Lybrate Logo
Get the App
For Doctors
Book Appointment
Ask a Question
Plan my Surgery
Health Feed
Health Feed
Find Doctors

Surgery - Procedure, Benefits And Side Effects

Last Updated: Jun 27, 2023

What is meant by surgery?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

What is the difference between operation and surgery?

Operation is a general term which involves surgical procedures while surgery is a medical procedure which involves major incision and medical to cure the diseases or to replace any organ. In the United Kingdom, surgery is also known as a place where the doctor practices his/her work. Patients visit the surgery to get them treated and get medical services.

What falls under general Surgery?

General Surgery is the branch that includes especially the organs in the abdominal cavity such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, etc., along with the thyroid gland. Besides these, it also focuses on surgeries related to skin, soft tissue, breasts, trauma, peripheral artery diseases, hernia along with endoscopic surgeries like gastroscopy and colonoscopy.

Types of surgeries:

Below we have listed the types of surgery:

  • Appendectomy:

    It is the process of removal of the appendix. This surgery is performed to treat appendicitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the appendix. An appendix is a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. It is located on the right side of your abdomen.

  • Carotid endarterectomy:

    It is a surgical procedure which helps in removing a blockage from carotid arteries (these are situated in the neck which supplies blood to the brain). It is to be mentioned that if this problem is not treated on time, it can cause a stroke.

  • Breast biopsy:

    It is done to diagnose breast cancer. In this process, the surgeon takes a small sample of tissue and study under a microscope. This process is also done to remove abnormal breast tissue. The biopsy is done using a hollow needle to remove tissue (also known as needle biopsy).

  • Cesarean section:

    Also known as c-section is performed to deliver a baby. This is done by making an incision or cut in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. This surgery is only done when doctors prefer it to be safer to deliver a baby than a vaginal delivery.

  • Cataract surgery:

    It is a clouding of the lens which lessens the vision. It affects slowly and can damage both the eyes with time. The symptoms of a cataract may include faded colours, double vision, halos around lights, blurred vision, trouble in night vision. This type of surgery is done to clear the lens of the eyes and removes the cloudy lens.

  • Cholecystectomy:

    This surgery is performed to remove the gallbladder. It is a pear-shaped sac, located at the right side of the liver that holds bile. Cholecystectomy is done to remove gallstones as it could become cancerous.

  • Coronary artery bypass:

    Commonly known as bypass surgery is done when a patient is suffering from angina or coronary artery disease. This surgery is done to improve blood flow of the heart. The surgeon sometimes takes a vein from the leg or sometimes arteries from the chest to improve the flow of blood.

  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C):

    It is a type of surgery which is done to widen the cervix. It is a procedure which is performed usually after the miscarriage or abortion.

  • Debridement:

    It is a procedure to remove foreign material or dead or infected tissue from a wound, injury or burn.

  • Free skin graft:

    This is a process in which healthy skin is removed from one part of the body to repair the damaged or lost skin of the other parts of the body. It is performed to remove the diseased skin and is repaired by stitching or natural healing.

  • Hysterectomy:

    This surgery is performed to remove the uterus in a woman. This process is done by making a cut in the abdomen and using a laparoscope. It also involves the removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes.

  • Hemorrhoidectomy:

    It is done to remove hemorrhoids. During this surgery, your surgeon will give you general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that the patient will feel no pain. The cuts are made in the tissue found around hemorrhoid. These are distended veins present in the anus.

  • Hysteroscopy:

    It is a process which helps in treating uterine disorders using a hysteroscope. It is a tool which helps the doctor to see the canal of the cervix and the inside area of the uterus. This tool shows the image of the area in the computer monitor.

  • Low back pain surgery:

    This pain can have many causes which include abnormal backbone structure, stress on the back, kind of physical disorder that affect the bones of the spine. It is to be mentioned that the surgery is not performed immediately. First of all, patients are said to take medications, rest and perform some exercises.

  • Inguinal hernia repair:

    This is done to repair a weakness in the abdominal wall that allows abdominal things to fall into the inguinal canal in the groin.

  • Partial colectomy:

    It is the process done to remove a part of the large intestine (colon). It is performed to treat colon cancer or conditions like ulcerative colitis or diverticulitis.

  • Prostatectomy:

    It is the process to remove the part or entire prostate gland. It helps in treating prostate cancer (which is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia).

  • Tonsillectomy:

    It is a process in which both the tonsils are removed. These tonsils hold them from entering viruses and bacteria which prevent them from entering the body through the nose and mouth.

  • Mastectomy:

    It is the procedure of removal of all parts of the breast. It is performed to treat breast cancer. Types of mastectomies include partial mastectomy, total mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy.

Who needs a surgery?

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who doesn't need a surgery?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Do guys get boners during Surgery?

Penile erection is a rare but serious complication related to urological Surgery. Like other surgeries, this one also is performed under general anesthesia, despite which penile erection can happen which can lead to complications in the Surgery. Different methods for prevention of this are possible out of which intracavernous injection of ephedrine has a higher rate of success.


Checklist while Preparing for Surgery:

Here is a list of what you must ask your doctor:

  • Is the doctor qualified?
  • What is the status of your health?
  • Who will provide you anaesthesia and what will be the procedure?
  • What will be the medications and habits that you just need to follow?
  • Can you use alcohol or other beverages or not?
  • How much time will it take you to recover properly?
  • What should be your pre-surgical diet?

What happens if you wake up during Surgery?

Wake up during the Surgery, commonly referred to as ‘’anesthesia awareness’’ is a rare condition that occurs. Surgeries usually commence after the application of general anesthesia that causes unconsciousness in the patient during the surgery so that he or she does not get aware of the procedure. The condition of waking up during this, being in the effect of general anesthesia, may sound not good but it is not followed by any kind of pain or discomfort to the patient.

Does Surgery hurt?

Surgery does not usually hurt as it is performed under the effect of anesthesia that causes numbness of the whole body as in general anesthesia or a localized area as in local anesthesia. The patient falls asleep due to anesthesia so can’t feel or remember the pain. The post-operative pain somewhat hurts and is a matter of concern. Prescribed medications minimize the after-Surgery pain.

Can you poop during Surgery?

Surgery is usually performed after the application of general anesthesia so as the patient goes into a state of sleep. One of the consequences of anesthesia is that it paralyzes the muscles including GIT muscles, which leads to the ceasing of the food in the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn does not cause the stool to move out of the anus.

Why can't you eat before surgery?

Surgery is a typical process. You doctor will not allow you to eat or drink something before the process. This is because, under anaesthesia, your body’s reflexes are stopped on a temporary basis. So, if you eat or drink something, the risk of vomiting and regurgitation rises up. If this happens that your food could get into your lungs and affect your breathing and cause damage to the lungs.

Your doctor will tell you how much time before you need to consume food as it will depend on the procedure. In general, your surgeon will advise you to have the food six to eight hours before the surgical process.

What are the side effects of surgery?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure.

Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the cost of various surgeries in India?

Cost of various surgeries in India
Name of the Surgery Average Cost in India (INR)
Appendectomy 25,000 to 2,80,000
Carotid endarterectomy 1,50,000 to 3,00,000
Breast biopsy 20,000 to 40,000
Cesarean section 8,000 to 40,000
Cataract surgery 25,000 to 60,000
Cholecystectomy 50,000 to 70,000
Coronary artery bypass 1,50,000 to 2,50,000
Dilation and Curettage (D&C) 1,00,000 to 1,50,000
Hysterectomy 50,000 to 1,00,000
Hemorrhoidectomy 25,000 to 90,000
Hysteroscopy 1,50,000 to 2,50,000
Low back pain surgery 10,000 to 50,000
Inguinal hernia repair 4,00,000 to 5,00,000
Partial colectomy 2,00,000 to 2,50,000
Prostatectomy 5,00,000 to 7,00,000
Tonsillectomy 2,00,000 to 3,00,000
Summary: General Surgery is the branch that includes especially the organs in the abdominal cavity such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, etc., along with the thyroid gland. Surgery is usually performed after the application of general anesthesia so as the patient goes into a state of sleep and does not feel pain. Postoperative pain is a major concern that can be minimized by the prescribed drugs.

Popular Questions & Answers

View All

I had itching in vagina after my delivery in ja...


Dr. Sangeeta Milap


Hi, so use clingen forte tab for 8 days at least. Also use candid b cream for local use twice a d...

I have recurrent multiple fibroadenoma I have u...


Dr. Uzma Khan

Homeopathy Doctor

This type of case needs proper consultation and treatment alongwith mentioned reports of ultrasou...

I was advised to take cremaffin for one month f...


Dr. Javed Hussain

General Surgeon

It's important to continue cremaffin syp for at least 3 months and also not to strain at stools. ...

I broke my leg 3 months ago and had a surgery w...


Dr. Rakesh Sharma

Orthopedic Doctor

You have to send serial x rays and records otherwise your treating orthopaedic surgeon is best gu...

Table of content

Content Details
Profile Image
Written ByDr. Ojas Potdar MBBS,DNB GENERAL SURGERYGeneral Surgery
Need more help 

15+ Years of Surgical Experience

All Insurances Accepted

EMI Facility Available at 0% Rate

Find General Surgeon near me


Ask a free question

Get FREE multiple opinions from Doctors

posted anonymously

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice