Common Specialities
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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Foot Problems Which Require Surgery!

MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
Foot Problems Which Require Surgery!

Following are the most common foot conditions which require surgery:

  1. Plantar fasciitis: It is one of the most common causes of heel pain which is aggravated in the morning with initial few steps. Too much pressure on feet can damage or tear the ligaments because of which the plantar fascia becomes inflamed, and the inflammation causes heel pain and stiffness.
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis: It is an autoimmune condition that affects the joints and causes swelling of the joint lining (synovium). It commonly affects the small joints of the hands and feet. Surgery is required when the condition leads to deformity or cartilage loss.
  3. Sesamoiditis: It is a condition where there is a pain on the bottom of the foot at the base of the great toe. Excision of the chronically inflamed sesamoid is required.Ankle arthritis: It is usually caused by osteoarthritis where the cartilage covering the ends of bones gradually roughens and becomes thin and the bone underneath thickens. This leads to pain, swelling, and occasional deformity of the joint. 
  4. Fracture: Healing fractures require immobilizing the foot with a boot and sometimes even surgery.
  5. Bone spurs: An excessive growth of bone is causing pain or limitation of movement. These spurs develop at the edge of the joint causing pain, tenderness, and difficulty in walking. Surgery is required to remove these excessive growths.
  6. Gangrene: It is one of the most common conditions requiring amputation where the death of the tissue occurs.
  7. Clubfoot/Talipes Equinovarus: It is a foot deformity in newborns where the foot is rotated inwards (varus) and downwards (equinus).
  8. Claw Toes/Hammer Toes: It is a condition affecting the toes in people as they age causing difficulty and pain while walking. The affected joints require replacement with artificial joint or fusion (surgical stiffening). 
  9. Morton's Neuroma: The patient presents with pain in the forefoot, in the “ball” of the foot causing irritation of one or more of the small nerves, just before they travel into the toes.
  10. Hallux Valgus/Bunion: It is one of the most common conditions, especially seen among women, where bony lumps develop on the side of the foot and at the base of the big toe causing malpositioning of the foot. For some people, it is only a cosmetic problem. Bunionectomy is a surgery performed to remove the bony prominence.
  11. Hallux Limitus/Rigidus: It is an arthritic condition of the big toe joint leading to pain and loss of motion.
  12. Diabetes mellitus: It affects circulation and blood supply causing delayed healing. Ulcerations, infections, and sometimes severe infections require amputations.
  13. Cysts and ganglions: These are painful lumps that cause pressure and rub on the shoe while walking. If a change in the footwear doesn’t solve the problem, surgical removal of the cyst or ganglion is done.

5 Quick Tips To Deal With The Post-Surgery Pain!

MBBS, MS
General Surgeon, Faridabad
5 Quick Tips To Deal With The Post-Surgery Pain!

When a person is told of the need to undergo surgery, one of the first things that comes to mind is the pain after the procedure. Is it going to be very painful? How long is it going to last? How to manage it? These are some questions that doctors are repeatedly asked and they spend quite a bit of time trying to put the patient at ease.

The talk about post-surgery pain management should begin well ahead of surgery so that the patient can plan accordingly and be mentally prepared. There could be cases where the patient may need to have a caretaker when back home so that they can assist in daily chores and manage pain. Read on to know some of the tips to manage pain.

  1. Expect the pain: Talk to your doctor well in advance so that you are mentally prepared for the pain that will come post the surgery. The type of pain, duration, radiation to surrounding areas, etc., will help to plan in pain management. While back surgery produces spasms, abdominal surgery can cause cramps in the stomach. If you have pre-existing conditions like chronic pain, the pain is likely to get worse.
  2. Beat the pain: After surgery, take the pain medication before the anesthetic effect wears off. This gives enough time for the medication to kick in before the effect of anesthesia wears off. Else, there could be a period of intense pain, which can be quite difficult to manage. Though some people avoid pain medications, take them if you need. Also, if you had side effects with any, let your medical team know so that an alternative medicine can be prescribed.
  3. Emotional management: A surgery comes with a lot of anxiety and depression. This could be due to social, financial, physical, and emotional reasons. Pain is a lot more emotional than physical, so preparing for pain helps in dealing with it better. Talking to friends and family can be really help you deal with the entire situation and If required, you can reach out to social workers or counsellors so that you are at ease with other issues and manage pain better.
  4. Alternative therapies: For some, in addition to the painkillers, therapies like mild yoga, acupressure, meditation, music, and other relaxation techniques work wonders. They soothe the mind and make sure pain is lot reduced. They also improve blood circulation and thereby promote healing. Quicker healing promotes pain relief, making it further easy.
  5. Types of pain relief measures: Depending on the severity of the postsurgical pain, one of the following may be used
    • PCA or patient-controlled analgesia: The patient can program the amount of pain medicine via a small pump.
    • Nerve blocks: This is useful to control pain over a specific area supplied by a nerve.
    • Oral pills: In mild to moderate cases, tablets are given to control pain. Depending on their duration of action, repeat doses are planned. Narcotics could be used initially before switching to non-narcotic painkillers.

​​In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

196 people found this helpful

Laparoscopic Hernia Repair - What Should You Know

F.I.A.G.E.S , MNAMS (Membership of The National Academy) (General Surgery), DNB (General Surgery), MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
Laparoscopic Hernia Repair - What Should You Know

Hernia refers to the condition when an organ or fatty tissue inside the body begins to protrude from its location. Hernias are mostly detected in the groin, belly, or the stomach region. They occur because of muscle weakness in the said region where it is detected but they can be treated with surgery. In most cases, a surgery is prescribed and laparoscopic hernia repair is a very popular surgical procedure that has proven to be successful in most of the cases. This is why a growing number of patients decide to go for it.

Laparoscopic hernia repair: procedure: In this surgical procedure, a laparoscope (an instrument with a high-resolution camera and high-intensity light) is passed inside the abdomen through small incisions that varies between 0.5 and 1.5 inches in length. When the laparoscope moves inside the abdomen, it sheds light on the hernia and sends the images to the monitor connected to it. The surgeon views the hernia on the monitor and then the abdominal cavity is made to swell with carbon dioxide so that the surgeon can find enough space to operate the hernia. Once this is done, the surgeons operate the hernia with tiny surgical instruments. Once the hernia is removed, space or the hole is covered with a mesh from inside the abdomen.

Advantages of laparoscopic hernia repair: The laparoscopic procedure is popular because it is comfortable for the patient in many ways. They have to endure lesser post-operative pain as compared to open surgery, which means the recovery is quicker. They require lesser drugs for healing and the patient can get back to work in fewer days. It is an advanced form of surgery and thus, gives better results.

Disadvantages of laparoscopic hernia repair: While the non-invasive laparoscopic surgery has several advantages, it also comes with some drawbacks. It is lengthier in comparison to open surgery and also costs more. It cannot be performed by all the surgeons and only those who are skilled in this type of surgery can do justice to the different cases of a hernia. 

Recovery after laparoscopic hernia repair: The patient takes one to two weeks after the surgery to return to light activity and daily routine. Nevertheless, heavy exercise and strenuous activity should be avoided until four weeks after the surgery. The full recovery time differs from patient to patient depending on their age, gender, and health condition but one month is the average time for full recovery.

555 Manish Technique for inguinal hernia repair:

Totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) repair of inguinal hernia is now a standard surgical technique. A 12 mm incision in infra-umbilical region for Hasson trocar is must for TEP repair of inguinal hernia. This is the only technique known to laparoscopic surgeons. We have innovated a "555 Technique" for completing Mini TEP repair of inguinal hernia by using all three 5 mm ports.

555 Technique" is a feasible option without compromising the principles of TEP repair for inguinal hernia. Innovation of simple "Manish Retractor" is the key in completing Mini TEP repair. This technique is simple, less invasive, less morbid, and cost effective as it avoids dependence over costly Hasson trocar with better cosmetic results. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

245 people found this helpful

Weight Loss Surgery - Know Its Types!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Weight Loss Surgery - Know Its Types!

Weight loss surgery or bariatric surgery helps lose weight in those people who are about 100 pounds (male) and 80 pounds (female). It helps individual resolve obesity-related medical problems.

Types of Weight Loss Surgeries-

1. Gastric Band

A band is put around stomach tightly which divides the stomach into two sections, namely smaller upper and larger lower which is connected through a small tube by which emptying of the upper part becomes slow. Since less food is required to fill this pouch; there is no need to eat much. The band is connected to a device under the skin. It can be tightened after 4-6 weeks after surgery.

Merits: Simpler method. Recovery is faster leaving a small scar.

Demerits: Lesser weight loss than other surgeries. The band might slip out. Vomiting can occur after overeating food quickly.

2. Sleeve Gastrectomy

In this procedure, a larger portion of the stomach is cut off, and the remaining smaller part is attached to the intestine. Smaller the stomach, lesser is the production of appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin. As a result, less food is taken in.

Merits: It is a simple method. As it does not involve intestines, the process of absorption takes place smoothly, and the patient does not fall short of nutrients.

Demerits: It is an irreversible process. It can cause infection and leaking of sleeve might take place.

3. Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion

In this procedure, a larger part (70%) of the stomach is cut off leaving the duodenum. The surgeon cuts the middle part of intestine attaches it to the duodenum. It is called duodenal switch. The leftover part of the intestine is again attached to the last part of intestine allowing pancreatic juices and bile to flow into that part. This is biliopancreatic division. Food passes directly into the small intestine limiting absorption of nutrients and calories, ultimately resulting in weight loss.

Merits: It is a fast method to lose weight, and the patient can eat large amounts of food.

Demerits: Nutritional deficiencies are seen.

4. Gastric Ballooning

A small balloon filled with salt and water is placed in the stomach through a thin tube via throat.Merits: The patient feels full and will not be able to eat much.

Demerits: It is a temporary method, which can last only for 6 months.

5. Gastric Bypass

In this procedure, the surgeon divides the stomach into two parts, namely upper and lower. Here, the upper part of the stomach is directly connected to the last part of the intestine.

Merits: More than 50% weight loss take place, as much weight gets reduced, and conditions, such as diabetes and blood pressure come under control.

Demerits: As less of nutrients are absorbed, the patient might land up into anemia and nutritional deficiency. The patient might need to take supplements after surgery to maintain balance. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3279 people found this helpful

Thyroid Surgery - When Should You Consider Going For It?

MCh - Pediatric Surgery, MRCS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, MBBS
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Thyroid Surgery - When Should You Consider Going For It?

The thyroid gland is located on the front base of the neck and its shape is like a butterfly. The thyroid gland plays a significant role in our body by secreting several hormones that are collectively called as thyroid hormones. These hormones regulate different processes throughout the body such as influencing the metabolism, body temperature and keeping the other organs to function properly. Sometimes, the thyroid gland is affected by various disorders such as goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland), hyperthyroidism (over-production of thyroid hormone), hypothyroidism (insufficient production of thyroid hormone), and thyroid cancer. Thyroid surgery is also called, thyroidectomy and is used to treat thyroid disorders.

Here are some common reasons why thyroid surgery is advised:

  1. Thyroid cancer: Cancer of the thyroid gland is one of the most common reasons to perform the thyroid surgery. Depending on the conditions and stage of cancer, removal of most of the part of the thyroid gland, if not all, is considered as the treatment option. Surgery is considered an imperative option when small nodules or tumors are present in the gland and some of these nodules are precancerous or cancerous.
  2. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid): The second reason of thyroidectomy is hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is the condition in which thyroid gland produces a large amount of thyroxine hormone (it is the main hormone of the thyroid gland). If the patients don’t respond to the other treatment options such as anti-thyroid medications or if they don’t want to undergo radioactive iodine therapy, thyroid surgery may be a right option.
  3. Goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland): Another reason of thyroidectomy is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. The condition, in which thyroid gland swells or enlarges, is known as goiter. In the condition of goiter, the benign nodules become large enough to cause different problems. Thyroid surgery is the right option for the treatment of these problems that include difficulty in eating, breathing or speaking; the patient feeling uncomfortable, and the overproduction of thyroxine hormone.

Types of thyroid surgeries:
Although there are different types of thyroid surgeries the most common types are:

  1. Lobectomy: It involves removing one of the two lobes of thyroid gland when the inflammation or nodule affects only half of the gland.
  2. Subtotal thyroidectomy: It involves removing the thyroid gland but the surgeon leaves a small amount of thyroid tissue behind.
  3. Total thyroidectomy: It involves removing the complete thyroid gland and thyroid tissue. It is done to treat cancer or when the inflammation affects the entire gland.

Conclusion: 
Thyroid disorders can be treated with various treatment options but it is better to have a thyroid surgery if the underlying thyroid disorder becomes severe. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1853 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

How to recover a acl tore ligament injury. I am using knee cap. Being a medical student I am afraid of surgery. As doctor told that the surgery will take place. Does physiotherapy can recover it?

MBBS, AFRCSI, FRCS - Trauma & Orthopedic
Orthopedist, Chennai
ACL mid substance tear will not heal, while bony avulsion can heal. You can walk without ACL surgery but if you plan to play sports then you need surgery. If you have any instability then would recommend surgery.

I have two question. I want to know lipoma removal by surgery is suggested or the person can continue with it. The another question is about varicose vein surgery is required or not.

Fellowship in Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery, Fellowship in Advanced Laproscopy & Bariatric Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
1. Lipoma. Depending on the size and location, it can be removed sooner. Chances of Lipoma converting to a cancer is rare. 2. Varicose veins are best to be treated early. One would get best results when the treatment is performed before the veins get too enlarged.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
Play video
Preparing For Brain Surgery
Hi,

My name is much that you tell and I am a neurosurgeon at Wockhardt hospitals in Mumbai central as well as an assistant professor at the grant Medical College and sir JJ group of hospitals. I am going to talk to you about how can one prepare for brain surgery once one is diagnosed with a problem that requires a brain operation.

You could be even having a brain tumor or a vascular problem in the brain or refractory epilepsy requires something called as a craniotomy. It can be Priya Nursing for the patient is well as for the family we usually do all investigations on an outpatient basis and ensure that the patient is fit for surgery to undergo a pre-anesthetic evaluation and make sure that all the blood tests are in order typically used something called as neuronavigation.

At surgery which enables us to approach the exact location of the problem in a three-dimensional space in gases towards that location of patients ask me if there will head is going to be saved before surgery news me that's not the case which is save strip of hair along which where we meet me in station. So what typically happens is patience cremated one day prior to surgery the anaesthesia doctor takes 1 final look at them to make sure that heart rate blood pressure everything is under control and the next morning there being into the operating room xxvi anaesthesia doctors will wake you up a certain monitors the ECG leads extra before putting a tube done your throat to give you something college general anaesthesia when which your unconscious throw the operation there are some operations where in which humans are located in elopement areas of the brain and we need patients to be awake so that we can check their motor function and actually we can do the operation when patients are awake and talking to US and moving the hands and legs and that's something college in awake craniotomy which requires a slightly different preparation the operation takes place and the extremely sterile conditions and everything is cleaned and raped in a systematic fashion the protocol of which is completely standardized you make a skin incision usually using a drill remove the part of the bone that is wire to be removed.

When there is a covering of the brain called the dura which is what we cut and then enter the appropriate space and deal with the pathology it will be the beer tumor it will be a vascular malformation it could be anything that requires to be removed or transacted or disconnected usually Brain Tumor operation last for about 3 or 4 hours on an average it could be longer depending on the case what happens is 13 belt with the pathology we close that layer of dura back and we replace the bone flap and we fix it with plates and screws are often than not activated immediately after the operation in the operating room itself very rarely if the operation is really long or there is a lot of blood loss be kept overnight on a ventilator in extubated the next morning in the ICU typically there will into the ICU for about 24 hours after surgery.

Play video
Partial And Total Knee Replacement Surgery
Hi!

This is Dr. Hitesh Kubadia, I m an orthopedic and joint replacement surgeon, specializing in minimally invasion joint replacement surgeries using the muscles sparing approach. I also do a lot of partial knee replacement i.e. called a unicompartmental knee replacement which is the next thing in trying to preserve as much as natural tissue as possible.

I m here to explain something about osteoarthritis of the knee which is a very common problem faced by lot of elderly population and it disabled them in day to day life. These are the small models of the knee here so that I can explain it to you all and you all can understand what is the actual problem here. Now if you look at this is the knee model so if you look at the knee the knee is made up of a lower portion of the femur and upper portion of the tibia, so this is covered by a cartilage here, this blue thing which is marked up here is the cartilage and this is a very smooth glistening surface which allows for frictionless movement across the knee. OK.

As we age as we creates strains in this cartilages, these cartilages develop some bumps in their surfaces. So this surface doesn t become as smooth as it once was. As we age as the friction keeps on increasing with a period of time this gets worn out completely. So much so that the underline bone gets starting visible and this causes tremendous frictions on your movement and causes pain. As people still pull on and then what happen this all the 3 compartments of the knee, the medial compartment, the latter compartment and the front compartment and the inner compartment the outer compartment and the compartment which is in the front all get worn out.

.So this causes pain and disability and pain for the patient and effects the day to day activities of life. Osteoarthritis has various forms of treatments, initially, everything is nonsurgical so when you try all those non-surgical methods to relief so that your life continues with lot of more than ease. But when these non-surgical methods like injections in the knee or physical therapy and injections in the knee start failing to give you enough relief then we need to think about surgical options.

So when we see on the x-ray on the clinically examine the patient and we see only one compartment of the knee which is damaged and the other part of the knee is very healthy it makes sense to do only you know change only that compartment of the knee which is actually causing the problem for the patient. So what is done here, as you look at this model is the friction between only in this compartment of the knee the other compartment of the knee is nice and smooth so what is done is only this compartment is changed. So what is changed with is you just resurface the area which is actually damaged and the resurface the lower portion that is damaged so which we removed this portion of the lower portion of the tibia and what is replaced by a small alloy of cobalt chrome and other cobalt chrome alloy at the plate this plate and medical grey plastic is inserted between the two surfaces and this movement becomes more than glistening over the period of time.

So this gives relief and gives fantastic relief again this is a minimally invasive surgery and since all the ligaments and the part of the knee is preserved and they are natural and they are glistening so the feel of the knee is much more natural and we have now enough reports across the world. These things lasting for even 20 years there is actually slowly passing the results of a traditional total knee replacement. We just spoke about the partial knee replacement but when we see the arthritis is confined to all the three compartments so this is no point in changing only the one part of the knee so that s we come to the total knee replacement. So that s what gives the patient long-term relief.

Again this done through a minimally invasive approach, muscle sparing approach so that the recovery time is much faster and much shorter. Right! So here we look at this model see this the whole knee is damaged the inner compartment the outer compartment the whole knee is damaged. So what is done here? Again resurfacing part so only the damaged portion of the cartilage and bit of bone is removed like this and we changed the whole thing off, and this is replaced with a cobalt chrome allow base plate and a medical grey plastic. Again on the femur side again cobalt chrome alloy which is fitted across. This is fitted to the bone with bone cement and this gives you lasting movements and comfortable movements across life. If you are or your family members face knee pain or hip pain in day to day life and they need a consultation with me they are most welcome to contact us through HKS Clinic or through lybrate.com
Play video
Myths Of Hair Transplant
Hello! This is Dr. Shaurya Rohatgi, consultant dermatologist and hair transplant surgeon from Mumbai.

I will be addressing the various myths that are associated with hair transplant which creates a lot of confusion and fears in the minds of patients. Firstly hair transplant is just a re-arrangement of hair from the back to the front of the scalp which is effected with baldness and loss of hairline. Earlier techniques required cutting and suturing which would create an ugly scar at the back of the scalp. The latest FUE technique which we use is safe done under local anesthesia and is a scarless procedure.

We simply extract hair from the back of the hair which are called follicular units and implant them to the front thus creating a new hairline in a balding patient. Hence this procedure is called Follicular Unit Extraction. There are no cuts, sutures and bleeding are minimal. Since this is a minor surgery post-procedure period is comfortable, painless and the patient can resume work shortly. To get back to youthful look say no to baldness and say yes to hair transplant please make an appointment with me at lybrate.com.
Play video
Laparoscopic Surgery & Repair For Hernia
I m Dr. Gorakshanath Khomane. I m Laparoscopic consultant surgeon in Kandivali Manat working in Sanchaiti and Suchak hospital.

Today we are talking about hernias. What is hernia? Hernia is a it occurs when organs or fatty tissues which squeezes out through some part into the surrounding tissue, connected tissue and surrounding fascia, is called hernia. Hernia usually is of different types. There are inguinal hernias; which are lower abdomen hernias, then femoral hernias, incisional hernias, umbilical hernias also called as belly button hernia. Inguinal hernias are most common hernias, these are around 96% hernias are inguinal hernias. These are above the groin areas and then usually they are present in man commonly in man. Femoral hernia are common in females which is below the groin, it is usually protrude out through the femoral canal which is the femoral vessels and it comes into the upper thigh. Then umbilical hernia is at the umbilicus around the umbilicus which usually protrude through the umbilical area. It is weak part due to obesity or sometimes in childhood newborn, sometimes due to poor nutrition, and in elderly it is quite common. Where is another hernia called as incisional hernia, these hernia are due to some surgeries on the abdominal cavity which causes incisions and then there is weakness in the inner part which they through which the intestine or the contents of the abdominal cavity protrudes out into the surrounding tissues and causes the obsessions and triangulation. These are common in elderly people and or in women. The another hernia is hiatal hernia which is totally different. In this hernia the stomach protrudes through the abdominal cavity into the chest through hiatus of diaphragm. So what are the causes of these hernias? Mainly there is a pressure increased pressure in the abdominal cavity and weakening of the abdominal muscle wall. Main things are like lifting heavy weight without stabilizing the abdominal wall muscles, then obesity then nutritional poor nutritional diet so that there is a weakness of abdominal wall, continuous loose motions or diarrhea or constipation. Sometimes also there is persistent coughing, sneezing, which can cause these types of hernias. In elderly patient where benign enlargement of prostate can cause resistance of frequency of urine straining of urine which also can cause hernias.

How to diagnose hernia? For diagnosing hernia one thing is that physical examination by a healthcare provider is very important by which you can actually diagnose hernia. Second ultrasound of the abdominal wall abdominal cavity by which you can know the different types of hernia. Third is taking x-ray abdomen in which you can see whether there is option of the intestine or not. Sometimes you can do CT scan of the abdomen, the triangulation of the hernia is present or if the obstruction of the abdominal wall or the abdominal cavity because of the intestinal obstruction it can be diagnosed. How to treat hernia? In babies umbilical hernias can get resolved of its own in the beginning periods of the years. Sometimes it may remain and it can increase in size then it has to be treated. In elderly age or in later age groups if the hernia occurs then simply you can monitor it you can be with the hernia but then it is risky. Sometimes intestines can get strangulated there it can obstruct the complete bowl and there will be swelling of the abdomen there will be risk of life because of perforation of the intestine or shock or sometimes death. So it has to be treated it should be treated in conventional manner in recent advances there are other moralities of the surgeries. Conventionally they is to treat the hernia with mentoplasty where the mesh is kept on the part where the gap is there where the defect is there the defect is closed and then the mentoplasty is done. That is done usually in the conventional surgery which is called as herniorrhaphy. In all these hernias the mesh is used nowadays. There are other recent moralities via a laparoscopically where putting the telescope inside you put the hernia mesh on the defect and you close it properly, Trans abdominally or proportionally you can do it. Umbilical hernia can also be done by laparoscopy by which you can put double layer mesh and repair the umbilical hernia. Whereby you can actually move on very fast you can life start early, the movement or conversant period is very less and risk is less. So nowadays the laparoscopic hernia repair is given a choice and should be done. Hernia may reoccur after surgeries so preventive measures has to be taken care. Preventive measures has to be done so that the hernia should not occur.

For further and more information on hernia or treatment of hernia you can contact at me by through lybrate.com or booking an appointment. Thank you!
Play video
Common Liposuction Myths Debunked
Hi,

I am Dr Ashutosh Misra enhance clinics.

Today we will be talking about liposuction and clearing the myths about liposuction. Liposuction is a wonderful and a very safe procedure to get rid of your unwanted body fat. The most important thing to understand is who are the candidates for liposuction again liposuction is to get rid of unwanted fat, person maybe of their normal body mass index but may have some unwanted body fats say in face, arms, tummy or thighs. Now this unwanted fat is because of the high concentration of fat cells which are there in that particular area and this is something which is genetically determined and you cannot get rid of it through just exercise and diet. So liposuction helps to get rid of that excess fat in those particular areas, so we call it as liposuction as a body contouring surgery not as a weight reduction surgery, having said that liposuction also helps in weight reduction and that is the second part of the liposuction when you have a body mass index which is more than normal and you are suffering from obesity not to that extent but yes unwanted fat in the abdomen and all. For this, we do liposuction to decrease a large volume of fats say more than around 4-5 litres which we called as large volume liposuction and that helps to decrease the weight as well. So just removing the fat does not actually decrease your weight but post liposuction doing a good amount of exercise that we tell our patients and a diet program help you to decrease the weight over a period of say 3 months. Post liposuction, we have to wear certain special garments and for around 3 months because the best results comes around 3 months time and you have to talk to your doctor about it how to wear it and what are the things you have to take precaution. It is a very safe procedure but if done by an expert, so you have to choose your doctor well, that's the most important thing and you should have realistic expectation what a liposuction can do. Some people think fat comes out and the skin becomes loose, no liposuction is a wonderful procedure about that it also causes skin contraction, so the technique of the liposuction is very important as if how much skin has to go and what we actually need about it. If we feel there is an extra skin which cannot go even by liposuction then the procedure becomes either a mini tuck or a complete tummy tuck to get rid of your extra skin. It's a day care procedure come in the morning and go back home in the evening or if you want to stay if it is a larger procedure say more than 4 litres, you stay overnight in the hospital and then go back home the very next morning. The pressure garments are from the start of the surgery and for first one month almost most of the time of the day, after one month it is around 12 hours when you are in your daily exercise and normal routine you can take off your pressure garments after around in the night time when you are taking rest. The other myths about liposuction is people think that fat comes back, no, the number of fat cells in the body are constant after a certain, age at a very young age, it's only the size of fat that can increase or decrease, if it become obese or normal. So when we are taking out the number of fat cells, the numbers of fat cells do not increase in body. It may only increase in their size or decrease in the size and that can be control with the help of diet. So once you get a good body shape once you get a good body shape than that shape won't be distorted but if you become obese gain weight later on the shape will remain the same but it will be you become more wide or more narrow. So, that is what a liposuction does.

Thank you.
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