A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.
Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating
Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.
Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -
Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.
Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.
Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.
Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.
Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,
The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-
Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.
The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.
Foot problems can occur due to a number of causes that, in most cases, are easily diagnosed. An orthopedic is a specialized doctor whose advice you should seek if you have any kind of discomfort in one or both of your feet. Discomfort may include chronic or regular pain, difficulty in movement and/or disfigurement. These are generally a result of arthritis, physical injury or a genetic or hereditary condition. In some of the cases, the pain and discomfort can be treated without any surgery, by using medications. However, in extreme cases, where medication, physical therapy, and other such non-surgical methods fail to have any impact, surgery is the only way to go.
These surgeries are less invasive and require a limited recovery time. They are also one of the most successful types of surgery. The surgical procedure is successful in dealing with the main complaints of a foot problem. It successfully treats a foot by,
Arthritis is also a cause of a number of foot problems. In more cases than not, surgery becomes a necessity to treat your foot. Here are some of the surgeries that cater to arthritis-related foot problems:
There are many kinds of conditions and symptoms that require different kinds of surgery for treatment as well as diagnostic management. One such procedure is called a laparoscopy or the laparoscopic surgery. This is a surgical diagnostic as well as therapeutic management procedure that is known to be done with minimal invasion and suitable for various types of ailments.
Read on to know everything about laparoscopic surgeries.
· Definition: A laparoscopic surgery is one where small incisions are made and an instrument called a laparoscope is used in order to take a look at the organs in the abdominal region. This tool is a long tube shaped one that comes with its own high intensity light and a high resolution camera that can easily move along the walls of the organs while the camera sends back imagery that will be displayed on a video screen in front of the doctor. This avoids the need for an open surgery and helps the patients recover quickly from surgery due to minimal pain and bloodloss.
· Need for Laparoscopy: This procedure is performed when the patient complains of various abdominal ailements and surrounding areas like the pelvic cavity. It is effectively used in various abdominal problems like gallstones, appendix, removal of various abdominal organs
· The Organs it can be also be used for: The laparoscopic surgery can be used for many organs including, the pelvic region and the reproductive organs, the small and large intestines, the spleen, the stomach, the liver and the pancreas.
· What all can it Detect: The laparoscopic surgery can help in detecting a number of issues including any abnormal growth or mass that may be a tumour. It can also point at the presence of any infectious diseases like tuberculosis. Also, it can show the amount of fluid that may or may not be present in the abdominal cavity and the extent of cancer's progression in the body.
A valve is something that allows a liquid to flow in one direction. Our heart has valves, and they play a critical role in ensuring that the blood travels in the right direction.
There are four valves in our heart:
A person suffers from heart valve disorder when one or more of these four valves stops functioning accurately. Each valve comes with a flap that opens and closes to allow blood flow. Disruption in the blood flow, thereby leading to serious ailments, can occur even if a single flap stops functioning. To rectify this situation a valve replacement surgery is conducted by heart surgeons. There are majorly two types of surgeries available: Mechanical and Bioprosthetic.
Mechanical Heart Valve surgery involves the replacement of the defective valve with a substitute made of metallic alloys and plastics. On the other hand, Bioprosthetic surgery is conducted using the valve tissue of an animal which is anchored to a bioprosthesis.
Mechanical Heart Valve Surgery: Pros and Cons
The prosthetics that is used in a mechanical valve replacement surgery are much more durable than those (cow or pig tissues) which are used in a bioprosthetic surgery. It lasts up to 20 to 30 years. But the major disadvantage of this surgery is that over the time the artificial replacements can lead to blood coagulation. Therefore, if you have undergone mechanical heart valve replacement, you will need a prolonged prescription of anticoagulation medicines. Unfortunately, there is plenitude of side-effects of anticoagulants. Therefore, you would have to be under medical observation through and follow the dietary restrictions (as per the instructions of the doctor). However, if you already have bleeding disorders, or are pregnant, this surgery will not be recommended for you. But, if you are already on anticoagulation medicines a mechanical surgery is the most practical option for you.
Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Surgery: Pros and Cons
Bioprosthetic surgery uses animal tissues as substitutes of the human valve tissue. Therefore, bleeding disorders are very less likely to crop up. So you do not have to depend on anticoagulants to sustain. The downside of this surgery is that the replaced tissues do not last for more than 10 years. So if your life-expectancy is high, you will need a second operation after 10-15 years. For this reason itself, bioprosthetic surgery is recommended to sexagenarians or septuagenarians who can spend the rest of their lives soundly without the need of anticoagulants or re-operation.
Which is relatively better: Depends on the patient
It can be affirmed that the surgery type completely depends upon the current medical situation of the patient undergoing surgery. For younger people, mechanical heart valve surgery works better, because with medical assistance post-surgery, a sound life is possible without the need of another hospitalization or reiteration of the surgery.
On the other hand, older people, people who need to undergo dialysis from time to time and those who have bleeding disorders or other underlying medical conditions should go for bioprosthetic heart valve replacement surgery.
Circumcision means a surgical procedure for the removal of the foreskin (tissue that covers the head of the penis). The surgery should ideally be performed at a young age. If it is performed on an older child or on a man, chances of infection go up.
Sometimes circumcision becomes necessary for medicinal reasons like-
• Balanitis (foreskin swelling)
• Phimosis (inability to retract the foreskin)
• Paraphimosis (a person cannot return the retracted foreskin to its original place)
• Balanoposthitis ( swelling of the tip the penis)
• Lowering the risks of penis-related ailments
How is circumcision performed?
The surgery is performed under partial anaesthesia (administered through an injection or a cream that numbs the penis). There are three methods (Gomco clamp, Plactibell device and morgen clamp). Any of them may be followed to perform circumcision. Circulation is cut off to the foreskin so that it does not bleed during surgery. Then the surgeon snips off the foreskin using sanitized instruments. The surgery takes around 15-20 minutes.
The pain and swelling usually subside in 5 days.
Recovery after circumcision-
If you are an adult who has undergone a circumcision, your doctor will suggest medicines that will ease the discomfort and pain following. You can get back to work within a couple of days. Rigorous activities like jogging or weight lifting should be avoided. You should also refrain from sexual activities for at least six weeks after the surgery.
In the case of circumcision on children, your child may continue to be fussy and irritated for a few days post-surgery. Ensure that the diaper is loose enough to allow the penis to heal. However, if the pain does not subdue or if there is trouble urinating and there is blood in the urine, contact your doctor immediately.
Benefits of circumcision-
It is a widely prevalent myth that circumcision makes a man infertile. It has no effect at all on a man’s fertility. There are several advantages of circumcision but all of them take effect when the child reaches puberty. The medicinal benefits of circumcision are-
Circumcision is a safe and minor surgery that is performed mainly in adherence to religious diktats but also for health purposes.
Cholecystectomy is an operation performed to remove the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a kind of a small sac found just below the liver, on the right hand side of the abdomen. The gallbladder stores a liquid known as bile. Bile is made in the liver and it gets released into the intestine along with the meals. The importance of bile lies in the fact that it helps to digest the fat in foods.
As gallbladder is not really an essential organ, so a child would do well after cholecystectomy. Once the gallbladder gets removed through this pediatric surgery, bile will continue to get released from the liver right into the intestine along with meals.
What is the necessity behind cholecystectomy?
The necessity for performing this surgery of Cholecystectomy can be outlined as follows:
How is the surgery performed?
The surgery is performed in the following manner:
Homecare needed after the surgery
There are certain guidelines which parents must follow when their children get back home after the surgery. They include: