Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Appendicectomy - Everything You Should Know About It!

DNB - General Surgery, MBBS, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Jaipur
Appendicectomy - Everything You Should Know About It!

When the appendix (present at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine) becomes swollen, it is called appendicitis. It can be acute or chronic and is a common cause of abdominal pain. It can happen at any age but it usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 30.

The appendix is an organ whose function is not yet known. It is believed that the appendix helps in recovering from diarrhoea and infections of the small or large intestine. However, the body can function normally without the appendix.

Symptoms of appendicitis

When the appendix inflames, bacteria start to multiply and this leads to the formation of pus inside the appendix. The build-up bacteria are accompanied by the following symptoms-

• Pain in the abdomen
Nausea and vomiting
• Diarrhoea

Appendicitis requires immediate medical intervention. If it bursts, it expels poisonous pus into the abdominal cavity and it can be life-threatening.

Surgery for appendicitis (Appendicectomy)-

In most cases, surgery is the only permanent cure for appendicitis. Appendicitis often causes an abscess. Your doctor will recommend a course of antibiotics and then drain the abscess through your skin. After the treatment for infection, the doctor will prepare you for surgery.

Appendicectomy can be a laparoscopic surgery or an open surgery. If you are already taking some over-the-counter medicines, or are pregnant or if you are allergic to some medicines, you must inform your doctor before the surgery. On the day of the surgery, the doctor will ask you to not drink any water for seven or eight hours prior to the operation.

• If the surgery is laparoscopic, the surgeon makes three minute incisions in the abdomen. Then a camera (which displays images of the inside of the abdomen) and surgical instruments are inserted through the three holes into the abdomen. With the help of these, the surgeon extracts the appendix. A laparoscopic surgery is more advantageous than an open surgery because laparoscopic surgery reduces the risk of infection, causes less pain after surgery.

• When an appendix bursts, you will need immediate surgery. And for this, a surgeon will opt for an open surgery. In case of an open surgery, an incision is made in the lower right side of the abdomen. Then the appendix is removed and the wound is closed with stitches. Since it is an open surgery, the surgeon gets the opportunity to clear up your abdominal cavity if the appendix had burst. An open surgery is the most preferred type of surgery when it comes to a ruptured appendix.

The benefit of the surgery lies in the fact that you will never again get appendicitis. Moreover, a surgery can prevent the complications that arise from appendicitis.

Recovery after an appendicectomy-

• If the surgery is laparoscopic, you will be discharged from the hospital within a day.

• If the surgery followed a burst appendix, you may be required to stay in the hospital for around a week. The doctor will recommend bed rest for at least three weeks and you will be able to get back to work in a month.

If you have appendicitis, you will continuously have to endure pain in your abdomen. The situation becomes grave when your inflamed appendix bursts. Doctors advise people with appendicitis to undergo surgery so that the eventuality of a burst appendix does not arise.

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Adenoids and Endoscopic Adenoidectomy - What To Expect

ENT Specialist, Delhi
Adenoids and Endoscopic Adenoidectomy - What To Expect

Adenoids are tonsils located behind the nose which affect a fair percentage of the population, especially children. Despite a difference in location, adenoids are essentially like tonsils in their characteristic properties which cause a host of issues. These adenoids get reduced in size as a person ages though it is not abnormal for children to have enormous adenoids.

Problems Caused By Adenoids:
The greatest issue concerning adenoids is that the symptoms are often confused with that of allergies or sinusitis which makes it difficult to treat. Since adenoids cause a restriction in airflow in the nasal passage, it may lead to nasal obstruction, congestion, and even nasal sounding speech. A reduction in the normal mucus flow in the throat leads to rhinitis, snotty nose, and allergy-like symptoms. One may also suffer from ear pain and clog of the ear due to the physical blockage of the Eustachian tube in the ears. The location of the adenoids plays a vital role in determining the symptoms that one will be suffering from.

Treating adenoids with endoscopic adenoidectomy:
The issue can be treated efficiently with adenoidectomy, which is a surgical procedure. In endoscopic adenoidectomy, the adenoid tissue is located with the help of a nasal telescope called the endoscope. This offers better control over the situation and performing the surgery with utmost precision. And it is essential to bear in mind that several million adenoidectomies had been performed all across the globe for many years with satisfactory results.

In the recent times, a new tool known as the debrider is available. The combined benefits of the endoscope and the debrider can offer better results and a more comprehensive procedure. This invariably brings about a hike in the cost and those patients who can afford the costing of such an assisted surgery should go for it for better results. Most of the ENT surgeons have easy access to such instruments and can easily operate successful removal of the adenoid tissue.

The effectiveness of endoscopic adenoidectomy:
Nasal endoscopic adenoidectomy helps in easy assessment of the size of the adenoids and enhances the accuracy of the adenoidectomy. This treatment option is particularly useful for treating children who have small oral cavities. And typically, the assessment and the subsequent excision of the adenoids in the affected patients are often tough. With the help of the nasal endoscope, the curette can be precisely inserted at the superior border of the adenoid so that the main bulk of the adenoid tissue can be trans-orally removed.

According to the experts, nasal endoscopic-guided transoral adenoidectomy is a feasible alternative to the conventional adenoidectomy. Moreover, this technique offers the advantage of using commonly available ENT instruments. Hence, it might be recommended for the right candidates, and is known to offer satisfactory results.

Liver Surgery - What You Need To Know

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Laparoscopic, Burns & Plastic
General Surgeon, Delhi
Liver Surgery - What You Need To Know

Liver surgery or reception is actually a very serious operation that should always be done by some skilled or experienced surgeons. Due to the fact that the person with liver cancer also has some other issues besides cancer that is why surgeons need to remove enough for the liver so that all of the cancer can be removed and still has to leave a decent amount and so that the liver functions properly. Liver plays an important part in the clotting of blood and also the factors that a lot of blood passed through it and the fact that after the rejection of liver there is usually lot of bleeding so that is a primary concern.

Possible Side-effects of Risks involving Liver Resection
Surgery or liver resection is a very important operation so it is necessary that you are healthy enough to go for the surgery and the doctor is sure of the benefits compared to the risks as every surgery bears risks of its own. This surgery is no different as it also has some risks such as:

  1. Blood clots in the lungs
  2. There is action may cause some damage to the surrounding organs
  3. Pneumonia is always common risk
  4. Although bleeding is a risk with any surgery, the stake can be much higher in this case. This is due to the fact that huge amount of blood passes through the liver. As liver helps in the clotting of blood this surgery can affect this also.
  5. People who are getting liver transplant have specially a concern in the form of infection as they need to take proper medicines to repress the immune system. People who are taking medicines can be affected with serious infections and in some cases medicines also cause there own side effects.
  6. In Spite of having proper medicines to repress the new system there is always a possibility that the body Would Still reject a new liver.

What to expect after the surgery
It will take your time to do your regular day to day activities as your bowel movements will still not function properly. Eventually you can resume your regular lifestyle once you leave the hospital. You should definitely about yourself from lifting heavy things for several weeks and you should definitely follow the instructions given by your doctor.

Feeling weakness is pretty much normal and the duration of time to heal from an operation varies from one person to another. People undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy is likely to go home sooner than the person undergoing open hepatectomy.

1878 people found this helpful

Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

M. Ch., FEBS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Delhi
Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

A liver transplant surgery is a procedure by the virtue of which the doctors remove the liver in that cases where it becomes non-functional or does not function appropriately. In this process, the malfunctioning liver is substituted with the healthy liver obtained from a living donor.

Liver transplant surgery has been performed in the medicine for more than 30 years and it has been observed that this surgery is successful and the patients who undergo liver transplant are able to live healthy lives.
Liver transplant is usually performed in the cases where the liver failure could not be treated by other alternative medical treatments available and cancerous conditions. There can be either acute liver failure or chronic liver failure. The Liver transplantation is more often performed in order to treat the chronic ailments.

In Adults

  1. In the cases of adults, one of the major causes of getting liver transplantation done is liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a medical condition where there is a gradual deterioration of liver and severe chronic illness may lead to malfunctioning of the liver.
  2. The blood flow across the liver can be blocked due to the dominance of the scar tissue over healthy tissue.
  3. There can also be other reasons for cirrhosis which include the attack of viruses like hepatitis B and C, the alcoholic liver disease due to excess intake of alcohol, increase in the fat proportion in the liver, Autoimmune disorders of liver or you can say, hereditary diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease.
  4. When the alcohol intake increases rapidly, then the patients do need a liver transplant but if the person controls the intake of alcohol, then improvements can be observed significantly and the patients may even survive for a long time even without getting the transplant done. But in certain cases, even after abstaining from alcohol, the damage is untreatable and healthy liver tissue cannot be restored, in such cases, liver transplant becomes a compulsion.

In children

  1. In the case of children, biliary atresia is the most prominent reason for the liver transplant surgery. It is a very rare condition wherein the bile duct that connect the liver and the small intestine is either blocked or absent in newborn babies. Hence, the function of bile ducts, i.e. removal of bile juice from the liver gets hampered and obstructed bile leads to cirrhosis. The digestion of the food could not be carried out properly.
  2. There can be several other reasons for liver transplantation such as the cancer in the liver or benign tumors that can be present in the liver. When a patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, the chances of acquiring the primary cancer increase by multiple times. The likelihood increases furthermore in those patients who have liver disorders along with hepatitis B. Mostly, after liver transplant surgery, patients are able to live their life normally, but if the cancer starts spreading to other body parts from the liver, then liver transplantation is not the solution.
1874 people found this helpful

Bariatric Surgery - Know Problems Of It!

MBBS, Fellowship In Minimally Invasive Bariatric Surgery, Fellowship In Minimally invasive(Keyhole) Surgery
Bariatrician, Bangalore
Bariatric Surgery - Know Problems Of It!

Bariatric surgery is unlike other surgeries, as its effects are not instant but gradual and are seen over the months. Like any other surgery, it is not without complication. But again unlike all other surgeries, the complication rate can be negligible if a strict protocol is followed. Moreover, the factors like technology advancements, development in the field of advanced laparoscopy, enhanced skillset of the bariatric surgeon, dedicated management of bariatric and metabolic surgeries by bariatric surgeons, play a vital role in the reduction of complication rate which eventually results in safe surgery.

As the procedure is done laparoscopically, the pain is just for a day and is minimally managed by analgesics.

The fear of increasing incidence of incisional hernias while operating an obese patient is so negligible or nil, as the procedure is performed through tiny key holes and all precautions are taken to suture the sheath through which the ports are put to perform the surgery.

Reduced hospital stay and early resuming to work is one of the biggest benefits of this laparoscopic bariatric procedure.

Sometimes, problems that may be faced are:- 

  1. Post-operative bleeding: Normally, this a nearly bloodless surgery involving 5 to 10ml loss of blood. However bleeding from the staple edges is known, but this can be managed well by the surgeon, by choosing the right size of the cartridge as well the right technique of application of the cartridge.

  2. Dehydration: We are normally accustomed to drinking water at long intervals (a few hours) as we can consume nearly 200 to 400ml at one go. Following bariatric surgery, gulping or drinking water in one go is not possible in the first 2 to 4 weeks, due to reduced capacity of the gastric pouch. Hence, care needs to be taken to drink small quantities of water at frequent intervals to avoid dehydration. This is possible only if the patient is counselled about this prior to surgery and is fully aware of this. Also, the patient needs to be given good and clear post operative instructions regarding the quantity and frequency of liquid consumption, not forgetting the type of liquids. Coffee taken frequently could be another cause for dehydration. Family members and colleagues and friends at work play a major role in reminding tthe patient about consuming water frequently. Special care needs to be taken in people who are not accustomed to consuming adequate quantities of water prior to surgery as a general habit.

  3. Vomiting/Fullness/ Discomfort/Indigestion: Following bariatric surgery, soft food is introduced in the diet in the third week, after the first 2 weeks of taking liquids. Due to the reduced capacity of the gastric pouch, the morsel size is significantly reduced and one has to chew the morsel well and eat slowly, giving a gap of 40 to 50 seconds between the morsels. This prevents distension or overdistension of the gastric pouch and thus avoids vomiting. This again requires good counselling prior to the surgery and on the follow up visit too before stating soft food. There is a subjective difference when we say small morsels and we cannot reach a standardization as the morsels size of each individual varies prior to the surgery itself. The best way to avoid this confusion is to make the person have the first soft food meal before you where in you can physically show the way food is expected to be eaten. However, by mistake, there is a chance that one can have a regular sized morsel as over years one is used to eating in that manner. If this happens, the person will vomit , and this will be a reminder to gauge the morsel size the next time the person eats. Following the vomiting, there could be a burning sensation in the stomach which will subside afer taking an antacid. If one follows the instructions of small morsel size, chewing properly and eating slowly, there is no chance that there will be vomiting. Another reason for vomiting could be keeping the stomach empty for a longer duration or having sicy food on an empty stomach. Avoid nuts, seeds, fried foods and processed foods. Very rarely vomiting could be due to reduced size of the joint between the gastric pouch and the small intestine. This could require an Endoscopy and necessary treatment.

  4. Vitamin and mineral deficiency: It is seen that many of the obese patients are seen to have vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron and protein deficiencies in their blood tests that are done prior to surgery. With the significant reduction in the amount of food consumed after bariatric surgery, the existing deficiencies are bound to increase. Hence, it is necessary to do these tests, before surgery and rectify the deficit prior to the surgery.     

  5. Gall bladder stones: Significant weight loss which is consistant over a short duration could lead to the formation of gall bladder stones, be it with or with out surgery in a small percentage of patients. To avoid this there are two schools of thought, one is have a prophylactic removal of the gall bladder along with the bariatric surgery and another is to put the patient on ursodeoxycholic acid (a tablet) for the first few months after surgery during which there is significant weight loss.

  6. Skin sagging: In the morbidly obese, when the skin is overstretched beyond a certain point, it tends to sag once significant weight is lost. This sagging is influenced by a number of factors like age of the patient, the BMI, pre existing sagging, pre-existing muscle tone and protein supplements taken during weight loss and exercises done during the weight loss period. Skin sagging is less if the age is less than 45, BMI less than 45, good protein intake during weight loss and good toning exercises done during the weight loss period.

  7. Hairfall: Significant weight loss either by diet and exercise, aerobics, bariatric surgery, will entail hair loss. But this can be minimised to a greater extent by ensuring good protein intake during the weight loss period and adequate supplements in terms of vitamins and minerals.

  8. Dumping syndrome: With a reduced size of the stomach, the food moves from the stomach into the smaller intestine much faster. This causes the pancreas to release excessive amount of insulin, leading to very low blood sugar levels , producing various symptoms like abdominal cramps, bloating, diarrhoea, sweating, dizziness, nausea, weakness, and anxiety. This is managed by eating less amount of sugars and fats and spacing out the meals through the day, having four to five small meals compared to  2 to 3 large meals. Having a high protein diet and avoiding liquids during meals is also an option.

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Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, I have varicose veins n suggested for surgery, I want to know if it can be treated without surgery only by medication ,I have consulted vascular surgeon but m scared of getting surgery done n not sure whether it is 100%cure for this problem as it comes again, I am having osteoarthritis, n xray shows osteophytes, pl suggest me ,what should I do, thanx.

MBBS, DNB - Peripheral Vascular Surgery, DNB - General Surgery, MNAMS
Vascular Surgeon, Nashik
You have options of laser/RFA and other endovascular procedures..which are painless...about your recurrence some do reccure...if all symptoms are due to varicose vein than arthritis consider for intervention..u already consulted vascular person for varicose veins..
1 person found this helpful

I am from Sri Lanka, I had an anal abscess and did surgery about 3 1/2 months ago but did not successful and it developed in to recto anal fistula. Again I go to a surgery about 3 month ago, but the fistula is not completely cured, it is still there. Pl. Tell me what can you do for me.

MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS), Diploma in Advanced Laparoscopic surgery, Training in Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Srinagar
Hello. First I want to clarify your doubt that it's not that your surgery was unsuccessful. Perianal abscess is an emergency procedure to drain the pus out, nothing else. Second it's not that your abscess developed into fistula rather it's reverse that you already had an underlying fistula which presented as an abscess. I would recommend you to get an Mr. fistulogram done and then consultant a good general surgeon or a proctosurgeon. A complete fistulectomy or fistulotomy is the best treatment for you to prevent recurrence.

How and why does the IOP decrease after Cataract eye surgery? Please explain fully. Which type of lenses are most safe? Bi and Tri focal brands?

M.S. Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Vadodara
After cataract surgery, there is more room in the eye for fluid to circulate and hence in some eyes, esp those which were small and crowded, the pressure reduces. The other part of your query cannot be fully answered in a text chat. Please come for a phone chat.
1 person found this helpful

Hello. I'm recently got piles treatment done through laser surgery means 25 days back I don't know what to eat food mainly eat cashew nuts or not please tell me. Thank you.

MBBS, DNB - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Mysore
Eat food that is high in fibre content like fruits green leafy vegetables avoid or decrease consumption of mutton and chicken take plenty of liquids.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
Play video
Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery refers to a host of surgical procedures that help a person suffering from obesity to lose weight. Various methods are used to achieve the desired results, often times using the help of a gastric band to decrease the size of the stomach or surgically removing a small portion of the stomach
Play video
Approach For Opting Cosmetic Procedure
There are many people who compare their looks with others and this makes them feel that they should opt for cosmetic procedures. This should not be the case ideally.
Play video
Piles are collections of tissue and vein that become inflamed and swollen.Piles occur due to chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, lifting heavy weights, pregnancy, or straining when passing a stool.A doctor can usually diagnose piles on examination.
Play video
Know About Various Surgeries
Hi! I am Dr. Lalit Chaudhary, senior consultant plastic surgeon at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Vice Chairman right now. We have all range of surgeries not just reconstructive plastic surgery but also the cosmetic surgeries with us. Nowadays gradually the cosmetic surgery cases have gone up more than 50% of the plastic surgery practices. More common cosmetics side patient which are coming to us are about body contouring in both the males and females. In males we see nowadays very common is the male breast tissue with enlarged breast or what we call as Gynaecomastia. It can be completely cured with small operation which is practically pre-op. Generally next day you can join with your routine work and there is a 3 weeks of weight bearing issue otherwise table jobwell-developedand walking is fine. Same in females, there is tummy tuck, breast enhancement and reduction. Most commonly for face, we come across patients coming for rhinoplasty or the nose job. Then the hair transplant procedure where big number of patients suffering from baldness or loss of hair come. Generally other than the cosmetic procedures we have well developed plastic surgery department set up at our Ganga Ram Hospital. We also practice as a clinic basis in Dwarka where we generally see the patient. There is no operation facility there. That is basically the post-traumatic care of the pre op care for the patient. We can see the patient of this area and surgery is done in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital only. If you have any queries related to the cosmetic surgeries or the reconstructive plastic surgery or trauma like fingers trauma or complete amputation, right from that level to the reconstruction- maybe a cancer reconstruction or a congenital reconstruction or a post traumatic reconstruction, we have everything with us under the same umbrella in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. If you have any issues which are from that part of it and if you stay somewhere around in Dwarka you can come to the clinic and show it to me. So if you have any issues related to the cosmetic surgery or plastic or reconstructive surgery, you are most welcome to contact me either at my Chisel Clinic in Dwarka or Sir Ganga Ram Hospital where we see daily from 12-4 in OPD here. We have a good team supporting us and Residency Program with us so you have round the clock care which is not present everywhere in Delhi NCR. Even in India you won't find post-op plastic surgery facilities. So you are most welcome to have any query with us. Take care.
Play video
Preparing For Brain Surgery

My name is much that you tell and I am a neurosurgeon at Wockhardt hospitals in Mumbai central as well as an assistant professor at the grant Medical College and sir JJ group of hospitals. I am going to talk to you about how can one prepare for brain surgery once one is diagnosed with a problem that requires a brain operation.

You could be even having a brain tumor or a vascular problem in the brain or refractory epilepsy requires something called as a craniotomy. It can be Priya Nursing for the patient is well as for the family we usually do all investigations on an outpatient basis and ensure that the patient is fit for surgery to undergo a pre-anesthetic evaluation and make sure that all the blood tests are in order typically used something called as neuronavigation.

At surgery which enables us to approach the exact location of the problem in a three-dimensional space in gases towards that location of patients ask me if there will head is going to be saved before surgery news me that's not the case which is save strip of hair along which where we meet me in station. So what typically happens is patience cremated one day prior to surgery the anaesthesia doctor takes 1 final look at them to make sure that heart rate blood pressure everything is under control and the next morning there being into the operating room xxvi anaesthesia doctors will wake you up a certain monitors the ECG leads extra before putting a tube done your throat to give you something college general anaesthesia when which your unconscious throw the operation there are some operations where in which humans are located in elopement areas of the brain and we need patients to be awake so that we can check their motor function and actually we can do the operation when patients are awake and talking to US and moving the hands and legs and that's something college in awake craniotomy which requires a slightly different preparation the operation takes place and the extremely sterile conditions and everything is cleaned and raped in a systematic fashion the protocol of which is completely standardized you make a skin incision usually using a drill remove the part of the bone that is wire to be removed.

When there is a covering of the brain called the dura which is what we cut and then enter the appropriate space and deal with the pathology it will be the beer tumor it will be a vascular malformation it could be anything that requires to be removed or transacted or disconnected usually Brain Tumor operation last for about 3 or 4 hours on an average it could be longer depending on the case what happens is 13 belt with the pathology we close that layer of dura back and we replace the bone flap and we fix it with plates and screws are often than not activated immediately after the operation in the operating room itself very rarely if the operation is really long or there is a lot of blood loss be kept overnight on a ventilator in extubated the next morning in the ICU typically there will into the ICU for about 24 hours after surgery.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice