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Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

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Hernia Surgery: Quick Recovery Tips!

Dr. Harika Tirungari 90% (37 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Hernia Surgery: Quick Recovery Tips!
Recovery from a hernia after the surgery will need a time of approximately 2-3 weeks. The time for recovery also depends upon the surgery performed. An open surgery performed through a large incision across the region of a hernia will require a longer hospital stay and a longer time for recovery, whereas, in contrast, a laparoscopic surgery performed with 2-3 small incisions will heal faster and will need a shorter hospitalization. The recovery process can be speeded up by taking appropriate care, and recovery tips for it are as follows: Medication should regularly be taken as recommended by the doctor to lessen the symptoms of the surgery. Wound care should be taken properly. Dressings should be kept clean and dry, and they need to be changed very frequently in order to avoid the infection. A persistent cough and sneezing need to be treated with the proper medication. Keep a pillow nearby. Every time while coughing and sneezing hold the pillow over the suture in order to prevent pressure on the sutures. Use an abdominal binder of a proper size. It supports the abdominal muscle and maintains abdominal pressure. Use clothing which is expandable and has elastic waistbands whenever there is swelling. Swelling over the incision is a common complication after the surgery. Thus, the incision area should not be closed tightly by wearing tight clothing. Wearing expandable cloths will give more comfort and will not cause pain due to pressure. Take a stool softener before and after surgery. Constipation should be treated before the surgery and should be avoided after the surgery by using stool softeners. Straining for the stools will create pressure over the incision and hernia repair site and will delay the recovery. Eat healthy food. The food should be fiber-rich as it will help to improve the bowel movements, and it will avoid the risk of constipation. Drink plenty of water to avoid constipation and improve the bowel movement. Do not bend to pick up the things or maintain personal hygiene, i.e., cutting toenails as it will create pressure on the sutures and it may break open. Avoid lifting of any objects as it will create pressure on sutures and will increase the risk of rupture. After a certain period of time, lift only light items (less than 20 pounds), and always use back muscles and knees. Do moderate exercises, such as walking, as it will speed up the recovery. Do not start with heavy exercises. Smoking should be avoided after the surgery as it will improve breathing and blood circulation, which will help in the healing process.

BOTOX Treatment - What You Can Expect?

Dr. Nishant Chhajer 89% (483 ratings)
M. Ch. (Plastic Surgery), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Noida
BOTOX Treatment - What You Can Expect?
It is human nature to want to look good and feel good. A young, smiling face that greets you in the mirror can be one of the happiest moments on a given day. However, it is not always the case. With age, the image that looks back leaves a lot to be desired. The wrinkles, fine lines, dark spots, tanning spots, etc. seem to take away a lot of the beauty. However, with these concerns growing, the cosmetic industry has found out ways to mask these and keep that face in the mirror young and happy. While earlier only celebrities could afford such treatments, now more and more people have access to simple but effective techniques to keep their youthful looks intact. What is Botox? It is a control use of a toxin to get desired paralysis the muscle according to three individual patient. In even extremely minor amounts, this toxin can relaxes muscles and this property of it is used to treat facial wrinkles and fine lines. This was accidentally discovered but is now one of the most widely used techniques in cosmetic surgery. How does it work? The nerves send messages to the muscles to contract or relax through neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine is one such neurotransmitter and sends signals to the skin from the nerves. Botox acts by preventing the release of this chemical. The result is that the muscle does not receive a signal to contract. The end result is reduced wrinkles and fine lines. Uses: The forehead and corners of the eyes are the most common areas that are treated with Botox. The wrinkles are often lost and the skin looks younger and firmer. In addition, Botox is also medically approved for use in the following conditions. Blepharospasm (spasm of the eyelids) Lazy eye (strabismus) Chronic migraine headaches Chronic spasms in the neck Overactive bladder (resulting in frequent urination) Spasticity resulting from stroke Excessive sweating Esophageal motility disorders Urinary incontinence Bruxism (tooth grinding) Crow s feet (outer corner of the eyes) With Botox gaining popularity, this list of indications is only set to get longer. Precautions: This is a highly potent toxin and about 2 kg is sufficient to wipe out the entire human race. Therefore, it is very important to use this under the hands of a trained, experienced professional. Side effects: Mild pain or redness at the injection site Temporary numbness Allergic reaction to toxin (very rare) These are very transient and disappear over a couple of days time, revealing the real benefits of Botox. Set realistic expectations with your surgeon and be ready to look at a younger, happier you.
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What Is Video Laparoscopy?

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Corneal Surgery - All You Need To Know

MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, FRCS
Ophthalmologist, Gurgaon
Corneal Surgery - All You Need To Know
The cornea refers to the dome-like structure visible at the front of the eye. This is the outermost layer of the eye. The cornea protects the eye against germs, dirt and other harmful particles and helps focus light coming into the eye onto the retina to create an image. It also acts as a filter against UV radiation produced by the sun. In the case of injuries to the cornea due to scarring or eye diseases a corneal transplant may be advised. This is also known as keratoplasty. The first step for a corneal transplant is to add the patient s name to the transplant list at the local eye bank. A transplant can only be performed after a donor's eye is made available. The surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and takes a maximum of 2 hours. Local or general anaesthesia may be used for this procedure depending on the patient s age, overall health and personal preference. A lid speculum is then used to keep the eyelids open through the surgery. A circular section of the injured cornea is then removed using a surgical tool or a laser beam. A matching section from the donor cornea is then used to replace the removed section and stitched into place. These stitches usually stay in place for a year after the surgery. The healing of the cornea is a slow process and hence to prevent any injuries to the eye, a protective shield is usually worn over the eye for a few months. Patients may experience mild discomfort and blurred vision for the first few months after surgery. Steroid eye drops may also be prescribed to help the body accept the transplant and control infections. These eye drops will need to be used for up to a year after the surgery. As the cornea heals, the patient s vision will improve. The results of a corneal transplant are said to have a life of about 10 years. However, this depends on the root cause of the problem. Corneal transplants have a very high success rate but in rare cases, the eye may reject the transplant. Glaucoma and corneal swelling caused by an earlier cataract surgery can increase this risk. However, if this rejection is detected early enough, the process can be reversed. Some signs to look out for that may indicate that your body is rejecting the transplant are increased sensitivity to light, redness, pain and decreased vision.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am suffering from Piles for last 2 years but don't know permanent solution. I believe they are at stage 2. Also don't want to go through any surgery.

Dr. Tushar Jadavjibhai Patel 91% (355 ratings)
Diploma in Yoga Naturopathy
Yoga & Naturopathy Specialist, Surat
Arshognivati 2 2 2 Tablets Arshkutharras 2 2 2 Tablets Abhayarist 3 3 3 spoon with same water Harde churn 1 1 1 spoon Thrice a day. All medicines Baidhnath Purchase Avoid fastfood-junkfood, Nonveg items.

Sir I have done heart valve surgery, I am on warrafin. I have piles can I have surgery or how can I get ridcof piled.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 96% (7586 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly. Surgery can be taken after withdrawing of warfarin for 3 days before surgery and keeping it stopped for 3 days after surgery according to the guidance of your cardiologist if I get further symptoms in details, I can guide more precisely in this regards Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL Regards take care.
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I have a kidney stone 5 mm in the uretus. Is surgery required for that to be removed.

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I'm 20 years old girl. I want to get my eye laser operation done to remove specs. What is the good and cheap place to get it done in Delhi NCR? Also, is this true that if I move while the operation, there will be a cut on my forehead or something. Is the operation painful also? Or do they give anesthesia.

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 97% (9030 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
No don't worry it is safe.. And as far as cheap place is concerned then when it comes to eyes you should search for best and not cheap.. May you purchase two things less but don't save money in this..

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