Common Specialities
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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Common Surgical Complications That One Should Be Prepared For?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS (edinburgh), MD - R & D, FRCS Intercollegiate
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Bangalore
Common Surgical Complications That One Should Be Prepared For?

The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.

Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:

Types of transplant:

  • Living donor transplant: In some patients, partial liver can be removed from a close family member and transplanted into the affected individual. The liver is known for its regeneration ability, and over time, will grow in the recipient.
  • Cadaveric transplant: Immediately after death, a liver can be removed and transplanted.

While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:

  • Significant heart disease: Those with severe coronary artery disease, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and cardiomyopathy are not candidates for a liver transplant.
  • Severe lung disease: Those with poor lung perfusion do not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Advanced age: Greater the age, lesser the survival rates. So, people aged more than 70 are usually not considered for a transplant.
  • Obesity: A person with a BMI of more than 35 is often not a good candidate for a transplant. The overall health should be managed in these people.
  • Malnutrition: On the other extreme, severely malnourished individuals are also not considered for a transplant.
  • HIV infection: A person who is HIV-infected does not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Substance abuse: Anyone who is actively abusing alcohol and/or substances is definitely removed from the list for a transplant.
  • Metastasis: If a patient is looking for a liver transplant due to hepatic cancer, it is essential that the cancer is contained. If it has spread to various parts, then containing it would be difficult, and a transplant may not succeed.
  • Multisystem organ failure: Other than heart and lungs, even people with poor renal function are not ideal candidates for a liver transplant.

A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.

3080 people found this helpful

What To Expect From Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?

Fellowship in Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery, Fellowship in Advanced Laproscopy & Bariatric Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
What To Expect From Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?

 The gallbladder is a very important organ in the human body. This is a pear-shaped organ which is used for storing the bile. Bile is a fluid which helps in digesting your food. When the gallbladder does not function well, then hard fragments will form in the gallbladder and they are calledgallbladder stones. The size of these stones differs from person to person. For a few people, they are just the size of a small rice grain and for few, it can be as large as a golf ball.

When gallbladder stones are formed, they will not vanish by themselves. They will cause pain and many other symptoms which are unbearable. You need to consult a doctor and you may have to get the gallbladder removed. This kind of gallbladder removal surgery is called cholecystectomy.

How are gallbladder stones removed?
More than 80 percent of people with gallbladder stones will need a cholecystectomy. This surgery can be performed in two different ways.

  • Open gallbladder surgery: In an open gallbladder surgery, a 5-inch incision is made in the abdominal area which is not required for a laparoscopic surgery. Nowadays, people are opting for laparoscopic surgery for any kind of surgery as it is safe, less painful, requires a shorter stay at the hospital and there are fewer scars.
  • Laparoscopic gallbladder surgery: In a laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, 4 small incisions are made in the abdominal area. A small tube with a very small camera and light will be inserted into the abdomen through one of the incisions made. Equipment required for the removal of the gallbladder is also inserted through the other incisions and the surgery is performed.

Before performing the laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, you will have to undergo a few tests such as blood test, complete physical test, gallbladder imaging tests and a review of your past medical history. After going through the reports of all these tests and checking all other medications that you take, your doctor will decide if you need gallbladder surgery or not.

Post Gallbladder surgery: Post-surgery, you may see some symptoms, but they are rare and mild. One of the common symptoms experienced after the surgery is diarrhea. You can start walking as soon as you start feeling better. But you should talk to the doctor in order to get back to your normal routine.

Regarding your diet, you will have to start with a liquid diet and make sure that you do not take heavy and fatty food. Your body will take some time to get back to digesting a normal diet and hence you will have to take good care.

Foods That Promote Quick Recovery After A Surgery!

MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Thrissur
Foods That Promote Quick Recovery After A Surgery!

It is always sensible to know what are the things that can be done or practised practiced after an operation so as to heal fast because as that it is the most crucial time when certain bad habits and food might have a negative reaction in our body thereby causing slow progresslowing the s in healing process and in certain cases even harming our body. While simultaneously on the other hand if consumed proper food is consumed after a surgery, it helps in fast recovery as well as provides remedial healing to a person.

So, if possible then it is sensible to follow the list of foods given below to getfor a quick recovery.

  1. Lean proteins: Foods with lean protein in them have a high quantity of a substance known as collagen which is extremely essential in a the post- surgery stage. It is the collagen that helps to knit our muscles together and much faster in case the person has incisions from the surgery. These protein- rich foods will only help in gaining the right amount of energy required to heal fast as well as to help the muscles knit together faster. It does not mean though that a person has to increase the intake of only meat. Protein rich foods like such as fish, eggs and , beans can be takenconsumed.
  2. Fermented dairy products: These foods are extremely essential in these times as during the surgery and well after it, the body has to take in a lot of antibiotic medicines. These medicines kill the harmful bacteria in our body but simultaneously kill the good bacteria along with it which our body needs. Foods like such as milk, butter, paneer help in the regrowth of these essential bacteria.
  3. Fibre: After all the intake of medicines, our the normal elimination system of our body gets disturbed which can cause many further problems. It is thus always sensible to eat a certain amount of fibre rich foods like such as starchy vegetables or prunes which are easily soluble and will help in proper elimination.
  4. Deep coloured vegetables: In the post-operative stage, the body requires a lot of antioxidants to kill the oxidative load on the body for which deep coloured vegetables like such as bell peppers or spinach or carrots are very helpful.
  5. Orange fruits and vegetables: They provide pro- vitamin A to the body which when consumed converts itself to vitamin A. This is essential for the fast repair of tissues and mucus membranes in our body.
  6. Mushrooms: Mushrooms provide energy and help in the reduction of inflammatory proteins by advancing boosting our immune system.
  7. Cruciferous vegetables: Food like such as cabbage and cauliflower boost the immune system and helps to fight off the infections in our body.

Thus we can see how the intake of certain foods will not only accentuate our healing but also renew our system positively.
 

Ulcerative Colitis Surgery - Tips For Quick Recovery!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship In Laparoscopic & Robotic Onco-Surgery, Fellowship In bariatric surgery, F.I.A.G.E.S
General Surgeon, Delhi
Ulcerative Colitis Surgery - Tips For Quick Recovery!

Most patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are advised to undergo a surgery as that is oftentimes, the last option remaining for them. Failure of other treatments to bear any results leads to the need for a surgery. There are two main categories of surgery options; however, the difference lies in where the waste pouch will be placed following the ulcerative colitis surgery.

A patient who is planning to go through the ulcerative colitis surgery procedure must be aware of the recovery period and its duration. Since the surgery is an invasive and an intensive procedure, the recovery time is lengthy. So, naturally, before you arrive at any decision it is recommended that you consult your doctor, surgeon and other healthcare professionals about the procedure.

Ulcerative colitis is not a curable disease, but if your colon and rectum are removed, the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can be treated. But educate yourself as you may still have to live with a number of side effects of the surgeries, even after the incisions have healed. This is the reason that you must prepare yourself both physically and mentally before making any decision, which should be based on the information available.

Tips for Quick Recovery
The recovery from ulcerative colitis is quite tricky. As it is an invasive surgical procedure, the recovery time is lengthy. However, you should not fret yourself with that. With the required care and doctor’s advice, you will be able to return to your daily life in full vigor. In order to improve your recovery and hasten the process, you will be given a detailed file of information that you must follow strictly. These tips are:

  • After the surgery, you may have to remain in the hospital for 3 to 7 days. This is a mandatory protocol as it allows your surgeon to monitor your incisions and treat any complication or infections.
  • Any procedure that you may opt for, a total of 4 to 6 weeks is a minimum requirement for recovery.
  • During this time, you will be asked to meet your surgeon regularly and in some cases an enterostomal therapist as well. An enterostomal therapist is a specialized doctor who only deals with patients who have had their colon removed. So you should make an appointment with an enterostomal therapist, suggested by your doctor, and have him/her review your case.
  • Eat nutritional healthy foods to avoid any complications.
  • Stay hydrated by drinking at least 2-3 liters of water per day.
  • A rehab therapist or a physical therapist will help you to move towards your normal life, by keeping you active and recommending rejuvenating exercises that won’t hamper your health.
  • Manage stress and anxiety as they cause stomach issues.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1982 people found this helpful

Everything You Need To Know About Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery!

MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Orthopedics & Orthopedic Surgery
Orthopedist, Hyderabad
Everything You Need To Know About Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery!

When other treatments fail to provide relief, the last resort to treat spine problems is the spine surgery. Spine surgery is conventionally referred to as open surgery which indicates that the area that needs to be operated is opened with a long incision so that the surgeon is able to view and have access to the anatomy.

In the recent times, advances in the field of medical science have made it possible to treat back and neck conditions through minimally invasive surgical techniques that don’t involve an elaborate incision. Let us understand more about it.

How is minimally invasive spine surgery carried out?
Minimally invasive spine surgery fusions and decompression processes are performed by exploiting different approaches. The most commonly utilized technique involves the use of the tubular retractor. In this process, the surgeon makes a small incision and then inserts the retractor through the skin right into the spinal column. It leads to a tunnel to the accurate area where the problem persists in the spine. The functionality of tubular retractor lies in the fact that it helps in holding the muscle open throughout the procedure.

A number of particular processes have been designated for the minimally invasive spine surgery. Some of the most common options include spinal decompression, discectomy, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Each of these processes is different and only an expert in this arena can determine what’s suitable for you.

Minimally invasive spine surgery is also called less invasive spine surgery where surgeons make use of special instruments. One of the most compelling drawbacks of open surgery is that the pulling of the muscle can lead to damage to both the muscle and the tissues in close vicinity. On the other hand, minimally invasive spine surgery allows the surgeon to see the precise location of the affected area. Besides, it also leads to smaller incisions, reduced bleeding and short stay in the healthcare facility.

Consulting an expert about the surgery:
It is very important on part of the patients to discuss the suitability of minimally invasive spine surgery with their doctors since it is not a good option for all patients. It is generally suggested for patients having spinal tumours, spinal instability, spinal infections, vertebral compression fractures, lumbar spinal stenosis and spinal deformities like scoliosis.

When you know that you will have to undergo the surgery, it pays to gather information about the surgery and what you may expect from the recovery process. The most commendable benefits of minimally invasive spine surgery include better cosmetic results owing to lesser skin incisions and reduced dependence on the medications. Moreover, it is performed as an outpatient procedure and it makes use of local anaesthesia only. Thus, there is also a reduced chance of suffering from an adverse reaction to general anaesthesia.

So, depending on the pros and cons and depending on the individual condition, your doctor will decide on the course of action. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4381 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello sir good morning. I'm brijesh, I want to know. How to fight against radiation and chemotherapy? Coz I have oral CANCER and already done SURGERY. Thank you sir.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Medical Radio Therapy, DNB
Oncologist, Bangalore
Hi, it's not fight against radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it's go along with them. You need to fight against the cancer. During the above said treatments you will be regularly monitored by your Doctors for the toxicities and managed accordingly. Additionally you should be having a positive thoughts and hopes that you will successfully fight against the cancer and follow the instructions given to you by your doctors.
3 people found this helpful

Sir ji LASIK Leger surgery ke ba da me Army navy medical test me eyes test me pass to ho skte hai. LASIK ke kya side effects hai and fess. LASIK ke ba da me eyes kb tak perfect rhte hai.

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
LASIK is approved by the Indian army. That's how accurate it is. The few common side effects can be dryness and glare which subsided with drops in most cases.
9 people found this helpful

Which type of operation need for 2nd degree piles? When the anus increase time of bwl movement bit after it this turns into normal position but some skin felt outside anus. There is no blood and pain. There is any chance for surgery? If you understand this what types of surgery options?

DNB (Surgical gastroenterology, MS( General Surgery), MBBS, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgery, Fellow of International College of Robotic Surgeons
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Could be skin tags which can easily be excised. However could also be hemorrhoids protruding out. Please get examined by a general/GI Surgeon for confirmation of diagnosis and further treatment. Early hemorrhoids can be treated by banding / sclerotherapy. For advanced cases staplers hemorrhoidectomy is recommended. Not aware of any non- Surgical treatment for advanced piles. Surgical treatment however is very effective. Kindly get examined by a general/GI Surgeon to decide on mode of treatment.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
Play video
Piles
Piles are collections of tissue and vein that become inflamed and swollen.Piles occur due to chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, lifting heavy weights, pregnancy, or straining when passing a stool.A doctor can usually diagnose piles on examination.
Play video
Preparing For Brain Surgery
Hi,

My name is much that you tell and I am a neurosurgeon at Wockhardt hospitals in Mumbai central as well as an assistant professor at the grant Medical College and sir JJ group of hospitals. I am going to talk to you about how can one prepare for brain surgery once one is diagnosed with a problem that requires a brain operation.

You could be even having a brain tumor or a vascular problem in the brain or refractory epilepsy requires something called as a craniotomy. It can be Priya Nursing for the patient is well as for the family we usually do all investigations on an outpatient basis and ensure that the patient is fit for surgery to undergo a pre-anesthetic evaluation and make sure that all the blood tests are in order typically used something called as neuronavigation.

At surgery which enables us to approach the exact location of the problem in a three-dimensional space in gases towards that location of patients ask me if there will head is going to be saved before surgery news me that's not the case which is save strip of hair along which where we meet me in station. So what typically happens is patience cremated one day prior to surgery the anaesthesia doctor takes 1 final look at them to make sure that heart rate blood pressure everything is under control and the next morning there being into the operating room xxvi anaesthesia doctors will wake you up a certain monitors the ECG leads extra before putting a tube done your throat to give you something college general anaesthesia when which your unconscious throw the operation there are some operations where in which humans are located in elopement areas of the brain and we need patients to be awake so that we can check their motor function and actually we can do the operation when patients are awake and talking to US and moving the hands and legs and that's something college in awake craniotomy which requires a slightly different preparation the operation takes place and the extremely sterile conditions and everything is cleaned and raped in a systematic fashion the protocol of which is completely standardized you make a skin incision usually using a drill remove the part of the bone that is wire to be removed.

When there is a covering of the brain called the dura which is what we cut and then enter the appropriate space and deal with the pathology it will be the beer tumor it will be a vascular malformation it could be anything that requires to be removed or transacted or disconnected usually Brain Tumor operation last for about 3 or 4 hours on an average it could be longer depending on the case what happens is 13 belt with the pathology we close that layer of dura back and we replace the bone flap and we fix it with plates and screws are often than not activated immediately after the operation in the operating room itself very rarely if the operation is really long or there is a lot of blood loss be kept overnight on a ventilator in extubated the next morning in the ICU typically there will into the ICU for about 24 hours after surgery.

Play video
Common Liposuction Myths Debunked
Hi,

I am Dr Ashutosh Misra enhance clinics.

Today we will be talking about liposuction and clearing the myths about liposuction. Liposuction is a wonderful and a very safe procedure to get rid of your unwanted body fat. The most important thing to understand is who are the candidates for liposuction again liposuction is to get rid of unwanted fat, person maybe of their normal body mass index but may have some unwanted body fats say in face, arms, tummy or thighs. Now this unwanted fat is because of the high concentration of fat cells which are there in that particular area and this is something which is genetically determined and you cannot get rid of it through just exercise and diet. So liposuction helps to get rid of that excess fat in those particular areas, so we call it as liposuction as a body contouring surgery not as a weight reduction surgery, having said that liposuction also helps in weight reduction and that is the second part of the liposuction when you have a body mass index which is more than normal and you are suffering from obesity not to that extent but yes unwanted fat in the abdomen and all. For this, we do liposuction to decrease a large volume of fats say more than around 4-5 litres which we called as large volume liposuction and that helps to decrease the weight as well. So just removing the fat does not actually decrease your weight but post liposuction doing a good amount of exercise that we tell our patients and a diet program help you to decrease the weight over a period of say 3 months. Post liposuction, we have to wear certain special garments and for around 3 months because the best results comes around 3 months time and you have to talk to your doctor about it how to wear it and what are the things you have to take precaution. It is a very safe procedure but if done by an expert, so you have to choose your doctor well, that's the most important thing and you should have realistic expectation what a liposuction can do. Some people think fat comes out and the skin becomes loose, no liposuction is a wonderful procedure about that it also causes skin contraction, so the technique of the liposuction is very important as if how much skin has to go and what we actually need about it. If we feel there is an extra skin which cannot go even by liposuction then the procedure becomes either a mini tuck or a complete tummy tuck to get rid of your extra skin. It's a day care procedure come in the morning and go back home in the evening or if you want to stay if it is a larger procedure say more than 4 litres, you stay overnight in the hospital and then go back home the very next morning. The pressure garments are from the start of the surgery and for first one month almost most of the time of the day, after one month it is around 12 hours when you are in your daily exercise and normal routine you can take off your pressure garments after around in the night time when you are taking rest. The other myths about liposuction is people think that fat comes back, no, the number of fat cells in the body are constant after a certain, age at a very young age, it's only the size of fat that can increase or decrease, if it become obese or normal. So when we are taking out the number of fat cells, the numbers of fat cells do not increase in body. It may only increase in their size or decrease in the size and that can be control with the help of diet. So once you get a good body shape once you get a good body shape than that shape won't be distorted but if you become obese gain weight later on the shape will remain the same but it will be you become more wide or more narrow. So, that is what a liposuction does.

Thank you.
Play video
Joint Replacement Surgery
Mai Dr Suhas Shah Orthopaedic Surgeon hoon, mera hospital hai Ashwini accident Hospital Mumbai mein. Mere hospital mein sabhi accident patient ko treatment milti hai, aur mai russian surgery specialist bhi hoon. Mai Global Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, aur Raheja Hospital mein attach hoon, meri hospital ki speciality hai ki yeh hospital mein total orthopaedic care under one roof is available. Mai spine surgery karta hoon, joint replacement surgery karta hoon, total knee joint replacement surgery yahan hoti hai and even hip joint replacement surgery is done, arthroscopy is done and all trauma care is available under one roof in one hospital. I am attached to jaslok, Raheja and global hospital also, I am attached to Corporation Bandra Bawa Hospital also and I am head of department there. I am a post graduate teacher and DNB teacher, students are trained under me, I am a examiner for DNB post graduation also, aur mere hospital mein sabhi suvidha deluxe room, semi special room and general ward is available, you can avail all these facilities with a very reasonable rate, you are welcome to our visit to our centre. Aapko agar mujhe contact karna hai toh aap lybrate.com se contact kar sakte hain, ya meri appointment lybrate.com se book kar sakte ho.
Play video
Cataract And Refractive Surgery: What Is The Difference?
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from Fortis hospital Vashi, department of visual sciences. And Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon. You can contact me and know more about me through lybrate.com.

Today I m going to talk to you about one very important topic which is of interest to one and all i.e. cataract and refractive surgeries, the recent advances in these surgeries. Let me first start by telling you what is cataract surgery? In cataract surgery the procedure is to remove the opaque lens of the eye which is called a cataract and replaced it by a nice clean artificial lens so that a patient can see again. While refractive surgery is something where we do refractive correction i.e. correction of power of the glasses either by the laser or by a surgical procedure. Both the things can be combined to ultimately give clear vision to the patient. So let s start by starting with the recent advances in the cataract surgery. Well today cataract surgery has been sophisticated by doing procedures using ultrasound phaco probe which is about 2.2mm in size and it can be lesser of up to 1.8mm as well. We can do microincision cataract surgery through these probes. As a result of which we don t require any anesthesia, any stitch and any blood coming out during surgery. During surgery we enter the eye with a very small opening and with the help of this ultrasound probe the emulsify or break the cataract into small pieces and then it is absorbed into the system of the machine, this is then replaced by a very small foldable lens. The lenses are of various types. They are usually monofocal, multifocal, or cylindrical. When we use monofocal lens we try to give you correction for distance so that most of the vision is good without glasses. When we use multifocal lens which is necessary to be put in both the eyes we can give you distance as well as near vision and when we use a toric lens we try to correct your cylindrical power as well. So ultimately by doing cataract surgery we not only remove the cataract but we also correct the glasses power of the patient so the patient can see very well without being too much dependent on the glasses. Apart from the various types of lenses we have now different types of machines which do the surgery. As I said micro-incision surgery is possible by using phaco probe but nowadays we are using laser as well to do the surgeries. Laser was a common term used in public to know or to talk about phacosurgery but today actual laser can also be used to do the surgeries. Although it is very expensive as well as time consuming. So ultimately if we have a good surgeon or experience surgeon micro incision phaco surgery is the surgery of choice even today and with the various type of lenses that available we can get rid of glasses as well apart from removing cataract. Now coming to the refractive surgery. Refractive surgery means removal of power of glasses doing a procedure on the eyes, this is usually done on the surface of the eye using a laser. What we do over here is laser surface ablation of the cornea which can lead to removal of glasses without doing any type of incision any cut or any kind of trauma to the patient or lots of tissue. So this a bladeless procedure and the patient is absolutely comfortable during the procedure and he may have some discomfort in first three or four days but overall at the end of the week he is absolutely normal as he was before without his glasses. This is one of the recent advances of bladeless procedures in laser surgeries. The other advances that we are doing nowadays is in very high refractive power say a power of more than seventeen and eighteen we introduces a special lens which is called as ICL which is put inside the eye without removing the cataract. This lens is like a contact lenses that sits on the lens i.e. given to us by nature. As a result of which the power which is there say e.g. patient with minus eighteen end up with the power which is close to zero and he would be again not dependent on his thick glasses. So this is another advanced that is occurred so that we can correct even the higher refractive errors. So overall if you look at the cataract and the refractive surgeries today we are doing very good sort of very advanced sort of treatments to all our patients which start with the removal of cataract, putting a lens of different types, we can do laser procedure over it to get rid of glasses. We can also put intraocular contact lenses, called ICL, which helps in removal of numbers with high powers and so at the end of the day our patients seems very happy and satisfy with all these results that are coming with modern advancements in cataract and refractive surgeries.

I hope you have understood the topic and if you have any more queries you can get back to me on lybrate.com.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice