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Overview

Infertility: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Infertility refers to a condition when a woman cannot conceive even after having carefully timed and unprotected sex for over a year. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of infertility. However, it may occur due to inadequate levels of some hormones in both men and women and also due to trouble with ovulation in women. A man suffers from infertility if the semen that he ejaculates contains less number of sperms and if the sperm is of low quality. In such a scenario, a man will not be able to reproduce.

There are different factors which can contribute to a man getting infertile. A man can suffer from infertility if he suffers from a condition called varicoceles, or from diseases or conditions like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, trauma, infection, testicular failure or has been exposed to chemotherapy or radiation. Other causes may include alcohol addiction, smoking, use of anabolic steroids and exposure to environmental toxins. A woman can suffer from infertility if any of the organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes or the uterus gets damaged.

Treating infertility in men involves treatment for premature ejaculation, varicoceles, blockage of the ejaculation duct, retrograde ejaculation and also surgery for epididymal blockage. A woman may have to take some medications if she is suffering from ovulation disorders. Other treatments for women include intrauterine insemination and even surgery to restore fertility.

How is the treatment done?

A doctor may advise a couple to have more sex per week so as to enable the woman to conceive. However, infertility in men can be due to a number of different reasons and their treatments differ too. Medication and behavioral therapy can help a man to overcome general sexual problems like premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. A varicose vein in the scrotum, which can cause infertility, can be surgically removed. In case of blockage of the ejaculatory duct, sperm can be injected into an egg in the laboratory after it has been extracted directly from the testicles. Retrograde ejaculation is treated by taking sperm directly from the bladder and later injected into eggs. The epididymis is a coil-like structure in the testicles that help to store and transport sperm. Surgery can help to remove the blockage if it gets blocked.

A woman suffering from ovulation disorders will be prescribed fertility drugs like clomifene, metformin, human menopausal gonadotrophin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, bromocriptine and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition to these, there are surgical procedures for women. Fallopian tube surgery helps to repair damaged or scarred fallopian tubes and makes it easier for eggs to pass through them. Laparoscopic surgery also helps to increase fertility.

There are some methods which help in assisted conception like intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, donating sperm or egg, assisted hatching and surgical sperm aspiration.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A man should becomes eligible for treatment after he has been diagnosed as suffering from such by a doctor. This is because there are no apparent signs or symptoms of infertility in men. The quantity and quality of the semen also appear normal to the naked eye. Therefore the tests that can identify infertility in men are semen analysis, hormone testing, genetic testing, testicular biopsy, imaging and other specialty testing. In case of women, some of the conditions that may make them infertile are irregular or no menstrual periods, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, very painful periods or multiple miscarriages. Some of the specific fertility tests that help to understand whether a woman is infertile are ovulation testing, hysterosalpingography, ovarian reserve testing, hormone testing and imaging tests.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A person is known to be infertile if he/she has not being able to have a baby even after having frequent and unprotected sex for a year. A man or woman is not eligible for treatment if he/she has been able to make the partner conceive/ conceive herself after having unprotected sex. A person is also not eligible if none of the tests have been able to diagnose him/her as suffering from the condition.

Are there any side effects?

Oral fertility drugs produce milder effects than injectable fertility drugs. The most common side-effects of fertility drugs are bloating, breast tenderness, upset stomach, hot flashes, mood swings and headache. The side effects of gonadotrophins are headache, upset stomach, mood swings, acne, weight gain, abnormal menstrual bleeding, dizziness and even upper respiratory tract infection. Some of the serious side effects of fertility drugs are changes in vision, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian torsion, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and allergic reactions. However, the most common side-effect of infertility treatment is a multiple pregnancy.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

A person should adopt a healthy lifestyle to make sure that he/she does not get affected by this condition. Smoking and consumption of alcohol increases the risks of infertility and should be avoided. It is of utmost importance for an overweight man to lose some weight. Both men and women should exercise as a sedentary lifestyle increases the risks of infertility. Furthermore, a healthy diet containing adequate quantities of folic acid, iron, zinc and vitamin B-12 should be adopted. A person should also reduce stress as it reduces the chances of conception.

How long does it take to recover?

A woman who has undergone laparoscopic surgery can probably go home on the day of the surgery itself. However, a woman will take about 2-3 weeks to recover from the surgery. Research has shown a person can again reproduce within a time span of 2 months- 2 years after successful treatment. A lot of factors determine how soon a person will recover after taking infertility drugs. Some of the factors are the person’s age, health, medical issues and others. A person taking clomiphene will normally see positive results after 5-12 days of taking the last clomiphene pill.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost of laparoscopic surgery in India generally ranges between Rs 1 lakh to Rs 2 lakhs. The surgery to remove the varicose vein in the scrotum of a man may cost something between Rs 90,000 and Rs 1,50,000. Clomephene, used to treat infertility in women, costs around Rs 650 per cycle. The prices may vary with other variations of this drug. An ICSI treatment costs between Rs 1,50,000 to RS 2,50,000 while Frozen Embryo Transfer procedure will cost a patient an additional Rs 1,20,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

A person who has undergone successful treatment for infertility is generally able to reproduce within 2 years. However, this is not a permanent result. A person may again have infertility problems due to leading an unhealthy lifestyle like smoking, drinking or by not being active. Some health issues also may have an effect on the fertility of men and women.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

When infertility issues come up due to hormonal problems, using a natural progesterone cream can help a person to address it. Consumption of herbs like red raspberry leaf, nettle leaf, dandelion, alfalfa, red clover, maca and chaste tree berry also help to cure infertility. Getting enough sleep has also proved to play an important part in treating infertility problems.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

1 lakhs to 3.7 lakhs

Popular Health Tips

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) - All You Need To Know!

Dr. Ruby Sehra 83% (38 ratings)
MD / MS - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) - All You Need To Know!
An in vitro fertilisation procedure carried out to counter the problem of male infertility is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Male infertility factors include poor quality of sperm, low sperm counts, poor sperm movement or the disability to penetrate an egg. Azoospermia is one such rare condition wherein there is no sperm in the semen. Through this injection, a single sperm can be injected into the egg directly. The fertilised egg is placed into the woman s uterus or the fallopian tubes. The first successful birth using this procedure was on January 1992 after the conception took place in April 1991. Collecting Sperm Sperm can be collected from the male through masturbation. If this procedure somehow fails then sperm can be removed through a surgery. Using a small incision, sperm can be withdrawn from the testicle and is used in the procedure. If the ejaculation of sperm is prevented due to a blockage or if the problem arises in the development of the sperm, surgery method is used. Injecting the sperm This is performed through the following steps. A specialised pipette or a glass tube is used to hold the egg, a single sperm is picked with the help of a sharp and delicate needle, the needle is then inserted carefully into the cytoplasm of the egg through the egg shell, then the sperm gets injected into the cytoplasm and the eggs are checked to see whether they have been adequately fertilized. After this process is done, eggs which are fertilised successfully are selected and placed into the uterus with the help of a catheter. The number of embryos an individual needs to transfer is determined depending on the age of the person and other health issues. For this purpose, a thorough full body check-up is carried out and the medical history is checked during the preliminary consultations. Expectations from the treatment The treatment of fertilisation using an Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be demanding, both physically and mentally for the woman (mother). An individual has to go through regular shots and monitoring including blood tests. There are moments when the shots can be painful for the woman undergoing the procedure. The reason behind the procedure When a male is having severe infertility issues, the method of ICSI is helpful. There are times when very little sperm or no sperm ejaculation, the eggs can be fertilised through this procedure. Testing of an embryo for genetic problems is also accomplished through this procedure. When in vitro fertilisation or IVF does not work even after trying repeatedly, then couples can undergo the treatment using ICSI. Success rate When ICSI is used along with better quality eggs, it is seen to be successful on many occasions. Especially for men who have sperm ejaculation issues.
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Ovarian Cysts - Symptoms And Treatment

Dr. Shruti Bhatia 92% (21 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Ovarian Cysts - Symptoms And Treatment
Ovaries are a part of a woman s reproductive system. The primary function of ovaries include producing ova or eggs and secreting hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. Cysts are fluid filled sacs that form the ovaries; they usually do not cause any symptom and are not painful. There are primarily two types of ovarian cysts: 1. Follicle cysts: During a woman s menstrual cycle, the egg develops in a sac known as the follicle. Under normal circumstances, the sac breaks open and releases the egg. When this doesn t happen, fluids start accumulating in the follicle to form a cyst. 2. Corpus luteum cysts: Follicle sacs dissolve after releasing the egg, but in some cases, these sacs remain and the opening of the sacs gets sealed. It again results in fluid accumulation, leading to the formation of corpus luteum cysts. Symptoms Usually, cysts do not cause any symptom. If the size of the cysts increases, they may cause symptoms such as stomach pain, pain during bowel movements and sex as well as pelvic floor pain. The breasts may become tender and one may experience rapid breathing. Other symptoms of ovarian cysts are fever, nausea and dizziness. Usually, rupturing of a cyst leads to these symptoms surfacing; hence you would know when exactly to call the doctor. Treatment The treatment options for ovarian cysts are: Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is carried out if the cysts are small in size. An incision is made close to the navel, through which an instrument is inserted to get rid of the cyst. Birth control pills: For chronic ovarian cysts, oral contraceptives are prescribed to stop the ovulation process in order to arrest the formation of cysts. Laparotomy: In case of large cysts, this procedure is recommended. A relatively bigger incision is made in the abdomen, through which the cyst is removed. Ovarian cysts, if left untreated, can certainly cause infertility. Pre-menopausal women and who suffer from frequent hormonal imbalances in the body are the most vulnerable to this condition.

How Homeopathy Helps Manage Infertility?

Dr. Sravani Purushothamaiah 87% (176 ratings)
MD (Hom)
Homeopath, Bangalore
How Homeopathy Helps Manage Infertility?
Most couples who get married intend to go the family route sooner or later. However for those who have been trying sexual intercourse for more than 6 months without any contraceptive aids and still have not succeeded in having a baby, the underlying cause may be infertility in one or both partners. Infertility affects up to 15% of couples trying to conceive and have a baby. Infertility, in medical terms, refers to a person s biological inability to contribute to conception. There are many biological causes that may make this happen, some of which can be medically corrected. The Homeopathic Approach to Treat Infertility The homeopathic approach towards the management of health problems is constitutional. The treatment takes into account the presenting complaints - the symptoms - along with the unique physical, mental and genetic make-up that individualizes a person. Homeopathic medicines act at the roots of all ailments. They can rectify deviations of the hormonal system and get them back to normalcy. The simple homeopathic procedure effectively and efficiently avoids complicated procedures that follow the common treatments of infertility. More specifically, the complete hormonal harmony greatly increases the chances of conception without the harmful and/or painful side effects of medications, devices and invasive procedures. The biggest advantage of homeopathic treatment is that even after the treatment, the high sperm count is maintained. The medicines involved are easy to take, since there are only sweet pills and drops. The homeopath plans the medication separately for every individual, by understanding his or her physical, as well as emotional and mental or spiritual imbalances. That is why this system becomes an excellent option for those seeking help with this issue, as it addresses health on a deep holistic level. The homeopath carefully prescribes the medicine that works on the real cause of infertility, along with other symptoms like any type of pain, stress, etc. There are no prerequisites to start a homeopathy treatment for infertility. Anyone who just came to know about their infertility problem or those who have tried other infertility treatments without any results can consult a homeopath. Homeopathy medicines can also be used with other treatment methods, but the homeopath should be informed about it to prevent any interfering actions. Final Tips For Infertility Treatments Using Homeopathy Homeopathy therapy works on male and female infertility in following way: It regulates and balances the body s hormones, menstrual cycle and enhances the ovulation process in females. In males, it helps to increase the sperm count, their mobility and also their morphology by naturally stimulating the body. It helps with emotional blockages, disturbances and ambiguous thought processes that may affect fertility. It helps with the stress, anxiety and depression problems for those who are trying to conceive. It also helps in curing the side-effects of various other fertility treatments. The homeopathic treatment for infertility is strictly individualistic. Whatever the reason that the patient opts for homeopathy, the treatment should be supported by a healthy diet and proper lifestyle, like avoiding alcohol and smoking.
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Hirsutism - Excessive Hair Growth in Women!

Dr. Sameer Pahlajani 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS
IVF Specialist, Raipur
Hirsutism - Excessive Hair Growth in Women!
There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism. What is Hirsutism? Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman. Why do some women develop Hirsutism? In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism. Causes of Hirsutism The common causes of hirsutism include: 1. Endocrine causes Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS. Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them. 2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens 3. Medications Long term steroid consumption (commonly used for immunosuppression, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis) Performance enhancing drugs (often used by athletes) 4. Idiopathic - the woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels Treatments There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment. Medical treatments for hirsutism - A. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body. B. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism. I. Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth. II. Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth. III. Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth. However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver. C. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance. D. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens. Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism - One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect. Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA. Related Tip: How Safe is Laser Surgery for Facial Hair Removal??
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Infertility - Role Of Homeopathy For It!

Dr. Sonali Sawale 83% (35 ratings)
MD, BHMS
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
Infertility - Role Of Homeopathy For It!
For most people, the natural progression of life includes meeting a suitable partner, getting married and having children. However, for some people, this last part can be tricky. The inability to conceive children after having well timed, unprotected intercourse for a year is known as infertility. Infertility is not a disease, but can be managed in a number of ways, including hormonal treatment, in vitro fertilization, surgery and homoeopathy. Homoeopathy is a holistic form of treatment that addresses the root of the problem and hence is a viable form of treatment for this condition. It treats the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual needs of a person. Homoeopathy treats infertility by: Regulating ovulation cycles Balancing hormones Increasing sperm count Reducing stress Dealing with anxiety and depression Reducing negative thoughts and emotions The key to treating infertility is to determine the cause of this condition. To this effect you and your partner may need to be tested for hormonal problems, the condition of your fallopian tubes, uterine fibroids and sperm density. The results of these tests and your constitution will determine the best form of homeopathic treatment for you. Some homeopathic remedies used to treat infertility are: Sepia: This homeopathic remedy is useful in cases where the woman has a tendency to miscarry the fetus. It can also be used to treat a prolapsed uterus and vagina and to regulate ovulation. It can also be prescribed to enhance a man s libido. Sabina: Women suffering from recurrent miscarriages may be treated with Sabina especially in cases where the miscarriage occurs in the third month of pregnancy. It is also prescribed in cases where periods are profuse and bright red in colour, and for women who suffer from inflammation of the ovaries and uterus after an abortion. Aurum: Infertility triggered by depression, and negativity can be treated with this homeopathic medicine. It is also beneficial in cases where an increased blood pressure is responsible for infertility. Additionally, it can help treat an enlarged or prolapsed uterus and painful swelling of the testicles. Phosphorus: If uterine polyps are the root cause of your infertility, phosphorus biochemic supplements can be beneficial. This supplement is also used in cases where anxiety and stress cause infertility. These homeopathic remedies can be used on their own or in combination with other medicines. When it comes to homoeopathy, there is no one-size-fits-all remedy. Although it has negligible side effects, you should not self medicate to treat infertility.
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Popular Questions & Answers

My sperm count is 80 million and Motility rapidly progressive are 20% Head defect - 15% and body defect 8%..I am taking paternia+,Vigorex-SF and Fertyl-M to increase motility, is this fine?

Dr. Dinesh Kumar Jagpal 95% (66557 ratings)
MBBS
Sexologist, Panchkula
Yes, this is fine. You can take these for one month and do SEMEN ANALYSIS TEST to see motility. For better guidance and natural, safe and permanent treatment to increase motility, consult me.
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I am 17 years old recently I had undergone an ultrasound in which it was revealed that my endometrial echo complex is just 6.7 mm thick on 20th day but my uterus size, ovaries and rest are normal I always have regular periods lasting for 4 days .Am I infertile.

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 91% (351 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Hello Lybrate users infertility depend on other factor like hormones changes with age and some unexpected cause too.

I am 17 years old recently I had undergone a pelvic ultrasound in which I found that my endometrial echo complex is just 6.7 mm thick so am I infertile.

Dr. Nidhi Sharma 91% (53 ratings)
Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery, M.S Obstetrics & Gynecology
IVF Specialist, Chandigarh
Dear lybrate-user, The thickness of endometrium varies throughout the month and just one reading does not tell much. 6.5 mm thickness is absolutely normal if it is not done in mid cycle. So relax Hope it helps.

We Do sex only two time without any protection because we want a baby but she's not getting pregnant. What should we do?

Dr. Jagadeesan M.S. 97% (10026 ratings)
MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
get your seminal fluid tested after 3-4 days of abstinence from sex, and if normal, she has to be tested by a gyne. All the best

What is the procedure of seminogram test means if I am going for seminogram test at what time is it good fasting or after eating food or drinking water.

Dr. Surbhi Agrawal 89% (18832 ratings)
PDDM, MHA, MBBS
General Physician, Nashik
Before the semen analysis, you should abstain from sexual activity minimum for 3 days, but no more than 7 days. Sex the day before analysis may lead to a decrease of volume and number of sperm in ejaculate. More than seven days abstinence before the semen analysis can lead to the death of the mature sperm cells, which are capable to fertilization. You should abstain from the use of alcohol or any other drugs (including “Spice”, marijuana) in any form in order to avoid sperm motility decreasing, changing of their form and even death. It is recommended to abstain from strong black tea, coffee and smoking the day before the test to improve the indicators of the ejaculate. It is recommended to exclude fat, fried food that can reduce the total volume of the ejaculate and sperm motility. To improve sperm parameters it is useful to use plant foods rich in vitamins and fiber (fruits and vegetables), protein (lean meat, beef, chicken, rabbit), dairy products. Also, to improve the process of sperm maturation in the testes it is important to use enough vitamins (especially vitamin C and zinc).

Health Quizzes

Infertility - Can It Cause Depression?

Dr. Ruchi Rai Ahuja 95% (263 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, PhD(breast diseases)
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A person suffering from depression due to infertility should not take anti-depressants. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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Dr. Yuthika Bajpai Sharma 85% (38 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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Watching your diet is an important part of infertility management. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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5 people took this quiz

Infertile Couples - How Can They Benefit From IVF?

Dr. Surbhi Gupta 89% (145 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
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The most crucial benefit of the IVF process is that the couple can have the child of their own. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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73 people took this quiz

Fertility Problems - Ayurvedic Solutions For It!

Dr. Nilesh Nigam 86% (49 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lucknow
Ayurveda is helpful in treating infertility issues. True or false? Ready to know more.
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119 people took this quiz

Tubal Scarring and Infertility

Dr. Neelima Deshpande 89% (183 ratings)
EMDR, FRCOG (LONDON) (Fellow of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists), MFSRH , Diploma in psychosexual therapy, Medical diploma in clinical Hypnosis, Diploma in Evidence Based Healthcare, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can result in infertility. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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