The word 'Hysterectomy' is derived from its Greek root 'Hysteria' which means the womb and 'Ektomia' implying to cut out of. A Hysterectomy surgery concerns the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. It can also mean the surgical removal of the uterus, ovaries and the cervix. So technically, a Hysterectomy surgery means that the woman can never be a biological mother again.
This type of a surgery, which is one of the most common gynaecological procedures performed, does become important in certain scenarios. It can either be a total (removal of the uterus along with the cervix) or a partial (removal of the uterus but not the cervix).
A Hysterectomy surgery can be carried out for the following reasons: uterine fibroids (the common non-cancerous growths on the uterus muscles), uterine prolapse (a benign condition wherein the uterus drops into the vagina from its usual spot), endometriosis (a condition characterized by the growth of the uterus lining tissues outside the uterus), cancer and hyperplasia ( thickening of the uterus lining resulting in bleeding).
A Hysterectomy Surgery usually takes about two hours at the maximum. General anesthesia is administered after which, an IV catheter will be inserted to supply medications and other fluids.
The process of hysterectomy depends on the type of the surgery. In the case of abdominal hysterectomy, first, an incision (either transverse or vertical) of about 7 inches is made in the lower abdomen. The supportive tissues and the blood vessels around the uterus are excised and then the uterus is taken out through the incision. Finally, the incision is closed. A major advantage of this type is that hysterectomy can be performed even if there is scarring or presence of large fibroids. In the case of vaginal hysterectomy, an incision is made around the top of the woman's vagina. After the ligaments, fallopian tubes and the blood vessels are cut off, the uterus is taken out through the vagina. The advantage here is that scarring is minimal with almost no operative pain. The patient can resume normal activities within a month. However, the chances of complications are more in the case of a vaginal hysterectomy. In the case of Laparoscopically assisted vaginal Hysterectomy, the same procedure is followed with a laparoscope assisting the doctor.
The Hysterectomy surgery is opted for only if other methods haven't been able to provide results. The most common eligibility criteria include:
There are no non-eligibility criteria as such, however:
The possible side effects include:
The basic post-operative guidelines are:
For an abdominal hysterectomy, complete recovery can take about a month to 8 weeks. However, for vaginal/laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomies, the downtime is much shorter; about 1-2 weeks.
The price of hysterectomy in India will range between Rs.1,82,000 to Rs.2,40,000.
Yes, a Hysterectomy surgery offers a permanent solution to the treatment of fibroids.
As a woman goes through life, her hormonal levels change quite dramatically and this can be quite impactful. However, sometimes the impact is not a good one! This can be said to be the cause when it comes to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. This sort of bleeding occurs when the levels the hormones are at cause the menstrual cycle of the woman to become erratic.
Understanding the Diagnosis
When it comes to the diagnosis of an issue such as this, the process must include the ruling out of other more serious problems such as fibroids, a miscarriage, or even cancer which has affected the cervix or the uterus of the woman.
A doctor, post-ruling out these situations, will inform the patient, if dysfunctional uterine bleeding is what is being experienced. When it comes to the matter of how dysfunctional uterine bleeding is to be dealt with, it can be said that the best thing which is to be done is to sit down with the doctor and have a comprehensive chat with respect to what the solutions which are available at hand are.
A dysfunctional uterine bleeding is something which can mar a woman’s daily life, but it really needs not be the case!
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Every woman has a unique system, especially when it comes to matters like menstrual cycles and pregnancy. There are some women who go through normal bleeding while for others, it may be less than ideal. Also, there are women who may experience a condition known as Menorrhagia which is characterised by excessively heavy bleeding during menstrual cycles. Cramping and bleeding for longer than a week are the most common symptoms of this condition. Here are ways to treat this condition.
The surgical procedure that is used for uterus removal of a female patient is known as a hysterectomy. From uterine fibroids to cancer in the uterus, there may be a variety of reasons for carrying out this procedure. Here is everything you need to know about the procedure and recovery.
Causes: There are a number of reasons for which one may have to undergo a hysterectomy. If uterine fibroids and other kinds of growth are causing severe pelvic pain and bleeding, then it may be required. This also applied to particularly painful endometriosis. Abnormal vaginal bleeding as well as severe and chronic pelvic pain, are enough of reasons by themselves for going in for this kind of surgery to remove the uterus. Also, when the uterus slides away from its normal position and slips into the vaginal canal, this signifies a condition known as Uterine Prolapse, which will also require treatment in the form of a hysterectomy. Andenomyosis is another reason why this surgery may be required, as this condition results in the thickening of the organ. Finally, if the patient is suffering from cervical or ovarian cancer, then the doctor may recommend this surgery to remove the uterus in case the tumour found has been tested as malignant.
Technique: There are various techniques that may be followed in the course of this surgery, depending on the location, the size and the severity of the condition and the growth that is associated with it.
Risks: While this is mostly known as a low risk procedure, there may be various risks after the surgery including urinary incontinence, vaginal prolapse, formation of fistula where an abnormal link may form between the bladder and the vagina and finally, persistent pain. Infection, haemorrhage and blood clots may also happen in extreme cases.
Recovery: The female patient will automatically start menopause once this uterus removal procedure has been carried out. Usually, the doctor will ask you to refrain from lifting heavy weights for a few weeks after the surgery and also, to abstain from sex for a while. Most female patients reported complete cure of the problem following this surgery. Also, it is not common to find too many side effects after the surgery.
Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Fibroids, also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, are firm, compact tumors that are made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop in the uterus. It is estimated that between 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. Some estimates state that only about one-third of these fibroids are large enough to be detected by a doctor during a physical examination.
In more than 99 percent of fibroid cases, the tumors are benign (non-cancerous). These tumors are not associated with cancer and do not increase a woman's risk for uterine cancer. They may range in size, from the size of a pea to the size of a softball or small grapefruit.
Causes: While it is not clearly known what causes fibroids, it is believed that each tumor develops from an aberrant muscle cell in the uterus, which multiplies rapidly because of the influence of estrogen.
Some women who have fibroids have no symptoms, or have only mild symptoms, while other women have more severe, disruptive symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms for uterine fibroids:
Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods
Abnormal bleeding between menstrual periods
Pelvic pain (caused as the tumor presses on pelvic organs)
Low back pain
Pain during intercourse
A firm mass, often located near the middle of the pelvis, which can be felt by the doctor on examination
In some cases, the heavy or prolonged menstrual periods, or the abnormal bleeding between periods, can lead to iron-deficiency anemia, which also requires treatment.
Diagnosis: Fibroids are most often found during a routine pelvic examination. This, along with an abdominal examination, may indicate a firm, irregular pelvic mass to the physician. In addition to a complete medical history and physical and pelvic and/or abdominal examination, diagnostic procedures for uterine fibroids may include:
Transvaginal ultrasound (also called ultrasonography). An ultrasound test using a small instrument called a transducer, that is placed in the vagina.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A non-invasive procedure that produces a two-dimensional view of an internal organ or structure.
Hysterosalpingography. X-ray examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes that use dye and is often performed to rule out tubal obstruction.
Hysteroscopy. Visual examination of the canal of the cervix and the interior of the uterus using a viewing instrument (hysteroscope) inserted through the vagina.
Blood test (to check for iron-deficiency anemia if heavy bleeding is caused by the tumor).
Treatment: Since most fibroids stop growing or may even shrink as a woman approaches menopause, the doctor may simply suggest "watchful waiting." With this approach, the doctor monitors the woman's symptoms carefully to ensure that there are no significant changes or developments and that the fibroids are not growing.
In women whose fibroids are large or are causing significant symptoms, treatment may be necessary. Treatment will be determined by the doctor based on:
Your overall health and medical history
Extent of the disease
Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the disease
Your opinion or preference
Your desire for pregnancy
In general, treatment for fibroids may include:
Hysterectomy. Hysterectomies involve the surgical removal of the entire uterus.
Conservative surgical therapy. Conservative surgical therapy uses a procedure called a myomectomy. With this approach, physicians will remove the fibroids, but leave the uterus intact to enable a future pregnancy.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH agonists). This approach lowers levels of estrogen and triggers a "medical menopause." Sometimes GnRH agonists are used to shrink the fibroid, making surgical treatment easier.
Anti-hormonal agents. Certain drugs oppose estrogen (such as progestin and Danazol), and appear effective in treating fibroids. Anti-progestins, which block the action of progesterone, are also sometimes used.
Uterine artery embolization. Also called uterine fibroid embolization, uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a newer minimally-invasive (without a large abdominal incision) technique. The arteries supplying blood to the fibroids are identified, then embolized (blocked off). The embolization cuts off the blood supply to the fibroids, thus shrinking them. Health care providers continue to evaluate the long-term implications of this procedure on fertility and regrowth of the fibroid tissue.
Anti-inflammatory painkillers. This type of drug is often effective for women who experience occasional pelvic pain or discomfort. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
What is a hysterectomy?
This is a surgery that is used to remove the ovaries or even the uterus. This surgery is usually conducted in order to deal with the extreme conditions that may be caused by the severe onset of various conditions related to the reproductive system of women. Read on to find out why this surgery carried out and what are the after effects?
Causes: This surgery can be carried out for a variety of reasons. One of the main reason is the manifestation of uterine fibroids that can cause severe pain and bleeding. These fibroids will have to be removed surgically and in case they have spread, the uterus will have to be removed entirely. Also, if the condition has spread to the ovaries, it may be imperative to remove the ovaries as well. Furthermore, if the patient is suffering from endometriosis, where the tissue has spread too much and cannot be contained merely by medication or other forms of treatment, then the doctor will have to conduct a hysterectomy surgery in order to remove the affected areas of the reproductive area. Also, other conditions for which this surgery may be required include adenomyosis, chronic pain in the pelvic area, cancer of the uterus, cervical cancer and uterine prolapse.
Procedure: A hysterectomy is performed under anesthesia, and the doctor makes a five to seven inch incision in the abdomen for an open surgery. The doctor will then continue to remove the uterus through this incision. Also, usually, the patient will have to spend about three to four days in the hospital following this surgery. A vaginal hysterectomy may also be conducted for certain cases, depending on the type and severity of the condition that has led to this form of treatment. For this kind of surgery, the incisions will be made in the vaginal area.
After effects: Starting from hormonal imbalances to early menopause, this surgery can leave significant after effects in its trail. The patients who have been through this surgery will be asked to abstain from heavy physical work that involves lifting heavy objects and bending. Also, the doctor will recommend abstinence from sex. One will have to avoid these things for a period of at least six weeks after the surgery. In many cases, the patient may also go through heavy menstrual bleeding.
Doctor visits: In case the bleeding and hot flashes are excessive, then the patient will have to consult a doctor and take further appointments so that the condition may not reoccur. Also, the doctor will usually prescribe supplements like vitamins, which must be taken on a regular basis after the surgery to avoid any complications at a later date.