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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Duodenal Switch Surgery - When To Go For It?

Dr. Tarun Mittal 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Bariatrician, Delhi
Duodenal Switch Surgery - When To Go For It?
Getting surgery for weight loss may seem to be an easy way out, but this is no miracle cure. Bariatric surgery is of many types and to benefit from this, it is important for you to make the right choice. Some types of bariatric surgery merely restrict the amount of food that can be consumed in one sitting while others reduce the amount of fats that can be absorbed from the food as well. Duodenal switch surgery is one of the latter techniques. For this surgery, a part of the stomach is removed. This restricts the amount of food that can be consumed. The remaining part of the stomach is fashioned into a tube. This preserves the natural inlet and outlet for food and allows the patient to have a more normal diet as compared to other bariatric surgeries such as a gastric sleeve surgery. Thus, if you do not want to be restricted to a special diet, this may be the better choice of bariatric procedures for you. Removing part of the stomach also reduces the amount of hormones such as ghrelin being produced. This hormone is responsible for stimulating the appetite. The small intestines are then addressed and separated into two channels which merge later as one. Food flows through the shorter channel. Bile and pancreatic juices flow through the longer channel. The two channels merge shortly before food passes into the large intestines. The aim of doing this is to reduce the amount of time your food spends in the small intestines. As a result of this, lesser fat is absorbed by the body. In most cases, the amount of fat absorbed by the small intestines after this procedure is reduced to 20%. This part of the procedure is reversible. What this implies is that once the patient has lost sufficient weight, the small intestines may be brought back to their original state thus allowing nutrients to be properly absorbed once again. If you do decide to undergo this procedure, you must first fulfill certain conditions. Bariatric surgery is usually considered a last resort when other forms of weight loss have not had significant results. However, you should have lost a certain amount of weight by dieting and exercising prior to the surgery. This is necessary as this surgery will not be effective unless the person has self-control and a will to lose weight. Thus, this is seen as a commitment towards a healthier lifestyle.

Laparoscopic Appendix Surgery

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
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Laparoscopic Appendix Surgery
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Choose Laparoscopy If You Are Scared of Surgery!

Dr. Yogesh Patil 88% (47 ratings)
M.S.GENERAL SURGERY
General Surgeon, Nashik
Choose Laparoscopy If You Are Scared of Surgery!
Traditional open surgery requires an 8-10 cm incision to expose the surgical area of the abdomen which needs to be operated. This large incision is a major post-operative side-effect which results in longer recovery period. The alternative technique, laparoscopy also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical procedure in which small incisions of about 0.5 1.5 cm are made far from the location of the operation. One or more such holes on the abdominal wall serve as passageways for a specialised instrument called a laparoscope. A long, thin tube headed by a high-resolution camera and a high-intensity guiding light is inserted through the incision. As the instrument moves along, the camera transmits images to a video monitor enabling your surgeon to see inside without opening up your body for surgery. This process is used to diagnose unidentified abdominal or pelvic pain. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is usually performed when all non-invasive alternatives have been tried. Imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sometimes unable to provide enough data for diagnosis. Laparoscopic surgery is used for the removals of an inflamed appendix, gall bladder, hernias, and cancer-affected organs, fibroids from the uterus, the womb (hysterectomy) and also for performing weight-loss surgeries. Laparoscopy has a lot of advantages over the more common, open procedure. They are: 1. Less post-operative pain 2. Smaller scars 3. Reduced haemorrhaging and blood loss 4. Shorter recovery period 5. Less pain medications and analgesia requirements 6. Reduced exposure to internal organs 7. Faster return to normal activity 8. Reduced risk of infection Laparoscopy is a proven safer choice with a fast-healing process side-stepping conventional surgery!

How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?

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How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?
Physical therapy can help, ease the symptoms of treatment and aid in rehabilitation following reconstructive surgery. Easing pain Reducing fatigue Promoting bone density Stimulating the immune system Reducing stress and depression Ridding the body of toxins Decreasing swelling and inflammation Treating lymphedema One of the most beneficial treatments for cancer patients is exercise to prevent bone loss and maintain strength. A customized exercise program will be created that factor in the type of cancer treatments you re receiving, your overall health and physical condition. Breast cancer strikes fear into the hearts of men and women who have been diagnosed, along with family and loved ones. Physical therapists has treatments and therapies to help ease the effects of chemotherapy, radiation, mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. Breast cancer and associated treatments can be scary and have far reaching effects. Physical therapy can help you meet those challenges of the body, mind and quality of life.
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Complication After Liposuction: What You Need To Know?

Dr. M Rajkumar 86% (47 ratings)
M.Ch (Plastic)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
Complication After Liposuction: What You Need To Know?
Sometimes, even a strict diet and strenuous exercise regime don't give you the body shape you dream of. In such cases, liposuction can be the answer to the problem of excess fat you are facing. Liposuction is a surgical procedure of removing stubborn fat bulges from the body. Age is not a major consideration with liposuction as long as your skin is firm and elastic. Else, your skin may begin to sag in places from where the fat has been removed. It is important to note that liposuction does not remove cellulite but only removes fat. Thus, for people with cellulite, liposuction may not give them the results they desire. If you're thinking of undergoing liposuction, do not expect the procedure to give you a supermodel's figure. Be realistic in your expectations. Here are a few other things to keep in mind. Liposuction does not show instant results: Recovery from a liposuction surgery is quick and you may be back to your normal routine within a few weeks. However, the treated area may still look swollen. This can take two to three months to subside. Hence, work backwards and time your surgery with regard to major life events. The results are long lasting: Undergoing liposuction surgery does not mean that you will not be overweight again, but it means that fat will not collect in the areas that have been treated. If you do gain weight, the fat will be redistributed to other areas. Smoking and alcohol must be avoided: Smoking and alcohol both inhibit healing. It also increases your risk of complications during the surgery. Stop drinking and smoking at least three weeks prior to your surgery, and avoid it until your body has healed completely. Can be beneficial for many parts of the body: Liposuction can be performed on many areas of the body. The thighs, abdomen, breasts and buttocks are common areas where this surgery is performed. Other areas are the back, face and neck. Like any other surgery, liposuction has its risks. While some risks are very rare, others can be quite common. Here are three minor risks that you should be aware of: 1.Excessive liposuction: Removing too much fat can leave your skin looking unnatural and uneven. 2. Skin discoloration: When making an incision for liposuction, the skin cells in the area may rupture and release melanin into the surrounding area. This can cause prolonged hyper pigmentation that can take 4-6 months to heal. Patients with a dark skin tone have a higher risk of hyper pigmentation. 3. Swelling and bruising: When liposuction is performed on the lower part of the body, swelling and bruising are common side effects. This usually disappears within 2-3 days. Choosing open drainage vs. placing sutures on the incision sites can reduce the chances of this happening.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi I am karan you suggest me about minor surgery for tight foreskin problem please tell me how much it cost.

Dr. S Sriram 90% (58 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MCh Urology
Urologist, Hyderabad
Respected Sir, Circumcision would cost you less than 10000/- as a day care procedure in a private set up. Thanks.

I am suffering from diabetic from last 2 years morning diabetes is 200 n after meal 230 n am also heart patient I have gone in for angioplasty surgery also in 2009 so please advice me.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 93% (3025 ratings)
FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Dear Dipak , hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly . * Guidelines for better recovery - Discuss with your doctor about the change of the molecule . - Strict dietary control . - Regular walking , exercises , YOGA help great . - Avoidance of stress , anxiety . - Manage to have regular sound sleep of 8 hours . - Avoid smoking , alcohol if using . Hope this clears your query . Wishing you fine health ahead . Regards dear take care .

Hi doc, I am Anand, currently working in private, I like know about the Lasik surgery, my eye power is -2.25 both. Is it safe to go for Lasik? Is it so then what is the cost for the surgery? And what is the procedure for the Lasik? I want get rid of my glasses, please help me.

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 91% (2310 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Hooghly
Well Lasik surgery is safe, you know in every surgery there is some risk but that are negligible, soo it will be better, after Lasik you don't need to wear specs, cost of Lasik surgery varies in different hospitals, from 20000,-50,000.

Is chin genioplasty safe or do involve complications. If do not that what is correct age to get it done.

BDS, MDS
Oral And Maxillofacial Surgeon, Chamarajanagar
The usual complications are relatively minor and include 1. Swelling, 2. Hematoma, 3. Weakness or numbness of the lower lip, (usually does not last long). 4. Infection, 5. Bony changes and 6. Displacement of the implant. Chewing should be kept at a minimum immediately after this procedure, and patients are recommended to eat only soft food and drink for a time after the surgery.

Hii, My question is for ophthalmologist. I am 31 year old female. I want to remove the eye glasses. My eye glasses no. Is. Cylindrical 3 in both eyes with different axis 40deg and 80deg. Spherical no is also 0.75. Last 3 year no change in my eye no, it was almost 3 but in july again my no changes upto 4. Please suggest About lasik.

Dr. Shriganesh Diliprao Deshmukh 91% (1272 ratings)
International Academy of Classical Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Pune
First go throw below course Eye sight weak Take CARBONEUM SULPHURATUM 6c, one dose every morning for 1 week Week 2: Take ARGENTINUM NIT 6c, one dose, every morning for 1 week Week 3 to 6: Take Natrum Mur 30c, once a week for 1 month (not daily, only once a week, say only on Sundays) All these three medicines will help to increase the general health as well. 1. Take one Raw Carrot, grated and eaten fresh every morning (eating by slowly chewing is important for complete digestion. Grating externaly helps to chew) 2. Doing some simple eye excercise helps to maximize the benefit of eye nutrition medicines given above.
2 people found this helpful

Health Quizzes

Brain Surgery - Can Their Be Risks?

Dr. Naba J Borah 87% (10 ratings)
MS (Surgery), Mch (Neurosurgery)
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There are no risks involved in brain surgery. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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Dr. Arjun Kumar Singh 93% (1013 ratings)
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The improvements in vision with Lasik are almost immediately noticeable. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
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