When a person suffers from chronic blood pressure syndrome it is not considered a serious matter. Medical trouble can arise when there is a sudden drop in the blood pressure levels. When this happens the brain is unable to receive adequate supply of blood. This can cause the person suffering from the low pressure attack to feel lightheaded or dizzy. This sudden drop occurs generally in people who have been sitting or lying in a particular position for long and then suddenly stand up. This sudden drop in blood pressure levels is known as orthostatic hypotension or sometimes as postural hypotension.
There is a third kind of low blood pressure or hypotension when someone stands for a long time which is called neurally mediated hypotension. If it causes someone to faint it is known as vasovagal syncope. When the cardiovascular system or nervous system fails to respond correctly to certain unexpected changes encountered by the body it is known as postural hypotension. This failure on the part of the cardiovascular or nervous system to adapt to the sudden changes is signalled by the body by transmitting certain messages to the heart which makes it beat more rapidly and also to the blood vessels making it narrower.
The condition of either low or high blood pressure is more prevalent in older people because the supply of blood flow to the brain and heart muscle is lowered with age. The symptoms of low blood pressure include feeling lightheaded or dizzy or unsteady, blurring of vision, body weakness, tiredness, nausea, clammy and pale skin and tendency to pass out. Pregnancy, dehydration, blood loss, heart disorders, septicaemia or any other serious infection, anaphylaxis or a significant insufficient of nutrients in your daily diet can be some of the reasons for the sudden drop on your blood pressure levels.
Low blood pressure in itself is not a serious condition. Often it can be a symptom of another health problem. The underlying conditions differ from person to person. Therefore, it is necessary for the doctor to identify the real cause of your blood pressure problem. First, fix an appointment with your doctor; notify him/her about your medical history, your age, the symptoms you are currently experiencing, and the reasons for the occurrence of the blood pressure drop. The doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination of the concerned patient. Then she or he will make the patient undergo a series of tests where the patient will be asked to stand up suddenly after lying down for some time. During this time, the doctor will take the pulse rate and will check the blood pressure levels.
If the doctor feels necessary then she or he may perform an ECG or an electrocardiogram in order to check the pulse rate and also an echocardiogram/ultrasound test in order to see the condition of the heart and take pictures of it for later reference. She or he might also take blood test samples from the patient in order to check for anemia or any issues with your blood sugar level.
In order to check for irregular heart rate the doctor may ask the patient to get an ECG or a Holter monitor done. An exercise test or stress test may also be advised. In certain cases, a ‘tilt table’ test is performed for a patient experiencing postural hypotension in order to assess the response of the body to unexpected changes in movements or position.
A person who is experiencing shock or symptoms of low blood pressure like feeling lightheaded or dizzy on an off and on basis. Although chronic low blood pressure might not be a serious health issue in itself, it can be a symptom of a much severe underlying medical condition.
All those people who are experiencing the symptoms of low blood pressure mentioned above do not need to go visit a doctor.
The doctor may advise you to increase the amount of salt in your diet because sodium increases pressure drastically. Also, increase the quantity of your fluid intake daily in order to prevent dehydration by drinking lots of water.
You may also be advised to wear stockings that put on compression on your legs by pooling the blood. This can help to reduce inflammation and pain. You may also be prescribed certain medications such as fludrocortisone and midodrine/orvaten help to treat the problem of hypotension or low blood pressure.
With proper rest, medication and water (for drinking, in case the low blood pressure occurred as a result of dehydration) you can recover within a few hours.
In India one strip of 2.5 mg of Midodrine costs about 2,3000 Rupees, an ECG test costs about 250 Rupees in India, and an ultrasound test can cost you about Rs. 1000- 4000 in India.
The results of the treatment depends on well you adhere to the post-treatment guidelines. If you can look after your daily diet and also identity the reasons behind your sudden blood pressure levels you can prevent the sudden attacks from occurring on getting up after lying for some time.
Alternatives for low blood pressure problems include certain home remedies such as increasing the daily water consumption level and cutting down on alcohol which will help to tackle the dehydration levels, having a balance diet which incorporates nutritional items such as fruits, veggies, whole grains and protein such as chicken and fish. Other remedies include gently moving from one place to another instead of getting up suddenly or moving too fast. Avoid sitting with your legs crossed and try to consume small portion of really low-carb foods. Also, keep eating small portions of food throughout the day to prevent the blood pressure levels from dropping suddenly.
Rs. 250- Rs. 4,000
There are different types of heart problems like coronary artery disease, congenital heart failure and cardiomyopathy, but their warning signs are the same i.e. shortness of breath. This is the reason why shortness of breath should never be taken lightly and should always be investigated for heart diseases.
Why does shortness of breath happen?
You may not be able to get in enough air while experiencing shortness of breath. Known medically as dyspnea, shortness of breath is often described as an intense tightening in the chest and a feeling of suffocation. This is one of the most frightening conditions experienced by a patient. You can experience dyspnea without any serious medical problems in these conditions
But if you are not in any of these conditions, then shortness of breath is a sign of a serious medical problem usually involving your heart or lungs. These two vital organs transport oxygen to the rest of your body and remove carbon dioxide; hence problems with either of these organs can affect your breathing. Shortness of breath that comes on suddenly called acute, can be due to other causes too like:
If you have had shortness of breath that has lasted for weeks, then we call it chronic and its causes can be various diseases of the heart apart from asthma and COPD. There is no doubt that your heart may be in trouble, if you have chronic shortness of breath. You may be suffering from these heart conditions:
Treatment of breathlessness can start after you are referred to a heart specialist for further tests to confirm the likely cause.
What is blood pressure?
When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.
What is high blood pressure?
You probably have high blood pressure (hypertension) if your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 over 90, or higher, over a number of weeks.
You may also have high blood pressure if just one of the numbers is higher than it should be over a number of weeks.
High blood pressure can also cause heart and kidney disease, and is closely linked to some forms of dementia.
What is low blood pressure?
Many people worry about low blood pressure (hypotension), but probably don't need to.
Some people have a blood pressure level that is lower than normal. In general this may be good news - because the lower your blood pressure is, the lower your risk of stroke or heart disease. However, in a few cases, having low blood pressure can cause problems, so you might need to speak to your doctor or nurse.
What are the symptoms of hypertension?
Hypertension is generally a silent condition. Many people won’t experience any symptoms. It may take years or even decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious. Even then, these symptoms may be attributed to other issues.
Symptoms of severe hypertension can include:
shortness of breath
blood in the urine
These symptoms require immediate medical attention. They don’t occur in everyone with hypertension, but waiting for a symptom of this condition to appear could be fatal.
The best way to know if you have hypertension is to get regular blood pressure readings. Most doctors’ offices take a blood pressure reading at every appointment.
If you only have a yearly physical, talk to your doctor about your risks for hypertension and other readings you may need to help you watch your blood pressure.
For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This helps you and your doctor stay on top of any possible issues before they become problematic.
What causes high blood pressure?
There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.
Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension. This kind of hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. Most people have this type of high blood pressure.
Researchers are still unclear what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:
Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents.
Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.
Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for hypertension.
Secondary hypertension often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include:
obstructive sleep apnea
congenital heart defects
problems with your thyroid
side effects of medications
use of illegal drugs
alcohol abuse or chronic use
adrenal gland problems
certain endocrine tumors
Diagnosing high blood pressure
Diagnosing hypertension is as simple as taking a blood pressure reading. Most doctors’ offices check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. If you don’t receive a blood pressure reading at your next appointment, request one.
If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.
If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor will likely conduct more tests to rule out underlying conditions. These tests can include:
cholesterol screening and other blood tests
test of your heart’s electrical activity with an electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes referred to as an ECG)
ultrasound of your heart or kidneys
These tests can help your doctor identify any secondary issues causing your elevated blood pressure. They can also look at the effects high blood pressure may have had on your organs.
During this time, your doctor may begin treating your hypertension. Early treatment may reduce your risk of lasting damage.
High blood pressure: Tips for prevention
If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps now to lower your risk for the condition and its complications.
Add healthy foods to your diet
Slowly work your way up to eating more servings of heart-healthy plants. Aim to eat more than seven servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Then aim to add one more serving per day for two weeks. After those two weeks, aim to add one more serving. The goal is to have ten servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Adjust how you think of the average dinner plate
Leafy greens. Potassium helps your kidneys get rid of more sodium through your urine. ...
Berries. Berries, especially blueberries, are rich in natural compounds called flavonoids. ...
Red beets. ...
Skim milk and yogurt. ...
Salmon, mackerel, and fish with omega-3s. ...
Set weight loss goals
Special cases of measurements of blood pressure:
Certain groups of people merit special consideration for the measurement of blood pressure because of age, body habitus or disturbances of blood pressure related to haemodynamic alterations in the cardiovascular system.
Measurement of blood pressure in children presents a number of difficulties. Variability of blood pressure is greater than in adults, and any one measurement is less likely to represent the true blood pressure. Systolic pressure is more accurate and reproducible than diastolic pressure. A cuff with proper dimensions is essential for accurate measurement. The widest cuff practicable should be used. Ideally, blood pressure should be measured after a few minutes of rest. Values obtained during sucking, crying or eating will not be representative. As with adults, a child’s blood pressure status should be decided only after it has been measured on a number of separate occasions. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement is being used increasingly in children.
2. Elderly people:
In epidemiological and interventional studies, blood pressure predicts morbidity and mortality in elderly people as effectively as in the young. Elderly people have considerable variability in blood pressure, which can lead to a number of diurnal blood pressure patterns that are identified best with ambulatory blood pressure measurement. These patterns include isolated systolic hypertension, white coat hypertension and hypotension. Elderly patients may also have pseudohypertension, a condition in which there is a large discrepancy between cuff and direct measurement of blood pressure in elderly patients. When conventional measurements seem to be out of proportion with the clinical findings, referral to a specialist cardiovascular centre for further investigation may be an appropriate option.
3. Obese people:
The association between obesity and hypertension has been confirmed in many epidemiological studies. Obesity may affect the accuracy of measurement of blood pressure in children, young and elderly people, and pregnant women. The relation of arm circumference to bladder dimensions is particularly important. If the bladder is too short for the arm as often happens with obese arms, blood pressure will be overestimated – ‘cuff hypertension’. The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) makes accurate measurement of blood pressure in obese people increasingly important. In some obese patients, the arm circumference is so great that upper arm measurement is not possible and forearm measurement may be the only option. For conventional measurement, the Korotkoff sounds are auscultated over the radial artery and for devices that measure blood pressure by oscillometry (devices for self-measurement and ambulatory blood pressure measurement), the cuff is placed on the forearm.
4. Patients with arrhythmias:
Large variations in blood pressure from beat to beat make it difficult to obtain accurate measurements in patients with arrhythmias. In patients with arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, blood pressure varies depending on the preceding pulse interval. No generally accepted method of determining auscultatory end points in patients with arrhythmias exists. Devices for measuring blood pressure with oscillometry vary in their ability to accurately record blood pressure in patients with arrhythmias. Measurements of blood pressure at best will constitute a rough estimate in those with atrial fibrillation, particularly when the ventricular rhythm is rapid or highly irregular, or both. The rate of deflation should be no faster than 2 mm Hg per heartbeat, and repeated measurements may be needed to overcome variability from beat to beat. Two potential sources of error exist when patients have bradyarrhythmia. If the rhythm is irregular, the same problems as with atrial fibrillation will apply. When the heart rate is extremely slow – for example, 40 beats/min – it is important that the rate of deflation used is less than for people with normal heart rates, as too rapid deflation will lead to underestimation of systolic blood pressure and overestimation of diastolic blood pressure.
5. Pregnant women:
Clinically, relevant hypertension occurs in more than 10% of pregnant women in most populations. High blood pressure is a key factor in making medical decisions in pregnancy. Disappearance of sounds (fifth phase) is the most accurate measurement of diastolic pressure, except when sounds persist to zero, in which case the fourth phase of muffling of sounds should be used.
6. Patients who take antihypertensive drugs:
In patients who take antihypertensive drugs, the timing of measurement may have a substantial influence on the blood pressure. The time of taking antihypertensive drugs should be noted.
7. Patients who are exercising:
Systolic blood pressure increases with increasing dynamic work as a result of increasing cardiac output, whereas diastolic pressure usually remains about the same or moderately lower.
An exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise may predict development of future hypertension.
There are numerous conditions that can arise when the body does not process the dietary glucose properly. Hypoglycemia, otherwise called as low blood sugar, is when the blood sugar level in a person’s body decreases than normal value. Individuals with diabetes can get hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) when their bodies do not have enough sugar to use as fuel. It can happen for a few reasons, including diet, few medications and conditions, and exercise.
In case you get hypoglycemia, record the date and time when it happened and what you did. Give the record to your specialist, so he or she can search for a pattern and adjust your medications accordingly. The most widely recognized reason for hypoglycemia includes medicines used to treat diabetes mellitus, for example, insulin and sulfonylureas.
The risk is more noteworthy in diabetics who have eaten very less than what is required, exercised more than expected, or have had excessive alcohol. Other reasons for hypoglycemia incorporate kidney failure, certain cancers, for example, insulinoma, liver sickness, hypothyroidism, hunger, an inherent error of digestive system, extreme diseases, receptive hypoglycemia, various medications and liquor. The vast majority feels the symptoms of hypoglycemia when their glucose is 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or lower. Every individual with diabetes may have distinctive symptoms of hypoglycemia depending on their age, stage and other factors. You will figure out how to recognize yours.
Some of the most common symptoms are:
Early indications include:
Anxiety Without treatment, you may get more serious side effects, including:
In case you have this condition, your glucose can drop without you noticing it. Without quick treatment, you can pass out, encounter a seizure, or even go into a state of extreme coma. In case somebody is having an extreme reaction, for example, unconsciousness, it is imperative to inject a drug called glucagon and contact the hospital quickly. People who are at danger for low glucose need to speak with their specialist about getting a solution for glucagon. You should never give an unconscious individual anything by mouth, as it could make them choke. Hypoglycemia should not be ignored.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!