done in patients who can tolerate the procedure.

What are the indications for gallstone surgery?
Indications for gallstone surgery are as follows:

  • Stone lodged in the pancreatic duct
  • If the stone is causing severe pain, vomiting
  • Chronically obliterated cystic duct due to gallstone
  • Nonfunctioning gallbladder due to obstruction
  • Calculi greater than 3 cm in diameter
  • Acute infection of gallbladder (acute cholecystitis) due to gallbladder obstruction
  • Chronic infection of gallbladder due to gallbladder obstruction

How is the surgery performed?
The following surgeries are done in patients who are found to have cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis:

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A special machine which generates sound waves is used to break the stone. It is only done in the people who are having a small, and soft stone. This procedure doesn’t require any anesthesia, and repeated shock wave therapy is required for complete removal.
  2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: It is a procedure where a laparoscope (a small, thin tube) is put inside the body through a tiny incision made just below the umbilicus, and another probe is inserted to remove the stone.
  3. Open gallbladder surgery: It is done to remove the gallbladder when it is infected, or inflamed, or has large gallstones, or when complications are found during laparoscopic surgery.
  4. Percutaneous cholecystostomy guided by computed tomography (CT), or ultrasonography (USG) to remove the gallbladder.
    • Contact dissolution of gallstone can be done where direct catheter of a chemical solvent is introduced by the percutaneous way. It is best for cholesterol stone and, is best at removing any size of the stone.
    • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy (ERCP) is used to remove the stones which are in bile duct through the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and biliary system without any surgical incisions.

What are the complications of surgery?
Following are the most common complications of surgery:

  • Bile leakage leading to biliary peritonitis
  • Infection of gallbladder due to improper aseptic precautions
  • Abscess formation around the gallbladder, or over adjacent structures
  • Death due to rapidly spreading peritonitis causing septicemia
  • Raised liver enzymes, jaundice, and severe pain

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2849 people found this helpful

Knee Replacement - Is Second Surgery Actually Required?

Fellowship in Joint Replacement, M S Ortho, DNB (Orthopaedics)
Orthopedist, Chandigarh
Knee Replacement - Is Second Surgery Actually Required?

Of all the joints in the body, the knees probably see the maximum wear and tear. In cases of severe osteoarthritis, or injuries which destroy the knee joint, a total knee replacement surgery may be advised. This procedure involves the replacement of diseased cartilage and bone in the knees with artificial materials.

In cases of osteoarthritis and other such degenerative conditions, this procedure is performed only when the adjacent joints such as the hips are strong and healthy. Before the procedure, you may be advised to discontinue any blood thinning and anti-inflammatory medication. Your doctor will also conduct blood and urine tests to check for signs of anaemia, abnormal metabolism and infections. You may also be asked to lose weight if you are on the heavier side to reduce the pressure on your knees.

A total knee replacement surgery is usually performed under general anaesthesia. The lower end of the femur bone or thigh bone and the upper end of the tibia or calf bone are removed and replaced with a metal shell and plastic piece respectively. In some cases, a plastic ‘button’ may also be placed on the surface of the knee cap. If the posterior cruciate ligament in intact it is left as is or it is replaced by a polyethene post to stabilise the joint and prevent the calf from slipping backwards.

In most cases, a patient is discharged after 3-5 days of hospitalisation following the surgery. Post-surgery, it takes about a month for the patient to experience notable improvements. For optimal results, total knee surgery must be followed by physiotherapy and regular exercise. This helps prevent scarring and keeps the muscles strong enough to maintain joint stability. Exercising can also reduce recovery time. However, not all exercises are advisable. Avoid running, jumping, climbing stairs and contact sports which have a high risk of knee injury. Swimming is highly encouraged as it boosts endurance and muscle strength without putting any pressure on the joint.

In some cases, a second surgery may be required in cases of total knee replacement to fix fractures, loosening or complications of the artificial joint. As with any other surgical procedure, a total knee replacement surgery also has risks. Some of these are:

  1. Formation of blood clots that can cause shortness of breath, chest pain and shock
  2. Urinary tract infection
  3. Nausea and vomiting
  4. Knee pain and stiffness
  5. Nerve damage
  6. Internal bleeding in the knee
  7. Increased risk of infections

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2683 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Undergone inguinal hernia surgery on 14 May. After surgery my testicles became larger than earlier. It causing problems like uneasiness & pain. Will it be remain larger?

MCh(Minimally Invasive & Robotic Surgery), MS - Surgical, MBBS
General Surgeon, Barpeta
Well, I advice my patients to wear scrotal support for 6 weeks after any groin level surgery, as scrotum is a potential space for accumulation of fluid. So, do not worr. Wear scrotal supporting bandage, take medicines as prescribed. It will be fine.
1 person found this helpful

I am a 45 years old female without any issues of diabetic or blood pressure. Underwent surgery on both the eye's for orbital thyroid fat removal. After the surgery there is alignment problem in both the eyes. Because of this it looks squint. My vision in both the eyes are good. Can this be cured? Went to many doctors but in vain no one wanted to help they said I should stay like this only. But I am finding it very difficult to lead a normal life with no self confidence at all. Please reply me if it can be solved and what would be the cost rough figure also will do.

MBBS, M S (Ophthalmology )
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
I think you underwent decompression for thyroid exophthalmos, if you vision is equally good in both eyes there is no need to worry. Some apparent squint will be resolved with time as limitation of movement is over with resolution of orbital oedema. Donot worry much and keep in touch with your operating surgeon. How long it had been since you got the operation. I think you should Waite for 6 month before planning reoperation.
1 person found this helpful

My gallbladder surgery is done 2 days back in which my gallbladder has been removed. Should I continue liv 52 because I was taking it before surgery also?

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. No not to be taken now after surgery as the reason of the problem is removed, then it has no role to play in body Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL https://www.Lybrate.com/gandhinagar/doctor/dr-bhagyesh-patel-general-surgeon Regards take care.
2 people found this helpful

Sir, my mom is having pleomorphic adenoma in parotid gland. She must undergo surgery with general anaesthesia, superficial paradictomy. Can a asthma can undergo surgery with general anaesthesia. What do General anaesthesia do for asthma patients?

MCh(Minimally Invasive & Robotic Surgery), MS - Surgical, MBBS
General Surgeon, Barpeta
Do not worry. All the anaesthetist are qualified and trained enough to handle asthma or anything during surgery. She will be optimized definitely pre opertively and taken care of post opertively for a smooth recovery for sure.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
Play video
Myths Of Hair Transplant
People usually have a lot of doubts related to hair transplant which makes them avoid going for this treatment. It is just a re-arrangement of hair from back to front of the scalp which has baldness. Nowadays FUE technique is being used which is safe and is done under local anaesthesia. There are no cuts and bleeding is minimal. Its actually painless and patient can resume to normal work shortly.
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Laparoscopic Surgery & Repair For Hernia
I m Dr. Gorakshanath Khomane. I m Laparoscopic consultant surgeon in Kandivali Manat working in Sanchaiti and Suchak hospital.

Today we are talking about hernias. What is hernia? Hernia is a it occurs when organs or fatty tissues which squeezes out through some part into the surrounding tissue, connected tissue and surrounding fascia, is called hernia. Hernia usually is of different types. There are inguinal hernias; which are lower abdomen hernias, then femoral hernias, incisional hernias, umbilical hernias also called as belly button hernia. Inguinal hernias are most common hernias, these are around 96% hernias are inguinal hernias. These are above the groin areas and then usually they are present in man commonly in man. Femoral hernia are common in females which is below the groin, it is usually protrude out through the femoral canal which is the femoral vessels and it comes into the upper thigh. Then umbilical hernia is at the umbilicus around the umbilicus which usually protrude through the umbilical area. It is weak part due to obesity or sometimes in childhood newborn, sometimes due to poor nutrition, and in elderly it is quite common. Where is another hernia called as incisional hernia, these hernia are due to some surgeries on the abdominal cavity which causes incisions and then there is weakness in the inner part which they through which the intestine or the contents of the abdominal cavity protrudes out into the surrounding tissues and causes the obsessions and triangulation. These are common in elderly people and or in women. The another hernia is hiatal hernia which is totally different. In this hernia the stomach protrudes through the abdominal cavity into the chest through hiatus of diaphragm. So what are the causes of these hernias? Mainly there is a pressure increased pressure in the abdominal cavity and weakening of the abdominal muscle wall. Main things are like lifting heavy weight without stabilizing the abdominal wall muscles, then obesity then nutritional poor nutritional diet so that there is a weakness of abdominal wall, continuous loose motions or diarrhea or constipation. Sometimes also there is persistent coughing, sneezing, which can cause these types of hernias. In elderly patient where benign enlargement of prostate can cause resistance of frequency of urine straining of urine which also can cause hernias.

How to diagnose hernia? For diagnosing hernia one thing is that physical examination by a healthcare provider is very important by which you can actually diagnose hernia. Second ultrasound of the abdominal wall abdominal cavity by which you can know the different types of hernia. Third is taking x-ray abdomen in which you can see whether there is option of the intestine or not. Sometimes you can do CT scan of the abdomen, the triangulation of the hernia is present or if the obstruction of the abdominal wall or the abdominal cavity because of the intestinal obstruction it can be diagnosed. How to treat hernia? In babies umbilical hernias can get resolved of its own in the beginning periods of the years. Sometimes it may remain and it can increase in size then it has to be treated. In elderly age or in later age groups if the hernia occurs then simply you can monitor it you can be with the hernia but then it is risky. Sometimes intestines can get strangulated there it can obstruct the complete bowl and there will be swelling of the abdomen there will be risk of life because of perforation of the intestine or shock or sometimes death. So it has to be treated it should be treated in conventional manner in recent advances there are other moralities of the surgeries. Conventionally they is to treat the hernia with mentoplasty where the mesh is kept on the part where the gap is there where the defect is there the defect is closed and then the mentoplasty is done. That is done usually in the conventional surgery which is called as herniorrhaphy. In all these hernias the mesh is used nowadays. There are other recent moralities via a laparoscopically where putting the telescope inside you put the hernia mesh on the defect and you close it properly, Trans abdominally or proportionally you can do it. Umbilical hernia can also be done by laparoscopy by which you can put double layer mesh and repair the umbilical hernia. Whereby you can actually move on very fast you can life start early, the movement or conversant period is very less and risk is less. So nowadays the laparoscopic hernia repair is given a choice and should be done. Hernia may reoccur after surgeries so preventive measures has to be taken care. Preventive measures has to be done so that the hernia should not occur.

For further and more information on hernia or treatment of hernia you can contact at me by through lybrate.com or booking an appointment. Thank you!
Play video
Common Liposuction Myths Debunked
Hi,

I am Dr Ashutosh Misra enhance clinics.

Today we will be talking about liposuction and clearing the myths about liposuction. Liposuction is a wonderful and a very safe procedure to get rid of your unwanted body fat. The most important thing to understand is who are the candidates for liposuction again liposuction is to get rid of unwanted fat, person maybe of their normal body mass index but may have some unwanted body fats say in face, arms, tummy or thighs. Now this unwanted fat is because of the high concentration of fat cells which are there in that particular area and this is something which is genetically determined and you cannot get rid of it through just exercise and diet. So liposuction helps to get rid of that excess fat in those particular areas, so we call it as liposuction as a body contouring surgery not as a weight reduction surgery, having said that liposuction also helps in weight reduction and that is the second part of the liposuction when you have a body mass index which is more than normal and you are suffering from obesity not to that extent but yes unwanted fat in the abdomen and all. For this, we do liposuction to decrease a large volume of fats say more than around 4-5 litres which we called as large volume liposuction and that helps to decrease the weight as well. So just removing the fat does not actually decrease your weight but post liposuction doing a good amount of exercise that we tell our patients and a diet program help you to decrease the weight over a period of say 3 months. Post liposuction, we have to wear certain special garments and for around 3 months because the best results comes around 3 months time and you have to talk to your doctor about it how to wear it and what are the things you have to take precaution. It is a very safe procedure but if done by an expert, so you have to choose your doctor well, that's the most important thing and you should have realistic expectation what a liposuction can do. Some people think fat comes out and the skin becomes loose, no liposuction is a wonderful procedure about that it also causes skin contraction, so the technique of the liposuction is very important as if how much skin has to go and what we actually need about it. If we feel there is an extra skin which cannot go even by liposuction then the procedure becomes either a mini tuck or a complete tummy tuck to get rid of your extra skin. It's a day care procedure come in the morning and go back home in the evening or if you want to stay if it is a larger procedure say more than 4 litres, you stay overnight in the hospital and then go back home the very next morning. The pressure garments are from the start of the surgery and for first one month almost most of the time of the day, after one month it is around 12 hours when you are in your daily exercise and normal routine you can take off your pressure garments after around in the night time when you are taking rest. The other myths about liposuction is people think that fat comes back, no, the number of fat cells in the body are constant after a certain, age at a very young age, it's only the size of fat that can increase or decrease, if it become obese or normal. So when we are taking out the number of fat cells, the numbers of fat cells do not increase in body. It may only increase in their size or decrease in the size and that can be control with the help of diet. So once you get a good body shape once you get a good body shape than that shape won't be distorted but if you become obese gain weight later on the shape will remain the same but it will be you become more wide or more narrow. So, that is what a liposuction does.

Thank you.
Play video
Joint Replacement Surgery
Mai Dr Suhas Shah Orthopaedic Surgeon hoon, mera hospital hai Ashwini accident Hospital Mumbai mein. Mere hospital mein sabhi accident patient ko treatment milti hai, aur mai russian surgery specialist bhi hoon. Mai Global Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, aur Raheja Hospital mein attach hoon, meri hospital ki speciality hai ki yeh hospital mein total orthopaedic care under one roof is available. Mai spine surgery karta hoon, joint replacement surgery karta hoon, total knee joint replacement surgery yahan hoti hai and even hip joint replacement surgery is done, arthroscopy is done and all trauma care is available under one roof in one hospital. I am attached to jaslok, Raheja and global hospital also, I am attached to Corporation Bandra Bawa Hospital also and I am head of department there. I am a post graduate teacher and DNB teacher, students are trained under me, I am a examiner for DNB post graduation also, aur mere hospital mein sabhi suvidha deluxe room, semi special room and general ward is available, you can avail all these facilities with a very reasonable rate, you are welcome to our visit to our centre. Aapko agar mujhe contact karna hai toh aap lybrate.com se contact kar sakte hain, ya meri appointment lybrate.com se book kar sakte ho.
Play video
Cataract And Refractive Surgery: What Is The Difference?
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from Fortis hospital Vashi, department of visual sciences. And Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon. You can contact me and know more about me through lybrate.com.

Today I m going to talk to you about one very important topic which is of interest to one and all i.e. cataract and refractive surgeries, the recent advances in these surgeries. Let me first start by telling you what is cataract surgery? In cataract surgery the procedure is to remove the opaque lens of the eye which is called a cataract and replaced it by a nice clean artificial lens so that a patient can see again. While refractive surgery is something where we do refractive correction i.e. correction of power of the glasses either by the laser or by a surgical procedure. Both the things can be combined to ultimately give clear vision to the patient. So let s start by starting with the recent advances in the cataract surgery. Well today cataract surgery has been sophisticated by doing procedures using ultrasound phaco probe which is about 2.2mm in size and it can be lesser of up to 1.8mm as well. We can do microincision cataract surgery through these probes. As a result of which we don t require any anesthesia, any stitch and any blood coming out during surgery. During surgery we enter the eye with a very small opening and with the help of this ultrasound probe the emulsify or break the cataract into small pieces and then it is absorbed into the system of the machine, this is then replaced by a very small foldable lens. The lenses are of various types. They are usually monofocal, multifocal, or cylindrical. When we use monofocal lens we try to give you correction for distance so that most of the vision is good without glasses. When we use multifocal lens which is necessary to be put in both the eyes we can give you distance as well as near vision and when we use a toric lens we try to correct your cylindrical power as well. So ultimately by doing cataract surgery we not only remove the cataract but we also correct the glasses power of the patient so the patient can see very well without being too much dependent on the glasses. Apart from the various types of lenses we have now different types of machines which do the surgery. As I said micro-incision surgery is possible by using phaco probe but nowadays we are using laser as well to do the surgeries. Laser was a common term used in public to know or to talk about phacosurgery but today actual laser can also be used to do the surgeries. Although it is very expensive as well as time consuming. So ultimately if we have a good surgeon or experience surgeon micro incision phaco surgery is the surgery of choice even today and with the various type of lenses that available we can get rid of glasses as well apart from removing cataract. Now coming to the refractive surgery. Refractive surgery means removal of power of glasses doing a procedure on the eyes, this is usually done on the surface of the eye using a laser. What we do over here is laser surface ablation of the cornea which can lead to removal of glasses without doing any type of incision any cut or any kind of trauma to the patient or lots of tissue. So this a bladeless procedure and the patient is absolutely comfortable during the procedure and he may have some discomfort in first three or four days but overall at the end of the week he is absolutely normal as he was before without his glasses. This is one of the recent advances of bladeless procedures in laser surgeries. The other advances that we are doing nowadays is in very high refractive power say a power of more than seventeen and eighteen we introduces a special lens which is called as ICL which is put inside the eye without removing the cataract. This lens is like a contact lenses that sits on the lens i.e. given to us by nature. As a result of which the power which is there say e.g. patient with minus eighteen end up with the power which is close to zero and he would be again not dependent on his thick glasses. So this is another advanced that is occurred so that we can correct even the higher refractive errors. So overall if you look at the cataract and the refractive surgeries today we are doing very good sort of very advanced sort of treatments to all our patients which start with the removal of cataract, putting a lens of different types, we can do laser procedure over it to get rid of glasses. We can also put intraocular contact lenses, called ICL, which helps in removal of numbers with high powers and so at the end of the day our patients seems very happy and satisfy with all these results that are coming with modern advancements in cataract and refractive surgeries.

I hope you have understood the topic and if you have any more queries you can get back to me on lybrate.com.
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