A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.
Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating
Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.
Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -
Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.
Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.
Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.
Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.
Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,
The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-
Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.
The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.
What Is Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the colon and the rectum. It affects the mucosal lining of the large intestine (colon) and the rectum. The rectum is present just above the anus.
In this condition, patients have ulcers and abscesses in their colon and rectum.
Symptoms are seen periodically. The symptoms are severe pain in the abdomen, blood in stools and diarrhea. Anemia is seen due to decreased healthy red blood cells as a consequence of bleeding in stools.
When is surgery required?
There are 2 types of surgeries:
Procedures for the surgery
Some people experience incontinence after the surgery. Medications may help control the function of the pouch.
Some women may become infertile after the procedure.
Recovery after Surgery
Both sets of the procedure will require a four-to-six-week recovery period.
Cartilage is a fine, rubbery elastic tissue that acts as cushion between the bones in the joint spaces. It is a connective tissue and enables the joints to move freely and smoothly. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the friction between the joints. This cartilage could either be damaged as a result of injury or degeneration as part of normal ageing process. Either of this causes friction during joint movement, causing painful, stiff movements and in some cases, even swelling of the joint spaces.
There is also a covering around the joints known as synovium. When there is a cartilage damage, this synovium is irritated, leading to increased secretion of synovial fluid, which can cause swelling in joints. There is also reduction in the range of motion of the affected joint.
Most commonly affected joints include knees, hips, shoulders, elbows and ankles. Other than degeneration that happens with ageing, cartilage damage is mainly caused by injury or trauma including fall/impact, joint dislocation, infection, ligament tear, meniscus tear, and inflammation (gout, arthritis, etc.)
Read on to know some of the most common causes for cartilage damage and ways to manage it.
Age and trauma are the main reasons for cartilage damage.
The presenting symptoms of a person with any affected joint would be pain, discomfort and stiffness with movement. In addition to history and physical examination, MRI and arthroscopy can be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Start with a conservative approach and gradually switch to more advanced treatments. Conservative approach includes a combination of pain killers, steroid injections, and exercise (at a clinic or at home). If these do not work, the following surgical options are available:
Movement of the human body is possible through various joints which work in coordination to allow for smooth painless movement. However, with age, these muscles and tendons undergo wear and tear which gradually leads to tender swollen joints and painful movement.
The knee is the largest human joint and most of the body movements (walking, running, squatting, sitting, etc.) are only possible because of the flexible knee cap. Whether with age or with injury or trauma, if the knee is affected, then total knee replacement (TKR) would be required.
Indications: With a success rate of almost 98%, knee replacement almost seems magical for arthritis patients.
Wear and tear of the knee leading to arthritis. This causes all knee movements to be painful, which can be especially distressing at night.
Injury or trauma where the knee joint is damaged beyond repair.
What to expect during surgery?
Let your doctor know before going for any surgical procedure (including dental work) as people with TKR should have antibiotic coverage before any procedure.
What is gallstone surgery?
It is a surgical removal of the gallstone from the gallbladder. It is also known as cholelithotomy.
What are the Statistics of the surgery?
Approximately 90% of patients who seek treatment undergo a surgery to remove the stones and the gallbladder.
What is the role of gallstone surgery?
Gallstones which are asymptomatic generally don’t need surgical removal. Treatment depends on the size and location of the gallstones. Surgery to remove the entire gallbladder with all its stones is usually the best treatment, and it is done in patients who can tolerate the procedure.
What are the indications for gallstone surgery?
Indications for gallstone surgery are as follows:
How is the surgery performed?
The following surgeries are done in patients who are found to have cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis:
What are the complications of surgery?
Following are the most common complications of surgery:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Of all the joints in the body, the knees probably see the maximum wear and tear. In cases of severe osteoarthritis, or injuries which destroy the knee joint, a total knee replacement surgery may be advised. This procedure involves the replacement of diseased cartilage and bone in the knees with artificial materials.
In cases of osteoarthritis and other such degenerative conditions, this procedure is performed only when the adjacent joints such as the hips are strong and healthy. Before the procedure, you may be advised to discontinue any blood thinning and anti-inflammatory medication. Your doctor will also conduct blood and urine tests to check for signs of anaemia, abnormal metabolism and infections. You may also be asked to lose weight if you are on the heavier side to reduce the pressure on your knees.
A total knee replacement surgery is usually performed under general anaesthesia. The lower end of the femur bone or thigh bone and the upper end of the tibia or calf bone are removed and replaced with a metal shell and plastic piece respectively. In some cases, a plastic ‘button’ may also be placed on the surface of the knee cap. If the posterior cruciate ligament in intact it is left as is or it is replaced by a polyethene post to stabilise the joint and prevent the calf from slipping backwards.
In most cases, a patient is discharged after 3-5 days of hospitalisation following the surgery. Post-surgery, it takes about a month for the patient to experience notable improvements. For optimal results, total knee surgery must be followed by physiotherapy and regular exercise. This helps prevent scarring and keeps the muscles strong enough to maintain joint stability. Exercising can also reduce recovery time. However, not all exercises are advisable. Avoid running, jumping, climbing stairs and contact sports which have a high risk of knee injury. Swimming is highly encouraged as it boosts endurance and muscle strength without putting any pressure on the joint.
In some cases, a second surgery may be required in cases of total knee replacement to fix fractures, loosening or complications of the artificial joint. As with any other surgical procedure, a total knee replacement surgery also has risks. Some of these are:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!