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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

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Dr. Ajay Gupta 92% (32 ratings)
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Our endocrine glands work overtime to keep us healthy by secreting hormones which reach each and every cell in our body through the blood. These hormones evoke life changing responses in other cells to keep us alive and healthy. Endocrine surgery is a term for an operation in any one or more endocrine glands in your body. Types of endocrine glands Thyroid gland: This is the most important endocrine gland in your body and it secretes thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism. Parathyroid glands: There are 4 parathyroid glands and these are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck region. These glands secrete the parathyroid hormone which controls calcium levels in the body. Adrenal glands: These are located over the kidney. There are 2 adrenal glands and these secrete adrenaline, aldosterone and cortisol- the body s fight or flight hormone. These also maintain salt levels in the blood and the blood pressure. Neuroendocrine glands of the pancreas: These are located in the pancreas behind the stomach. They work to control glucose levels and glucose metabolism. Pituitary gland is the master gland of the body: It secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and other important hormones that control ovaries, thyroid and other endocrine glands in your body. Endocrine surgery Depending on the endocrine gland being operated upon, there are different types of endocrine surgeries. The most important ones are- Hypophysectomy: This is the surgical removal of the pituitary gland. It is a very sophisticated and critical surgery that surgeons resort to, if there is a tumor in the pituitary gland - especially craniopharyngioma tumors. It can cause atrophy of thyroid, adrenal glands and the ovaries as the pituitary secretes hormones to control their function. In addition, it can result in sterility and sometimes results in a non-functional reproductive tract in both men and women. Thyroidectomy: It is an operation that involves removal of the entire or parts of the thyroid gland in the neck. Trained ENT or endocrine surgeons perform this operation, which is indicated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism, goiter or Graves disease. Sometimes it is done for treating an enlarged thyroid gland or obstructions in the neck region, causing problems in swallowing or breathing. In cases of total thyroidectomy patients will need life long thyroid hormone supplementation. Sometime patient can have change in voice which is usually temporary. Since the thyroid produces several hormones like thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin, you will have to take oral synthetic hormones all your life post surgery. The thyroid is usually removed through an incision in the neck. These days there is the option of minimally invasive surgeries too. Adrenalectomy: It is the removal of one or both adrenal glands to treat tumors of the adrenal glands. It is done using an open incision or laprascopic technique. Pinealectomy: It is a surgical procedure in which the pineal gland is removed.
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There is no denying the fact that a perfect figure can enhance your personality to a great extent, adding an alluring charm that people will find hard to ignore. The size of one's breast can play a significant role, affecting one's overall appearance. Heavy breasts can be physically discomforting (skin maceration, backaches, neck and shoulder aches, problems during exercises or physical activities,) not to forget the public humiliation and mockery that it brings along. Some men with a medical condition known as Gynecomastia also end up having enlarged breasts making the situation awkward and embarrassing for them. To deal with the embarrassment and physical discomfort, many people retort to the various breast reduction surgical procedures. The breast reduction procedures have helped millions of people achieve the desired breast shape and size. However, the success of the breast reduction procedures depends on many factors. There are things that a person should be aware of before opting for a breast reduction. A breast reduction surgery or a reduction mammoplasty is no small thing. It is a decision that is going to make an impact in your life and overall appearance in ways beyond your imagination. You cannot expect the surgery to work miracles overnight. Be more realistic about your expectations and do not take such an important decision in haste. Not every individual with enlarged breasts can undergo a breast reduction. A person has to be physically fit (without any medical conditions) with sound mental and emotional stability. People who are severely obese and those into heavy smoking are often considered unfit for the surgery. For pregnant and lactating women, an immediate breast reduction surgery may not be a wise idea. Teenagers and adolescents are considered unfit for a breast reduction as their breast are yet not fully developed and matured. The minimum age for a breast reduction is 21 years. Your choice of the surgeon is crucial. While an experienced surgeon can bring about the desired result with minimum or no complications, an inexperienced surgeon can worsen up things for you. Research on the surgeon, their credentials, work history and success rate well. The breast reduction surgeries involving the latest and advanced technologies will be an expensive affair. Make sure you are financially prepared to take the plunge. The recovery time following the surgery may stretch between six-seven weeks (or even more in some cases). During the recovery, there will be restrictions and precautionary measures that a person should follow. Lifting heavy articles, indulging in strenuous and rigorous exercise and physical activities should be avoided for at least four-six weeks (or as the doctor recommended). Driving is a big No for a month or two or as advised by the doctor. Depending on how well your incisions heal, there may be some pain and swelling in the breasts.The breast for the first few days may also appear sensitive and tender. For better support, wear a well-fitted bra (preferably an athletic or a sports bra). Consult a doctor in the case of severe bleeding, excruciating pain, hematoma or a loss of sensation in the breasts and nipples that lasts longer than usual.
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Cataract and Phaco Surgery - What Should You Know?

Dr. Ravi Thadani 87% (855 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology
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Cataract and Phaco Surgery - What Should You Know?
Cataracts are a common eye problem experienced by the elderly. In some cases, babies may also be born with cataract as a congenital defect or it may develop as a result of conditions such as diabetes. Cataracts can affect one or both eyes and is characterized by the clouding of the lens in the eye. This can make it difficult to see clearly and if not treated in time can lead to blindness. Common symptoms of cataract include: Blurred vision Nearsightedness Changes in the perception of colour Night blindness Increased sensitivity to glares Double vision An eye examination is the first step to diagnosing cataracts. To confirm a diagnosis the doctor will also dilate the pupil to check the lens. Most cataracts can be easily treated with surgery. This surgery involves the separation of the cataract from the lens and its removal after which an intraocular lens implant is placed in the eye. In cases where this cannot be used, corrective contact lenses or glasses will need to be used. One of the most popular methods of cataract surgery is known as phaco surgery or phacoemulsification. This surgery involves making two, small incisions on the eye where the cornea meets the sclera. This is then used to create a circular opening in the lens through which a probe is inserted into the eye. Sound waves or laser is then used to break the cataract into small pieces. This is then removed from the eyes and an intraocular lens implant is put in its place. Stitches are rarely required for this surgery and it is usually performed as an outpatient procedure while the patient is under local anaesthesia. When treating cataract, both eyes are usually not addressed simultaneously. This surgery is usually pain free. The operated eye may be bandaged overnight and the patient will be given a protective eye shield to be worn for a week. The doctor will ask you to get a check up 2-3 days after the surgery where they can evaluate the clarity of the lens, overall health of the eye, eye pressure and visual acuity. Cataract surgery is generally considered to be a safe surgery but like any other surgery there are risks involved. Some of the possible complications of this type of surgery include: Pain and redness of the eye Vision problems Swelling of the eye Discharge from the eye Flashes or floaters in the patient s vision
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Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery - How Laparoscopy Can Help In It?

Dr. Ashish Pitale 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS - General Surgery , Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery
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Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery - How Laparoscopy Can Help In It?
Obesity is a serious lifestyle disorder that can trigger a myriad of health complications. You may often come across people who fail to lose an inch even after toiling hard. The situation may be further complicated and life-threatening if a person is suffering from diabetes, hypertension, arthritis or a heart problem. Bariatric Surgery comes as a much-needed relief for people who desperately need to lose weight to prevent health problems. People between 18-65 years of age can go for a Bariatric weight loss surgery. The surgery is also helpful for people with morbid obesity (a condition where the BMI is over 40) with associated complications. Some of the effective bariatric surgeries for weight loss include Laparoscopic Gastric Band surgery Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RGB) Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Biliopancreatic Diversion Common types of Bariatric surgeries The Laparoscopic Gastric Banding: The gastric banding surgery is a surgical weight loss procedure that divides the stomach into two compartments so that a person consumes lesser amount of food. The surgery requires the surgeon to make 3-4 small cuts in the belly. An adjustable silicone band is placed into the stomach (through the small incisions) to divide the stomach into two compartments (a smaller upper half and a bigger lower part). Due to the banding, the stomach can hold not more than an ounce of food, thus limiting the amount of food a person can eat. There is an opening in the band which serves as a passage through which the food eaten is passed to the rest of the stomach. There is a plastic tube that connects the band to an injection port (situated under the skin). It is through this port that saline is either added or removed from the silicone band (to adjust the tightness of the band). Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RGB): The bypass surgery also involves compartmentalizing the stomach into an upper half (small pouch, almost the size of a walnut) and a bigger lower part. Like the gastric banding, the rearrangement reduces the amount of food the stomach can hold to a great extent. In the next step, also termed as the bypass step, the surgeon makes a small hole in the pouch to connect it to the small intestine or the jejunum. As a result of the bypass, the food will now directly enter the small intestine from the pouch. While the bypass surgery can be done using laparoscopy, a person can also undergo an open surgery. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: As the name suggests, the surgery involves excision of a large part of a stomach. The excision leaves behind a small sleeve-like pouch, the arrangement ensuring that a person consumes a lesser amount of food. Biliopancreatic Diversion: The surgery is risky and is advised only when an individual has a BMI of more than 50. In Biliopancreatic Diversion, the surgeon excises a part of the stomach, while connecting the remaining half to the lower part of the small intestine or jejunum. As a result, a person consumes lesser calories than before.

Your Path To Recovery After A Spinal Surgery!

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MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, DNB - Orthopedics
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As with any surgery, spinal surgery can be a significant undertaking. But if you are considering the option, you ought to know that people who had undergone a spine surgery not only get to move around a lot better than before but also becomes more physically fit. So, if your doctor recommends it, you can very well opt for it. And with proper care and following specific dos and don'ts such as those mentioned below can ensure a speedy recovery. Phase I: One-week Post operation Right after the spine surgery, it is very normal to have pain. However, in the majority of spine surgery cases, the patients can get up and walk, but only if advised by the doctor. During the stay in the hospital, which generally is around a week, the rehabilitation process consists of managing pain, wound care and getting out of and in the bed without twisting the spine. Phase II: First month after discharge Once, you are discharged from the hospital, the rehabilitation process at home typically include various movements and stretching exercises, prescribed by your doctor, and wound care again to prevent the risk of an infection. This first month at home can help you both recover as well as to prepare your body for getting back to daily activities slowly. Phase III: Resuming daily activities Patients are often suggested to opt for physical therapy for a speedy recovery which should be continued for around three months once released from the hospital. In this phase, after consulting with your orthopedic, you can start resuming your regular activities, starting with taking short walks, doing back strengthening exercises and doing light works. Remember, don t try to lift heavy object until unless your doctor allows you to. Some posture precautions to follow: Certain posture precautions can play a crucial role, at least for the first six weeks. Sitting on a sturdy chair is highly recommended as it can ensure a good posture and spending too much time in any particular position such as sitting or standing for long is a strict no-no. Plus, when sitting make sure your knees stay below the height of your hips. Forcing your body for performing any extreme motion, such as twisting the spine too much for turning or bending forward at the waist should also be avoided. Instead, make it a practice to turn your entire body when turning back at something and bend your knees and hips but not your waist when lifting something. Depending on one s general health, musculoskeletal status and the type of spine surgery undergone, the recovery time may vary from person to person. However, following the necessary health care tips and precautions suggested by your orthopedic can undoubtedly ensure a fast and complete recovery.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am a male with age 56. My both eyes are operated for cataract 2/3 years ago. Recently I have feeling difficulty in night driving like one year before operations. There is very less difficulty during day time. What may be the reason? My doctor says some problems in back side of eye and needs a minor operations again. Please if any medication can help?

Dr. Nirav Manseta 89% (130 ratings)
BHMS, MD - Homeopathy, Special Course
Homeopath, Rajkot
See its a normal thing that reflection causes problem in eye sight for such patient and don't do any surgery and as far as possible try to avoid it and homeopathic medicine helps to improve eye sight. Regards.
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I had undergone a Gall bladder removal surgery last 7 days back. There is no pain right now. They have put 4 holes. They said Stitches ll automatically fall down within 2 weeks. But am facing an issue past 2 days. When I sleep in the night and while getting up in the morning I could notice some blood discharge near the naval where the stitches have put. Is anything to worry? When we asked doctor he said nothing to worry. Am concerned about it.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 96% (5161 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
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Hello dear Lybrate user, Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. Possible infection at the site, otherwise there should not be bleeding at 7 days. Must visit surgeon, it requires dressing and antibiotics to cover up. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.

I had my femto lasik surgery done two weeks ago. The eye condition seems to be normal now. Can I resume my office duties after two weeks and continue other day to day routine activities except lifting weights and driving.

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 91% (2990 ratings)
BHMS
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Yes u can resume all ur duties,,u will lead a normal life after two weeks ,,so don't worry about this
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Hi, I am gopi and 27 years old and if I want to do lasik eye surgery isawill be safe and what will be the cost and time required including rest.

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 91% (2990 ratings)
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Yes Lasik surgery is safe, before that you have gone through some tests after that this can be done, it costs around Rs 20-30,000 .

My age is 34. I am suffer from myopia from the age of 13 and I have used glasses up-to 2011 and wearing -5.0 power lens for both eyes since 2012. Is it possible for me to go for Lasik treatment with this power.

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Take CARBONEUM SULPHURATUM 6c, one dose every morning for 1 week Week2: Take ARGENTINUM NIT 6c, one dose, every morning for 1 week Week3 to 6: Take Natrum Mur 30c, once a week for 1 month (not daily, only once a week, say only on Sundays) All these three medicines will help to increase the general health as well. 1. Take one Raw Carrot, grated and eaten fresh every morning (eating by slowly chewing is important for complete digestion. Grating externaly helps to chew) 2. Doing some simple eye excercise helps to maximize the benefit of eye nutrition medicines given above.

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