Nausea is an uncomfortable, uneasy, queasy feeling in the upper part of the stomach that leads to an involuntary urge of vomiting. Nausea is a non-specific symptom and may occur due to various reasons. The feeling of nausea may be triggered by some viruses, pregnancy, unpleasant odour, motion sickness, gastroenteritis, migraine, low blood pressure, fainting, or food poisoning and many others. It also occurs as a side effect of various medications such as cytotoxic chemotherapy, common anaesthetic agents and others. It should be remembered that the feeling of nausea is not any disease but it is a symptom that can result from a wide range of other disorders.
The symptoms of nausea are often difficult for people to describe. Nausea symptoms are not at all painful but a very uneasy feeling that is felt in the chest, upper abdomen and/or at the back of throat. It becomes necessary to control nausea, vomiting and other associated symptoms both for the sake of the patient’s comfort as well as to prevent the conditions of dehydration because dehydration often worsens nausea and vomiting.
The medications that are taken for the prevention and treatment of nausea are known as antiemetics. The most common antiemetics prescribed by doctors to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting are ondansetron, metoclopramide and promethazine. Non-serious causes of nausea and vomiting and be usually relieved by using over the counter medications and such medications are available from the market without any prescription from the doctor. However, prescribed medicines recommended by a doctor should not be stopped without consultation.
For a proper and effective treatment for the problem of nausea, it is important for the doctor to assess the medical history of the patient as well as diagnose the underlying cause that has led to the problem of nausea.
Nausea is a non-specific symptom that can occur due to various underlying causes. Hence, for an effective treatment of nausea, the underlying cause that has led to this symptom needs to be treated. There are various medications that can be used to minimise the feeling of nausea temporarily. Non-serious causes of nausea and vomiting can be usually relieved by using over the counter medications and such medications are available from the market without any prescription from the doctor. However, prescribed medicines recommended by a doctor should not be stopped without consultation.
When a person suffers from the feeling of nausea, it is important that they give rest to their stomach and at the same time take care to avoid dehydration. Intake of clear fluids (such as water, sports drinks, clear broths, popsicles, etc.) in small amounts at regular intervals during the first 24 hours can help in such cases. Too much of fluid intake is not recommendable for such patients as stretching of the stomach may cause the condition to worsen. However, such patients should avoid the consumption of milk or other milk products during the initial 24 hours of an episode of nausea and vomiting because in such a case reduced tolerance to milk and other milk containing products can lead to vomiting, bloating and even diarrhoea.
Nausea often gets worse when the patient suffers from dehydration as well and this results in a vicious cycle. Nausea makes drinking of fluids difficult; worsening the dehydration and this again increases the feeling of nausea. When such a case occurs, the patients are given intravenous fluids to control the condition and break the cycle. In addition to this many anti-nausea medications are available in the market in the form of pills, liquids or tablets that help in controlling such conditions. Some of these medicines are promethazine, prochlorperazine, droperidol, metoclopramide, ondansetron and others. A patient needs to take these medications on time to get relief from the symptoms of nausea.
Any person having an uncomfortable, uneasy or queasy feeling in the upper part of their stomach that ultimately leads to an urge for vomiting is said to be having nausea and is eligible for this treatment. The causes of nausea may be some underlying ailment or some side effects of other medications. Hence, the treatment for nausea depends upon the underlying cause that has led to these symptoms.
Any person who does not have any symptoms of nausea and vomiting, are not eligible for this treatment. Moreover, if a patient is having any serious side effect from any particular anti-nausea medication then he or she should consult a doctor for any other medication.
The treatment for nausea is safe in most cases. However, it is has also been reported that many patients are found to suffer from various side effects of anti-nausea medications. Since there are a number of anti-nausea medications and it is not possible to list out the side effects of each and every medicine vividly, so on a whole the common side effects of these medications are listed down here. Some of the common side effects of taking anti-nausea medications are constipation, tiredness, dizziness, headache, indigestion, troubled sleeping, anxiety and fidgeting. It is seen that these side effects vary from person to person. In most cases these side effects do not get serious enough. However, if a person suffers from such side effects, then he or she may consult their doctor in order to change the medications.
The treatment for nausea is usually done for a short time until the cause of this queasy feeling is totally treated. During this time the patient should take care so that he/she does not suffer from dehydration as well. Dehydration can often cause the condition of nausea to worsen. The post treatment guidelines for the treatment of nausea include taking the medicines regularly on time as directed by the physician. The patient should also take small amounts of liquid (such as water, sports drink or clear broth) at regular intervals to avoid dehydration. If nausea and dehydration is found to occur together leading to a worse situation then the patient needs to take intravenous fluids to control this symptom. However, care should be taken to treat the underlying cause. This is so because once the underlying cause is successfully treated then the uncomfortable feeling of nausea also goes away on its own.
It should be remembered that nausea is not a disease on its own but a non-specific symptom that can occur due to some other underlying problems. In general, the medications used to treat nausea are to be taken for a short time, until the underlying cause of this uncomfortable feeling is fully treated, or the patient recovers. The time of recovery from this symptom vary greatly. As for example, a patient having nausea due to an ear infection will need to take such medications only for a few days. On the other hand, for a person having nausea due to migraine needs to take these medications once or twice during every attack.
The price of the treatment for nausea may vary greatly depending upon the cause of this symptom and the cost of the medicines that are prescribed by the doctor. However, on an average, the price of the treatment of nausea varies from Rs. 450 to Rs. 7,000 in India. This treatment is easily available in all cities and towns of India.
Nausea is just a symptom of a wide range of other underlying ailments. The medicines prescribed for nausea just gives temporary relief from the symptom. In order to achieve permanent treatment of this problem, it is important to cure the underlying problem that has led to this condition of nausea. Once the underlying cause of nausea is successfully cured, the symptoms of nausea also get cured.
Although the problem of nausea is best treated by medicines known as antiemetics, there are a number of natural remedies to get rid of the feeling of nausea as well. Some of the alternative natural remedies of nausea include eating ginger, having a slice of lemon, acupuncture or acupressure therapy, peppermint aromatherapy, controlling of breathe, using spices such as fennel powder, cinnamon or cumin extract, relaxing of muscles, taking vitamin B6 supplement, avoiding taking too spicy food, taking light meals, staying hydrated and practising regular exercises. All such natural remedies can provide temporary relief from nausea. However, a patient needs to consult his/her doctor in case the symptoms of nausea worsen.
Rs. 450 – Rs. 7,000
Sudden cardiac arrest or SCA as it is commonly called is one of the major causes of death in India. As per a study conducted by WHO, approximately 4280 out of every one lakh people die every year from SCA in India.
What exactly is a sudden cardiac arrest?
A sudden loss of heart function, consciousness, and breath which leads to obstruction of blood flow to the rest of the body is known as sudden cardiac arrest. If not treated immediately, this could lead to sudden cardiac death.
Read on to know some shocking facts about sudden cardiac arrest:
Eye Strain is an umbrella term that denotes a number of symptoms that relate to the extended use of eyes as well as discomfort that may come from excessive smartphone and computer use. This condition may or may not lead to significant eye damage and is usually characterised by blurry vision, headaches and a feeling of dryness in the eye as you blink less which creates less tears. This may happen due to the extended use of the eye when you are following objects on a screen or staring at a screen for too long. So, is eye strain the cause of your headaches?
Find out more in this article.
Causes: Eye Strain or Asthenopia is caused by concentrating on visually intense tasks like reading from texts that have a fine print, the use of computers and other screens for prolonged periods, and trying to focus on objects in the dark. This can lead to distress of the muscles in this area which can also cause eye strain leading to a variety of symptoms including double imagery and even headaches and mild migraine like conditions.
Eye Muscle Imbalance: When there is eye strain which leads to headaches, it can also give rise to eye muscle imbalance which makes it difficult to concentrate with both eyes at the same time. In such cases, one may need bifocal glasses so as to fix the issue and prevent such debilitating headaches to remain on a persistent basis.
Diagnosis: Digital eye fatigue and ocular eye strain leading to headaches can be diagnosed by a doctor with the help of regular eye examinations. In any case, one should have the eyes checked at least once a year. This is especially important if your job involves sitting in front of the computer screen for prolonged hours.
Symptoms: There are a variety of symptoms of these headaches that are caused by eye strain. Apart from blurry vision which does not allow the patient to see properly and clearly without glasses, it can also cause headaches with symptoms like nausea and sensitivity to light. Retinal or eye migraines do not necessarily have to come with headaches, but the pressure can be painful enough.
Treatment: To begin with, the best form of treatment for headaches born from eye strain includes prevention which can be done by getting plenty of rest and sleep even as we limit the hours spent in front of the screen. One can also lower the resolution of the screen and make it more ambient. Also, the screen should be placed at a considerable distance from the eyes. The doctor can also prescribe glasses and eye drops for better eye lubrication. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.
Unless you’re planning to have a baby, it is best to employ some form of birth control to have a satisfying and pleasurable sexual relationship. Having an intercourse right after the menstrual cycle is least likely to result in pregnancy, but there is quite a possibility that an accident may happen. The withdrawal method is highly undependable and should be avoided as far as possible. Birth control is available in a number of forms. Condoms, birth control pills, intrauterine devices or IUD and birth control shots are the most common methods of birth control. Here are five things you should know about birth control.
Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs.
With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other.
The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual cramp that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time.
Common Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis may include:
Pain with intercourse. Pain during or after sex is common with endometriosis.
Pain with bowel movements or urination. You're most likely to experience these symptoms during your period.
Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility.
The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all.
Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis.
When to see a doctor
See the doctor if you have signs and symptoms that may indicate endometriosis.
Endometriosis can be a challenging condition to manage. An early diagnosis, a multidisciplinary medical team and an understanding of your diagnosis may result in better management of your symptoms.
Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include:
Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle.
Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells.
Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty.
Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body.
Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus.
Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as:
Never giving birth
Starting your period at an early age
Going through menopause at an older age
Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days
Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces
Low body mass index
One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis
Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body
Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen.
The main complication of endometriosis is impaired fertility. Approximately one-third to one-half of women with endometriosis have difficulty getting pregnant. Endometriosis may obstruct the tube and keep the egg and sperm from uniting. But the condition also seems to affect fertility in less-direct ways, such as damage to the sperm or egg. Inspite of this, many women with mild to moderate endometriosis can still conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. Doctors sometimes advise women with endometriosis not to delay having children because the condition may worsen with time.
Ovarian cancer does occur at higher than expected rates in women with endometriosis. Although rare, another type of cancer — endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma — can develop later in life in women who have had endometriosis.
Diagnosis: To diagnose endometriosis and other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, the doctor will ask you to describe your symptoms, including the location of your pain and when it occurs.
Tests to check for physical clues of endometriosis include:
Pelvic exam. During a pelvic exam, the doctor manually feels (palpates) areas in your pelvis for abnormalities, such as cysts on your reproductive organs or scars behind your uterus. Often it's not possible to feel small areas of endometriosis, unless they've caused a cyst to form.
Ultrasound. A transducer, a device that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of your body, is either pressed against your abdomen or inserted into your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound). Both types of ultrasound may be done to get the best view of your reproductive organs. Ultrasound imaging won't definitively tell the doctor whether you have endometriosis, but it can identify cysts associated with endometriosis (endometriomas).
Laparoscopy. Medical management is usually tried first. But to be certain you have endometriosis, the doctor may advise a surgical procedure called laparoscopy to look inside your abdomen for signs of endometriosis.
While you're under general anesthesia, the doctor makes a tiny incision near your navel and inserts a slender viewing instrument (laparoscope), looking for endometrial tissue outside the uterus. He or she may take samples of tissue (biopsy). Laparoscopy can provide information about the location, extent and size of the endometrial implants to help determine the best treatment options.
Treatment for endometriosis is usually with medications or surgery. The approach you and the doctor choose will depend on the severity of your signs and symptoms and whether you hope to become pregnant.
Generally, doctors recommend trying conservative treatment approaches first, opting for surgery as a last resort.
The doctor may recommend that you take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others), to help ease painful menstrual cramps.
If you find that taking the maximum dose of these medications doesn't provide full relief, you may need to try another approach to manage your signs and symptoms.
Supplemental hormones are sometimes effective in reducing or eliminating the pain of endometriosis. The rise and fall of hormones during the menstrual cycle causes endometrial implants to thicken, break down and bleed. Hormone medication may slow endometrial tissue growth and prevent new implants of endometrial tissue.
Hormone therapy isn't a permanent fix for endometriosis. You could experience a return of your symptoms after stopping treatment.
Therapies used to treat endometriosis include:
Hormonal contraceptives. Birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings help control the hormones responsible for the buildup of endometrial tissue each month. Most women have lighter and shorter menstrual flow when they're using a hormonal contraceptive. Using hormonal contraceptives — especially continuous cycle regimens — may reduce or eliminate the pain of mild to moderate endometriosis.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists. These drugs block the production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, lowering estrogen levels and preventing menstruation. This causes endometrial tissue to shrink. Because these drugs create an artificial menopause, taking a low dose of estrogen or progestin along with Gn-RH agonists and antagonists may decrease menopausal side effects, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and bone loss. Your periods and the ability to get pregnant return when you stop taking the medication.
Progestin therapy. A progestin-only contraceptive, such as an intrauterine device (Mirena), contraceptive implant or contraceptive injection (Depo-Provera), can halt menstrual periods and the growth of endometrial implants, which may relieve endometriosis signs and symptoms.
Danazol. This drug suppresses the growth of the endometrium by blocking the production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, preventing menstruation and the symptoms of endometriosis. However, danazol may not be the first choice because it can cause serious side effects and can be harmful to the baby if you become pregnant while taking this medication.
If you have endometriosis and are trying to become pregnant, surgery to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving your uterus and ovaries (conservative surgery) may increase your chances of success. If you have severe pain from endometriosis, you may also benefit from surgery — however, endometriosis and pain may return.
The doctor may do this procedure laparoscopically or through traditional abdominal surgery in more extensive cases.
Assisted reproductive technologies
Assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help you become pregnant are sometimes preferable to conservative surgery. Doctors often suggest one of these approaches if conservative surgery doesn't work. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
The urinary tract starts from the kidneys to the urethra where urine is passed out. Given the rich concentration of minerals and toxic wastes, it is highly prone to multiple infections. UTI, as urinary tract infections are often referred to, is one of the most common infections. In women, especially, every 1 in 2 women is affected by an UTI. Whichever part of the tract is affected, the symptoms and treatment are mostly the same. Read on to know some of the most common symptoms and treatment options for these.
Most urinary tract infections are bacterial in nature, and these could find their way into the body through multiple ways.
Though most often UTI does not require specific testing, the following are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
UTIs are very common infections and though there is nothing to worry, it should be cleared completely.
Recurrent UTIs is a common problem, and the following can help prevent.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an urologist.