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Pregnancy - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Pregnancy?

Pregnancy is the most exciting phase of woman life and it is beyond imagination that she is carrying a baby inside her womb. The first and important sign of pregnancy is missed periods . When a woman misses a period, then pregnancy tests can be conducted to confirm whether the women is pregnant.

What changes you face in First Trimester :

Although many women prepare themselves for the pregnancy, they are unaware of the changes that will happen in the body as the pregnancy causes. They should be prepared for these bodily changes and be sure to contact the doctor in case of any discomfort due to the symptoms.

Each woman experiences pregnancy differently. The first trimester is a period of health and vitality, for others, it is extremely difficult . Spotting or bleeding may be seen in the first trimester. Bleeding may happen when the fertilised egg gets embedded in the uterine walls causing a minor bleeding. If bleeding is accompanied by sharp pain or cramps then it can be a sign of miscarriage. Breast tenderness, discharge, fatigue, heartburn, vomiting, food cravings, mood swings, and constipation may be other signs in the first trimester of pregnancy. Some women experience high levels of vomiting called Hyperemesis gravidarum and is a serious condition as the pregnant woman may lose fluids and minerals due to vomiting.

What changes you face in Second Trimester :

The second trimester is a honeymoon phase when the extreme symptoms in the first trimester subside and the woman gets more relaxed. In this trimester the organs of the baby are fully formed and growth of the baby starts . Women can feel the baby kick in their womb. Women in the trimester may experience a backache due to the increase in weight of the fetus, bleeding gums due to changes in hormones, breast enlargement as the breast gets ready to feed the baby, bleeding nose and congestion may be caused due to hormone changes. Vaginal discharge is common during this stage and should be treated by a doctor if the discharge is green or foul smelling. Frequent urination and headaches may be common in women in the second trimester.

What changes you face in Second Trimester :

With the approach of the third trimester, a pregnant woman is well aware of the approaching delivery. In this period, the sudden cramps develop, these are called Braxton Hicks. The cramps are a signal of the uterus getting ready for delivery. Women get heavier and become tired of being pregnant. Many changes that are seen in the second trimester gets carried over to the third trimester of pregnancy.

The end of the third trimester is delivery and women should eat well and be prepared for the delivery with proper exercise. Good thoughts about delivery can overcome the anxiety of the pain and fear of delivery.

Treatable by medical professional Usually self diagnosable Lab test sometimes required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Non communicable
Aversion to food Bloating Sore breasts Nausea Mood swings

Popular Health Tips

Gestational Diabetes - Know The Risk Factors!

Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Gestational Diabetes - Know The Risk Factors!

Gestational diabetes, as the name suggests, occurs during gestation or pregnancy when the blood sugar levels exceed the normal level. Gestational diabetes, like other form of diabetes, affects how your body cells use glucose or sugar during pregnancy, and usually disappears after you’ve given birth.

Causes and symptoms to look out for!
During gestation, the placenta produces hormones that lead to the accumulation of blood glucose. Under normal condition, the pancreas forms enough insulin to counter the buildup of blood glucose. The level of blood sugar rises when the pancreas fails to produce adequate insulin to manage your blood sugar.

Usually, women with gestational diabetes do not show symptoms. So, the presence of the condition can go unnoticed if they are not diagnosed during routine checkups and screening tests. Nevertheless, if the condition goes out of control, you may feel tired, feel thirsty or hungry, or feel the urge to urinate more often.

What are the risk factors?
About 2-10% of pregnant women are affected by gestational diabetes every year. The following factors are likely to put you at risk of developing gestational diabetes-

  1. Excess body weight- You may develop gestational diabetes if you were overweight or had gained excess weight (BMI equal to or greater than 30) before getting pregnant
  2. Family history- Women who have a family history of diabetes are likely to have gestational diabetes.
  3. Age- Women aged more than 25 years are at a greater risk of developing this condition.
  4. Diabetic history- A slightly raised blood sugar level may act as the precursor to Type-2 diabetes, which in turn increases your chance of getting affected by gestational diabetes.
  5. Previous pregnancy- Women who’ve previously given birth to a child weighing more than 4.1 Kg (9 pounds), or have delivered a stillborn child are likely to have gestational diabetes.

What is the treatment for gestational diabetes?
Urine tests are performed to check for ketones. In a non-diabetic person, glucagon, insulin and other hormones avert ketone levels in your blood from soaring up too high. Once you’re diagnosed with gestational diabetes, it’s important that you consult your doctor for treatment. Uncontrolled blood sugar level can affect you and your baby’s health after birth. This condition can be treated in the following ways-

  1. Keep a check on your blood sugar- During pregnancy, your doctor will have you tested for gestational diabetes 4-5times a day to keep a tab on your blood glucose level. For this, a small drop of blood is first drawn from the finger using a needle. The sample of blood is then placed on the test strip inserted into a device called the blood glucose meter to measure and monitor the level of blood sugar in your body.
  2. Medication- Anti-diabetic medications and insulin are prescribed to control the amount of glucose or sugar in the bloodstream. Your doctor may also suggest oral medications like Diabeta and Glynase to manage your blood glucose level.
  3. Healthy diet- Diabetic diet- one that helps control blood sugar levels- is highly prescribed by doctors during pregnancy. Cut down on carbohydrates and sugar, and switch to food items that provide your body sufficient nutrients and calories.

Post treatment the blood sugar levels usually come down to normal within 4-6 weeks of giving birth.

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5 Step IVF Procedure!

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
5 Step IVF Procedure!

In Vitro Fertilization is the most common and effective way to help women to conceive. This method is a blessing for those couples who are not able to have children because of some medical issues. IVF has opened the doors of hope of such couples. IVF method is an artificial method of fertilizing egg outside the body in the laboratory and then implanting it in the uterus. This method is best when the other treatments have failed. The success rate of IVF is high and the chances of multiple birth is more. This method of conceiving is getting popular in many countries among childless couples. Studies have shown that one percent of the babies in United States are born through IVF. IVF is safe and economical. This method keeps on of the parent biologically connected to the child.


  1. Curbing the natural menstrual cycle: The women before undergoing this process is given injection for two to three weeks to supress her natural menstrual cycle.
  2. Super ovulation: To increase the production of eggs, fertility drugs containing the fertility hormone follicle stimulating hormone- FSH are given to the woman. This makes the ovaries to produce more eggs than usual. Regular ultrasound is done to examine the process of ovaries.
  3. Retrieving the eggs: The produced eggs are then collected through a minor surgical procedure known as follicular aspiration. In this surgery, a very thin needle is inserted into the ovary through vagina which is connected to a suction device. This device sucks the eggs out. This process is repeated for each ovary. Doctors try to collect 15 eggs in one cycle which can give high chances of successful pregnancy. These eggs can be frozen or donated too.
  4. Insemination and fertilizationThe collected eggs are then placed with sperms in a controlled environment chamber. Sperms enter the egg naturally and sometimes it is directly injected, called intracytoplasmic sperm injection. After this the fertilized egg is divided and becomes an embryo. After this doctors recommend to diagnose the embryo in order to check if it is healthy and not diagnosed with some genetic disease. This decision is totally on the parents though. The selected embryo is then transferred. Women is given progesterone, this help the lining of the womb to receive the embryo.
  5. Embryo TransferGenerally, more than one embryo is placed in the womb. This is done on the mutual discussion of the doctors and the parents. The embryo is transfer with a thin tube or catheter. It enters the womb through vagina. Once the embryo is attached to the lining of the womb, the embryo starts growing and the rest development is parent’s responsibility by taking good care of the mother.

Artificial implantation techniques may differ clinic to clinic but the ultimate goal is to bring a baby in this world. IVF has become the best way for conception for the ladies who are not able to conceive and the birth success rate has made it more popular. 

2061 people found this helpful

Ectopic Pregnancy - Things You Must Be Aware About!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Noida
Ectopic Pregnancy - Things You Must Be Aware About!

In ordinary pregnancy, the egg released from the ovary becomes fertilized when it meets the sperm and travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus where it grows in the following nine months. In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg never makes it to the uterus instead it stays in one of the fallopian tubes; this is also known as tubal pregnancy. In very rare cases, the egg also attaches itself to one of the two ovaries making your pregnancy difficult and putting your health in danger.

Treatments: Ectopic pregnancy is usually ended if it is detected at an early stage to prevent rupture and extreme blood loss. There are both medications and surgical options depending upon the stage of detection.

Medication: Methotrexate is a potent drug used to end ectopic pregnancy but it has several side effects like vomiting, stomachache, drowsiness and nausea. It requires several hormone and blood tests to determine its effects on the pregnancy. This medication will work only when your hormone levels during your pregnancy are low and the embryo does not have any heart activity.

SurgerySurgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy is needed when the symptoms have become more rampant like increased hCG levels and excessive bleeding. At this stage, any kind of medication won't work and the possibility of a rupture becomes more prominent as time progresses. In such cases, Laparoscopic surgery is done, which requires a small incision and is safe and effective. If the patient happens to experience rupture, immediate emergency surgery is required.

Ectopic pregnancy tends to take care of itself by miscarriage, which is called expectant management. Medication is the first choice of treatment, it is usually very effective and surgery is used to treat severe cases when one becomes unresponsive to medications. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Frozen Embryo Transfer - Complications Associated With It!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
IVF Specialist, Udaipur
Frozen Embryo Transfer - Complications Associated With It!

Frozen Embryo Transfer or FET is an extremely effective method to conceive a pregnancy. Recent studies have proved that there is a increased chance for pregnancy when the embryos, which get used are frozen and get placed inside the uterus at a time right after the ovaries are stimulated. Still, certain issues can arise with the transfer of frozen embryo, such as:

A Thin Lining of the Uterus
Research has shown that there are not many women who get pregnant if the lining in their uterine does not tend to thicken enough. It is not clear exactly why this problem occurs in most women and moreover there is no sure shot treatment to make the lining of the uterine thick. The experts on fertility would try out different methods like increasing the amount of estrogen or change the way how estrogen is given. There are other instances when women might be given supplemental medicines, while for some, the problem will continue to exist.

What Should Be Done In Case The Problem Persists?

  • In case the problem continues for some women, then there are certain approaches which experts might look to adopt. The first one is to cancel the transfer of embryo and try once again at any later stage, that too with a different treatment method.
  • The second option which they could think of is to go ahead with the transfer, wherein they might feel that a thin lining does not necessarily mean that it is impossible for a woman to get pregnant but definitely the efficiency would be reduced.
  • One last option is to make use of the opportunity for undergoing additional tests which would help them to assess the ability of the uterus to allow implantation of the embryos.

Unexpected Ovulation
For enabling the embryos to get implanted into uterus, placing them very precisely and at the appropriate time is important. This is regarded as the window of implantation. The time taken, is based on the time frame since progesterone reaches the lining of the uterine.

Doctor knows the exact time to place the embryos, right from the time he or she instructs a woman to start having progesterone supplements. In case a woman was to ovulate, the production of progesterone would begin earlier than the normal time and would lead to the shift of the window of implantation. As identifying the correct time of ovulation is almost impossible, so that would lead to some sort of uncertainty into the timing.

Due to this reason, there are doctors who would use medication in order to prevent unexpected ovulation from occurring. Generally an injection called Lupron is usually used as medication.

Timing for the Embryo Transfer is Inappropriate
This is a problem related to early ovulation. There are case when the implantation window is shifted, still the timing of the transfer becomes accurate. Recent studies have shown that quite a nominal percentage of women might have a window of implantation, which could be either earlier or later than normal time. A test called the Endometrial Receptivity Array can help determine at what time is the window of implantation open. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Sex During Pregnancy - Visit A Sexologist And Know All!

Gynaecologist, Delhi
Sex During Pregnancy - Visit A Sexologist And Know All!

Sexology, by definition, refers to a scientific study of human sexuality to include sexual functions, interests, and behaviors. A clinical sexologist deals with the treatment of sexual and relationship issues. It covers all aspects to include biological, psychological, sociological, and historical information. A sexologist is more commonly known as a sex therapist. With sex life slowing down with pregnancy, there are many questions that people have. Read on to know some of these and their brief answers.

Is it safe to have sex during pregnancy?
– A healthy sex life through pregnancy is encouraged, to keep the relationship healthy and happy. In many cases, not having an active sex life can be a cause of rifts.

We were not aware about the pregnancy, so we continued with normal sex life, is that okay?
– It is perfectly okay, as sex is considered safe throughout pregnancy until the water breaks. Of course, the physical comfort of the woman should be taken into account, else there is no harm to an active sex life. With increased levels of estrogens and progesterone in the blood, the woman wants to have more sex but is often scared.

What positions are better during pregnancy?
- Any position which does not add pressure on the belly. Spooning, woman on top, and other positions which the couple finds comfortable can be used without any harm.

Till what stage of pregnancy can we have sex?
- From a medical point of view, sex is allowed until the water breaks. However, the physical comfort of the woman should be taken into account. Not adding pressure on the belly is advisable.

Do uterine or gynecologic problems would mean a complete no-no to sex?
- If you have a normal pregnancy, then there are no medical limitations to an active sex life. However, if the pregnancy has complications, then you should be extra-cautious. For instance, a placenta previa where the placenta has slid down. Secondly, cervical insufficiency, expected premature labor, abdominal pains, dilated cervix, unexplained vaginal bleeding, and ruptured waters are conditions where sex is absolutely not allowed. There could also be where the male is having urinary infections.

What are some things to keep in mind when it comes to sex during pregnancy?
- It is completely normal to feel a strong urge to have sex during pregnancy. The increased hormone levels are responsible for this. In addition, some vaginal bleeding is also normal with sex. There is no harm to the baby with sex, which is fully protected in the womb. Be frank to discuss any concerns with your doctor and get your doubts clarified.

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Popular Questions & Answers

Hello Sir, I am 31 yrs. One baby 6 yrs. We trying for second baby. But fallopian tube block find and solve through liver. Now I have hypothyroidism and pco. I can't get pregnant after using litrozol tablet 4 months why?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DGO
Gynaecologist, Pune
You can try to conceive for some more cycles naturally. If you don't conceive, assisted reproductive techniques like intrauterine insemination can help.
2 people found this helpful

What food should I avoid to control my blood sugar level. I am 5 week pregnant and my blood sugar level is 99 mg/100 ml. Please suggest me.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Certificate Course In Evidence Based Diabetes Management, Certificate Course In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetologist, Sri Ganganagar
Hi Sir, Avoid simple sugars like sweats, maida products and junk food. Take small meals every 3 hours. Take a lot of fruits and vegetables.
1 person found this helpful

Hi, I got a pregnancy test done and it is positive but still slight bleeding is there. I want to know what can it be? Unfortunately my doctor advised me to abort. But I am reluctant in doing that. I want to know if something can still be done.

MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Dear Mr. Ayaan Ali, Thanks for your enquiry. Do a scan to confirm the viability of the fetus and take supplemental progesterone’s to provide bleeding.

Respected Doctor, My wife is present a pregnant from last 10 days and she’s having lot of stomach ache and leg pain frequently what may be the problem? And can we both participate in intercourse at this period? If yes till how many months can we?

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Intercourse- If examining obstetrician has not prohibited then yes. Better to use condoms Pain-Very common in pregnancy but examining obstetrician can decide whether it is significant or not. Spasmodic pain abdomen is significant

Table of Content

What is Pregnancy?

What changes you face in First Trimester :

What changes you face in Second Trimester :

What changes you face in Second Trimester :

Play video
Contraception refers to something, which works to prevent a pregnancy from occurring. But what is emergency contraception? This sort of contraception is made use of in case other methods of birth control do not work or a woman has had unprotected sex.
Play video
Emergency Contraception
Emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy after unprotected love making or if the contraception you have used has failed. Tell a GP, nurse or pharmacist what medicines you're taking, and they can advise you if they're safe to take with the emergency contraceptive pill.
Play video
Oral Contraceptive Or Birth Control Pills
Oral contraceptives are hormonal preparations that may contain combinations of the hormones estrogen and progestin or progestin alone. The most common side effects of the birth control pills include nausea, headache, breast tenderness, weight gain, irregular bleeding, and mood changes.
Play video
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Pregnancy is a beautiful stage in every woman's life but loss of pregnancy at any stage is an area of concern and its important to understand what leads to this stage , post which correct guidance and medications need to be taken.
Play video
Your Baby's Movements In Pregnancy
Hello Friends!

I am Dr. Nidhi Aggarwal, a consultant obstetrician, and gynecologist. In simple words, taking care of the mother, baby, and the womb. Today I will be discussing, rather I would say but a very important topic that is about the fetal movements. Maternal perception of fetal movement is one of the first sign of fetal life. It is regarded as a manifestation of fetal well-being. Movements are first perceived by the mother. And those who are carrying 2nd or 3rd pregnancy, they can even perceive it as early as 16 weeks of pregnancy i.e around completing their 4th month. Now ladies start perceiving fetal movements, she may describe it as a flattered, some describe it as a kick, and gradually they acquire a regular pattern, the mother becomes well acquainted with it. She becomes comfortable with it and becomes aware of it. Now what is to more focus on today, is the awareness. The awareness of fetal movements.

What is it to have the right amount of fetal movements? Now there are no fix numbers because babies keep moving or rolling, cross body movements are there. Sometimes the mother perceives and sometimes they miss. Now what we have observed is the mother is more aware of the fetal movement when they are in lying down position and little less aware when they are sitting. And sometimes totally oblivious when they are walking or working. Sometimes we ask the patient, are you feeling fetal movements, she might say no, I have not noticed. So, what you have to do especially when you complete your 6 months of pregnancy, enter the 7 months, after that, you have to be really aware.

I am not trying to create a anxiety but you have to be aware. If you do not notice the movements, you should lie down, preferably in left lateral position and keep one palm on your abdomen and just concentrate on the movements. Most lightly you will feel good movements. Why I am focusing on this thing because reduced and absent fetal movements can be a warning sign of impending fetal death. Now that is something we never want. So, reduces and absent fetal movements are to be taken very seriously by the patient and by the doctor. Why are movements important because they indicate that the baby is doing well. Now sometimes these movements are actually normal that's when the baby is sleeping. Baby sleep for 20-40 minutes at one go and these may be repeated even 7 times during a day sometimes during the night. But in a normal healthy fetus, sleep cycle will not exceed 90 minutes.

So, if you are not feeling any single fetal movement even after concentrating for 90 minutes, it is the time to see a doctor and this should not be postponed to the next day because then the results may differ. And we don't want that result. Now, what your doctor will do. First, he will use a stethoscope to look for the baby's heartbeat, then a doctor can use a doppler. Electric fetal heart monitoring and a doctor will note minute to the minute fetal heartbeat. In case, there is still a doubt, we will go for an ultrasound. Some patients are at a little high risk if the baby's growth is a little restricted and not growing well. In such cases, if you have a reduced movement or if you have high BP, in these cases you have to more alert. If we have told you that these are high-risk condition, you should see a doctor immediately. So, to conclude, I would stress upon the maternal well-being that the perception of the fetal movements which will ensure the fetal well-being in case, the mother is not sure about the fetal movements.

She should first take rest. Give herself 2 hours. Look for discrete fetal kicks. If still, she is unsure, contact the doctor and get a CTG, ultrasound. Find out where is the problem. In more than 70% of cases, this may occur in once in pregnancy and it may not affect the outcome. But we have to screen so that we could get that 30% where we need t to intervene early and make a difference and give a healthy baby to our smiley mother. Thank you very much for your time and your attention. You can meet me at Mahesh Hospital, Parparganj Area. You can also consult me online through Lybrate or you can fix your appointment through Lybrate app and very easy to use.

Thank You.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice