Common Specialities
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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Risk Factors Of Nose Surgery!

Dr. Ajaya Kashyap 88% (353 ratings)
American Board of Plastic Surgery, , American Board Of General Surgery, MS - Dermatology, M.B.B.S
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Delhi
Risk Factors Of Nose Surgery!
A nose surgery (rhinoplasty) is performed to remove polyps and other blockages, alter the structure and shape of your nose and improve its function and or appearance. Here are a few things you should know about nose surgeries: Deciding on surgery: Before deciding on undergoing nose surgery, consult with your doctor regarding issues related to your nose. Your doctor will check your problems and judge whether or not surgery is a feasible option. It is only with your doctor's confirmation that you should go for the surgery. The procedure: The surgery is done either with local anesthesia (your nose and surrounding areas will be numbed) or general anesthesia (you will fall asleep). The surgeon will make incisions in your nostrils and base of the nose and alter the shape, structure and position of the cartilages in your nose for appealing shape and better functionality. Polyp removal is also done by rhinoplasty. Recovery: After the surgery you will be required to wear a nose splint. You can expect swelling around the eyes, which will begin to subside after the third day. Swelling in the nose will go away after six months. Therefore, do not expect to see your results immediately, final condition of your nose will be apparent after the recovery period is over. You should avoid strenuous activity for three to six weeks. Do not smoke or drink alcohol during recovery. Smoking slows recovery time and alcohol reduces normal effects of drugs. Will you develop scars? As with all cosmetic procedures, rhinoplasty can leave scars. In closed rhinoplasty, incisions are made inside the nostrils and hence there is no scarring. In open rhinoplasty, an additional cut is made along the columella and this may result in scarring. However, the position of the scar is such that it is almost unnoticeable. Risks: Any surgical procedure has certain risks. These risks associated with nose surgery include: Infection Adverse effect to anesthesia Unfavorable outcome Visible scarring Numbness Difficulty in breathing Chronic nosebleed A perforated septum Haematoma Bursting of blood vessels Nervous damage Possibility of revision surgery
3 people found this helpful

Enlarged Prostate Surgery - What To Expect?

Dr. Sarwar Eqbal 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB - Urology
Urologist, Delhi
Enlarged Prostate Surgery - What To Expect?
Enlarged prostate surgery is a very common type of surgery that many have to undergo nowadays. An enlarged prostate causes many health problems including urinary tract obstructions and urinary tract infections. It may also lead to the passing of blood via urine. Thus, enlarged prostate must be treated as soon as possible as neglect may lead to prostate cancer and its associated health issues. There are various types of prostate surgeries that a doctor performs on his/her patients. However, of late, radical prostatectomy is the most popular of them all. What is Radical Prostatectomy? This process can be handled in two ways. Firstly, the prostate can be reached through an incision in the abdomen. This would help the doctor work with precision and carefully avoid all the other nerves and muscles in the area the operation take places. The prostate is examined and any nodule or lymph formed over it is carefully removed. The advantage of this surgery is that the patient is less likely to suffer from any erectile problems post- surgery. The second option would be to make an incision between the scrotum and the anus. This process is best for those who are obese. The surgery is performed quickly and there is less loss of blood. Furthermore, the healing time is less too. How To Recover From The Surgery? Like most other prostate operations, even in radical prostatectomy, you would have to wear a catheter till you recover completely. For a few days post the surgery your urine would be collected through a urine bag attached to the catheter. One might feel a little sore in his/her genitals after the surgery, but that is quite normal to occur. The soreness is caused due to the surgery and the incisions made and would heal in a matter of a few days. Interestingly, since the urethra plays an important role in this surgery, the catheter has to be in place for at least two to three weeks but the patient can be discharged after a two to three night stay at the hospital. It is advised that the patient takes ample rest. But this does not mean all rest and no work. In fact, it is seen that patients can walk a little and even go back to a normal diet within a week to ten days of the operation. But regular checkups, till the urethra is healed, are compulsory. Hence, these are some of the recovery procedures after an enlarged prostate surgery. Such surgeries are quite common and heal quickly.
2 people found this helpful

Brain Surgery - Reasons When You Need It!

Dr. Shameem Ahmed 90% (132 ratings)
MCh Neurosurgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Guwahati
Brain Surgery - Reasons When You Need It!
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions. Reasons for Brain Surgery: Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain: Abnormal blood vessels Aneurysm Bleeding Blood clots in the brain When the protective tissue or dura is damaged Epilepsy Due to nerve damage Parkinson's disease Any kind of pressure after an injury Abscesses Skull fractures In case of stroke and tumors A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems. Types of brain surgeries: Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts. Risks: Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be: Allergic reactions to anesthesia Bleeding Blood clot formations Swelling of the brain A state of coma Impairment in speech, coordination and vision. Problems in memory Strokes and seizures Infections in the brain A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.

Moles & Freckles - 5 Ways To Remove Them Permanently!

Dr. Prashantha Kesari 86% (10 ratings)
MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, DNB, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Bangalore
Moles & Freckles -  5 Ways To Remove Them Permanently!
Moles are the most common form of physical identification proof, but are often unwanted. Moles and freckles are common skin irregularities that make a person consider cosmetic surgery. Moles can be described as non-cancerous skin lesions that develop when dark skin cells are bound together in small clusters. Almost everyone has one or more mole on their body. However, freckles are simply skin discolorations that appear on light skinned people. There are a number of ways in which moles and freckles can be removed. Dermabrasion: This is a procedure where a small wheel is run over your skin to remove the top layer. Dermabrasion is performed under anaesthesia and is a very effective way of removing freckles and flat moles. Laser Surgery: Laser surgery involves the use of concentrated beams of light to remove the topmost layer of skin. As this top layer is removed, freckles and light, flat moles are also destroyed thus leaving you with a clear complexion. In some cases, multiple sessions may be required to completely remove moles and freckles. Laser surgery is not recommended for large moles or moles that protrude out of the skin. Shave excision: This is a surgical procedure that involves cutting off the raised section of a mole with a sharp scalpel. It does not require any sutures, but may not remove the entire mole. This surgery is often suggested in cases where a mole had grown to protrude from the skin but the discolouration itself does not bother the person. There is a very low risk of scarring associated with this procedure but the mole may recur. Punch Excision: Small protruding moles can also be removed with a punch excision procedure. Here, a doctor will use a small cutting apparatus in the form of a small, cylindrical punch to twist and remove the entire mole. One of two sutures may be required to close the skin in this area. Surgical Excision: This procedure is suggested in cases of large moles. In such cases, the surgeon will remove the entire mole and close the skin with sutures. This procedure may leave a scar behind, but in most cases, this scar is not very prominent. In rare cases, moles can be malignant and hence it is not recommended to try removing a mole at home. For this reason, you should always a consult a surgeon if a mole appears suddenly appears or begins to look suspicious.
8 people found this helpful

Spine Surgery - What To Expect After It?

Dr. Ajay Rao 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Orthopedics, Fellowship in Upperlimb and Limb Reconstruction (Australia)
Orthopedist, Bangalore
Spine Surgery - What To Expect After It?
Spinal surgery becomes inevitable when back pain cannot be managed with medications and/or exercise. This is a major decision and requires planning for many things before, during, and after the surgery. Before a spinal surgery- This preparation will help in smooth recovery, especially if you do not have a full-time caretaker. Discontinue antiplatelets: Discontinue antiplatelets and blood thinners. It has to be stopped atleast 5 days before Surgery. Prepare for blood loss: Most people experience some blood loss, but not excessive. Use a toilet seat raiser: Sitting and getting up from the toilet seat may be difficult. The seat raiser is used to increase the height, making this movement easy. Enable easy access to common items: Before heading for the surgery, keep things which are commonly used within easy reach. This will help reduce movement and avoid searching (especially if someone else is going to be doing it). Stock it up: Cooking may not be feasible during the initial postop period, and so it is advisable to stock up food items (ready to eats, fruits, soups, etc.) which will come in handy. Slip-ons: Bending down and tying shoes may not be easy, so slip-ons can be used. Caregiving: It is always advisable to have someone stay over with you during the initial postop days. They could help with regular household chores, cooking, etc. Lifestyle changes: Ensure you eat well in the days before surgery, quit smoking, quit/use moderate amounts of alcohol, and exercise as advised by your surgeon. After Surgery- Post surgery, there will be some pain and limitation of movement. It is important to understand that adherence to post-op instructions will improve the success rate of the surgery. Also, recovery time for spine surgery is slightly longer and affects overall quality of life, so psychological preparation is required. Postoperative medications: These will be given to control infection and pain in the immediate postop period, and should be taken without fail Rehab: The surgeon will recommend physical therapy and rehab exercises which need to be followed. Complete recovery may take anywhere between 3 to 12 months. During this time, care should be taken to avoid repeat injury. Support: Adequate back support should be provided using lumbar support and ergonomic chairs, and the right posture should be maintained. Ensure there is no undue strain on the back muscles. Weight management: With excess weight, there is too much strain on the lower disks. Therefore, weight should be managed to reduce this strain. Smoking and alcohol should be completely stopped, as healing can be hampered. With some preparation, spinal surgery can be sailed through smoothly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I am talking Methylperdisinol since 6 years for myositis. So I want to knw that how can protect my eyes with glaucoma. I had cataract surgery done.

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 97% (3237 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Hi Sonu.. This is a steroid.. and as per my knowledge it has many side effects... My advise is to start the homoeopathic treatment with proper consultation side by side for better health..
1 person found this helpful

Sir My I know AIIMS government or private hospital. One more May I know total amount lasik surgery.

Dr. Vaibhev Mittal 92% (3121 ratings)
Fellowship in Comprehensive Ophthalmology, DOMS
Ophthalmologist, Sangrur
Hello Aiims is a government hospital Cost of lasik ranges from 25k to 80k depending on type of lasik.

I want to know the cost of incisional hernia operation at the cheapest rate for open surgery and laparoscopy both.

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 91% (1804 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath,
Rate varies in different hospitals though a standard hospital cost of open surgery is 30,000 and laparoscopy is 35,000.

I frequently noticed that my jaw line is not proper on both half sides of my face. Both halves are different. Is there anything I can do to make my jawline proper on both half sides of my face?

Dr. Trisha Ghosh 90% (113 ratings)
BDS, MDS - Orthodontics
Dentist, Howrah
Hello Lybrate user, the asymmetrical of your face can be either due to a skeletal deformity (problem underlying in the bone structure) or dentoalveolar deformity (problem in tooth and it's surrounding bone). It may be also due to a combination of both the problems. This problem can be treated with Orthodontic treatment (braces). You need to visit an Orthodontist (braces specialist) for an in-clinic assessment of your face, teeth and jaw to discuss further on treatment modalities.

I am grade-1 gynecomastia patient and aged around 42 years. I want to go for surgery. What will be the total cost of the surgery.

Dr. Prakash Chhajlani 89% (2386 ratings)
Advanced Aesthetics, M.Ch - Plastic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Indore
Male breast or gynecomastia reduction. Is one of the most frequently performed office surgeries and we are the pioneers in central India since last 30 years. To the best of our knowledge no medicines or creams work to decrease the breast Size. Gynecomastia is treatable only by surgery. There is no medical treatment. It is a one day out patient surgery with very gratifying results. It boosts self esteem also. The Dr. Can examine and tell you what is the problem, gynecomastia has a breast tissue and a fat component. No one wants surgery unless it is necessary. There is no medication which can give the results. Surgery is the only answer. It can be a day care surgery or 1 day hospital stay. There is no bed rest but 3-5 days are required for recovery and 10 days for full recovery.In 3 weeks you can go the the Gym. Gynacomastia is not a disease but excess response to hormones. If it does not bother you you don't have to get it removed. As long as the Breast size is big it is taken as Gynacomastia which could be because of More fat or More Breast tissue or a mixture of the two. The surgery is almost painless because there are enough medications to keep the pain under control. We need to examine the patient to know what is wanted and what can be done and to work out how much, when, where, etc
1 person found this helpful

Health Quizzes

Brain Surgery - Can Their Be Risks?

Dr. Naba J Borah 85% (10 ratings)
MS (Surgery), Mch (Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgeon, Guwahati
There are no risks involved in brain surgery. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
Start Quiz

Lasik Surgery - Common Facts About It!

Dr. Arjun Kumar Singh 93% (980 ratings)
MBBS, DOMS, MS - Ophthalmology, , Fellowship in phacoemusification
Ophthalmologist, Patna
Lasik can be done at any age. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
Start Quiz

Things to Know About Lasik Surgery

Dr. Tejas D. Shah 90% (25 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Diploma in Ophthalmology , Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Ahmedabad
The improvements in vision with Lasik are almost immediately noticeable. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
Start Quiz

Busting Myths about Glasses and Contact Lenses

Dr. Vaibhev Mittal 92% (3121 ratings)
Fellowship in Comprehensive Ophthalmology, DOMS
Ophthalmologist, Sangrur
A contact lens is not recommended in case you are suffering from astigmatism. True or False? Take the quiz to know now.
Start Quiz

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