Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Diabetes - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes- Most people generally develop type 1 diabetes before the age of 40. It is also known as early onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent diabetes. People who have type 1 diabetes usually have to take insulin injections. They also need to ensure blood glucose levels by carrying out blood tests and following a strict diet.
  • Type 2 diabetes- This form of diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce adequate insulin for the proper functioning of the cell which produces insulin. Many people are able to control type 2 diabetes by controlling their blood glucose levels, exercising a lot, consuming a healthy diet and losing weight. Overweight and physically inactive people are at a higher risk of getting type 2 Diabetes. Eating a lot of junk food and food rich in sugar can also contribute to type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes- This form of diabetes usually affects women during pregnancy. Many women have high levels of glucose in their blood during pregnancy because of the inability to produce insulin. If gestational diabetes is not controlled on time, it can be fatal for the baby and a lot of complications can arise during childbirth. The newborn can be bigger than she/he should normally be.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

The doctor usually diagnoses Diabetes by conducting a series of tests such as the A1C test, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Complications of Diabetes:

Type diabetes
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Increased thirst Frequent urination Hunger Fatigue and blurred vision

Popular Health Tips

Can Diabetes Lead To Emergencies? Here Is How Can You Deal With It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, Certification In Diabetes
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Can Diabetes Lead To Emergencies? Here Is How Can You Deal With It!

Diabetes is known as a silent killer and this name is well earned. Research findings have shown that around 20 lakh Indians suffer from diabetes of which 5 lakh are not aware that they are diabetic. Managing diabetes can be a difficult task but definitely not an impossible one. However, if you do not take steps at the right time, diabetes can cause many health complications and emergencies. Read on to know more about this deadly disease.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is an ailment, which compromises the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone, known as insulin. This leads to an increase in the blood sugar levels of the body and causes an abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates.

What kind of complications can diabetes lead to?

Yes, diabetes can lead to emergencies as diabetics always run the risk of suffering from insulin shock and falling into a diabetic coma. Excessive insulin in the body can lead to a low blood sugar level causing insulin shock. This is also known by the term ‘hypoglycemia’. Similarly, if your body has too little insulin then it is known as hyperglycemia where you run the risk of falling into a diabetic coma.

The symptoms of an insulin shock are:

- Rapid pulse
- Sweaty and pale skin
- Odorless breath
- Hunger
- Drowsiness and fatigue
- Rapid breathing
- Trembling
- A headache
- Numbness in feet and hands

The symptoms of a diabetic coma are:

- Nausea
- The shaky or wobbly way of walking
- Dry, warm or flushed skin
- Drowsiness leading to a gradual loss of consciousness
- Quick and weak pulse
- Deep breaths
- Confusion
- The odor of sweet apple of nail polish

How can you deal with diabetes?

Even though diabetes is a very serious disease to deal with, there are a few things you can do that can help you deal with it and keep it at a normal level. Some of these steps are:

- Count your carbs - Even though carbohydrates is an essential nutrient for ensuring a healthy body, too much of it can wreak havoc on your blood sugar levels. It is imperative that you follow a well-balanced diet with the right amount of carbs in it. The best thing you can do is to pair high-fiber carbs with protein, as it can slow down your digestion and you will feel full without your blood sugar being hiked up. Some of the best sources of carbs and fiber are sweet potatoes, dried beans, whole wheat bread, and pumpkins.

- Check your blood sugar regularly - Go for regular blood sugar tests, so that you know where your diabetes stands. If your blood tests come back to normal then you are on the right path but if they do not, then consult a doctor so that he or she can help you come up with a plan to deal with this in a better way.

- Exercise - Exercise is something that does not just takes care of your body from the outside; it can also keep you in good shape internally by lowering your blood sugar levels. Make sure that you work out at least 4 days a week for a minimum of half an hour. Physical activity can also help your body secrete the hormone; endorphins, which can help, boost your mood and emotions.

Even though diabetes is a very unfortunate disease, that does not mean you will have to put your entire life on hold for it. If you take the right steps at the right time and listen to your doctor’s advice, you will be able to beat this disease in no time.

1760 people found this helpful

Diabetes and Vascular Dementia - What You Should Know?

DM - Neurology, MD - General Medicine
Neurologist, Ahmedabad
Diabetes and Vascular Dementia - What You Should Know?

Diabetes and dementia have more in common than the letter ‘D’. Diabetes is a disorder where the body cannot produce enough insulin. It may also make the patient’s body resistant to insulin. As a result, the body’s glucose levels fluctuate. This, in turn, increases the risk of many other conditions including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This risk can be as high as 60%. Dementia caused by diabetes is seen more often in women than in men.

According to research studies, high levels of glucose or sugar in the body can affect the brain cells. This excessive sugar limits the amount of oxygen that can reach the brain cells and leads to the death of these cells. It also prevents brain cells from communicating with each other thus leading to vascular dementia. Vascular dementia can also be caused by a stroke or a number of small strokes. This too is an effect of diabetes as it can cause cardiovascular troubles and narrow the arteries.

Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia. Patients suffering from this type of dementia typically complain of memory loss and difficulty thinking. Language may also be an issue. Some of the common symptoms associated with it are:

  • Trouble planning or organizing things
  • Trouble solving simple problems
  • Trouble making decisions
  • Difficulty in following steps or a procedure
  • Reduced speed of thinking
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Mood swings

The risk of developing vascular dementia doubles every five years after the age of 65. Hence, it is important to keep your diabetes under control and manage your blood sugar levels. If you are on insulin, you must take the prescribed dose regularly. Do not change the dosage on your own or skip a dose. Here are a few other tips that can help you control diabetes and reduce the risk of vascular dementia.

Eat a well-balanced diet
A person suffering from diabetes should have plenty of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Avoid processed foods and fatty foods. Instead of frying our food, try grilling, steaming or baking it. Raw salads are great for a diabetes patient.

Exercise Regularly
Exercise can improve your overall health and make your body respond better to the insulin. If you lead a sedentary lifestyle; start by adding a walk to your daily routine. You could also try cycling or swimming. Aim for at least half an hour’s exercise each day. If you cannot find the time, incorporate exercises into your daily routine. For example, take the stairs instead of the lift or park your car a little further away from your home and walk back.

2 people found this helpful

Why Is It Important To Control Your Diabetes?

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Why Is It Important To Control Your Diabetes?

The food we eat, the liquids we drink and the air we breathe, everything plays an important role in affecting the health of our body. The consumption of food causes the production of glucose, which provides energy to our body. There is no doubt that excess of everything is bad and this is the reason that when blood glucose levels get a leap, then a disease named diabetes comes into existence.

Firstly, have a look at the types to know your problem well.

Type 1 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is quite hazardous for the pancreas as the immune system restricts the cells to produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes can be spotted among people of every age. It needs insulin on the daily basis to maintain the living of a person.

Type 2 Diabetes: Most commonly, people get affected by type 2 diabetes only, but generally it occurs in middle age people or to the people at their higher age. In this type of diabetes, patient’s body does not make proper insulin.

Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes can be diagnosed among the pregnant women. Generally, this gets vanished with the birth of the baby. In most of the cases, people suffering from gestational diabetes come into the trap of type 2 diabetes in the later ages.

How common is the disease?
Various researches are evident to the point that 415 million people are suffering from this problem and it is not wrong to say that it is diagnosed in 1 out of 11 of the world’s adult population. Most of the people are suffering from type 2 basically.

Why is it important to put a stop on diabetes?
Insulin hormone plays a vital role in the transportation of glucose into the cells, but when the proper amount of glucose does not reach to the cells and get occupied in the blood, and then the excess glucose in the blood causes the health problems. These problems comprise of:

  1. Cardiovascular diseases
  2. Kidney problems which may force you to go under dialysis
  3. Effects in vision that may cause blindness
  4. Sexual problems such as erectile malfunctioning
  5. Amputation due to circulation and scarring

These problems can affect your life in a worse way so waiting for the excess is the not an option, whereas you should be careful towards it so that it can be cured in the early stages. There is nothing to have a second thought because higher levels of diabetes may lead to losing your life. So, do not ignore the disease and look forward to lessening the effects of the disease. Monitoring of the levels of glucose in your body on the daily basis can help you to stop the cause. This can save your body get affected by various other diseases. Do not wait for the disease to cause damage and plan beautiful life ahead by putting a stop to your diabetes. Only you have the courage to give a better and a happy ending to your diabetes story.

2806 people found this helpful

Diabetic Eye - All What You Ever Wanted To Know

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Diabetic Eye - All What You Ever Wanted To Know

Diabetic eye refers to a condition which generally affects the eye of a diabetic person. It is caused due to high sugar level in body. Diabetic eye can further lead to major problems such as cataracts, blurry vision, glaucoma, and retinopathy in case no treatment is taken at the preliminary stages. The deposition of glucose on the lens is the major cause behind all such problems and if ignored it can further damage small nerves and blood vessels. There are many precautionary methods by which you can cure this disease such as eye drops, surgery and laser treatment, but the simplest way to treat it is by managing your sugar level.

Following are the ways by which you can maintain the sugar level and procure yourself from such disease:

  1. Keeping an eye on your diet and consulting doctors for proper medication.
  2. Quit smoking and alcoholic substances.
  3. Have a detailed eye examination once a year.
  4. Regular exercise and Yoga which can do wonder to control Diabetes.

How does a diabetic eye affect you?

  1. Blurry vision: If you notice that things are looking unclear do not go for glasses it may just a normal problem caused by high glucose level. High sugar level causes swelling in the lens and reduces your ability to see. This can be corrected in 3 months by managing the sugar level in the normal range.
  2. CataractThe lens in our eye provides the sharp and clear vision, but they tend to be cloudy with age. It is more likely to occur in the diabetic person at an early age. This is caused due to the deposition of excess glucose on our eye lens which may reduce our vision and makes the things appear glaring.
  3. Glaucoma: Glaucoma is caused due to pressure build-up in the eye and resists the fluid to flow in the normal way. This further cause damage to the blood vessel and causes the vision problems. Glaucoma can be treated if detected in early stage. The common symptoms of this disease are a headache, watery eye and vision loss. The problem can be cured by eye drops, surgery and laser treatment.
  4. Diabetic Retinopathy: Retina is a group of special cell which is found in our eye. It helps to convert the light into an image. Diabetic Retinopathy can lead to damage of these small blood vessels hence leading to loss of sight. The common symptoms includes black spot on the eye, holes in vision and blurry vision which can be treated by surgery.

A diabetic eye is a minor problem if detected in early age, but can cause the vision loss in case proper care is not taken at the preliminary stages. A yearly checkup can help you to detect the problem in early age and hence can be cured. We suggest you to get your eyes checked as regular as once in a year once you attain the age of 40; as generally by this age the insulin level of the body is unbalanced and the composite of glucose starts depositing on different body parts which may lead to deadly diseases.

3036 people found this helpful

How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

The risk of developing depression is found by the means of various researches to be two to three times higher in individuals suffering from a chronic disease than in normal individuals. Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes are chronic diseases that can prove to be very challenging to manage due to various setbacks and complications that can come in the way. Regular monitoring of the blood sugar levels is essential in managing the blood sugar. Navigation of the health care facilities, side effects caused by medications, and other related health conditions or even diabetic complications can cause an increased risk of developing depression. If left undiagnosed and untreated, depression can give way to a poor lifestyle choice that can further deteriorate the physical health of a person.

Various risk factors that are associated with diabetes and depression are as follows-

  • lack of physical activity
  • poor social environment
  • poverty
  • stress during pregnancy

Depression in diabetes can occur simultaneously due to a variety of factors. These include the psychological and psychosocial impact of the disease on an individual, a potential common genetic susceptibility and certain common pathophysiological abnormalities that involve neuro-immunological and neuro-endocrinal pathways, as well as microvascular brain lesions due to diabetes mellitus. However, issues concerning pathogenesis and causality of this high co-occurrence are not fully determined yet. Still, the presence of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus is of vast importance, as it is usually associated with poor disease control, adverse health outcomes and quality of life impairment.

When an individual is suffering from diabetes, the awareness of risks of developing depression is essential. It has been widely researched and found that these two conditions can occur simultaneously, where depression is usually undiagnosed. Diabetes, specifically type 2, and depression affect each other in a bi-directional manner, which means that each of the disease can prove as a risk factor for the other. In a state of depression, it is common for a person to consume high calorie foods and also to lead a sedentary lifestyle. This tendency can prove to be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.

If an individual already has type 2 diabetes, the stress experienced during the management of disease can cause depression. Type 1 diabetes develops as result of the defect of pancreas in production of insulin.

People with type 1 diabetes can also develop depressive symptoms due to difficulties in the management of the disease. If the symptoms of depression develop in the patient already suffering from diabetes, management of diabetes also becomes difficult. This can lead to cause various diabetes related complications and also decrease the life expectancy.

Various signs that can be observed in a state of depression are as follows:

  1. Complete lack of interest in doing any activity
  2. Irritation or mood swings
  3. Depressed mood
  4. Disturbed sleep pattern
  5. Changes in the appetite
  6. Constant feeling of despair
  7. Guilt Fatigue, weakness
  8. Difficulty in concentration, transient memory loss
  9. Suicidal tendency

There is a certain risk observed between the consumption of antidepressant medicines and development of diabetes. It has been researched and concluded that consuming antidepressants should always be on physician recommendation, with a prior advice on the risks of developing diabetes. It has also been found that the people with type 2 diabetes, who are using insulin regularly, are at higher risk for developing depression as compared to the people on non-insulin medications or following only diet or lifestyle modification habits. An additional stress experienced in managing diabetes and accessing the health care services can cause such complication in insulin users.

Common treatment protocol for depression includes psychotherapy or the cognitive behavioral therapy. It helps people to correct destructive thought patterns and behaviors that tend to increase the depressive symptoms. Other interventions like a structured problem solving approach, motivational interviewing, and interpersonal approach towards the patient is also effective in management. Certain medications can also help in mood-lifting and the management of symptoms of depression.

In diabetics, the treatment options that are available in addition to the standard medical healthcare provision includes self-management training sessions that help the people to increase healthy habits and improve control on their blood sugar levels. Diabetes as well as depression can improve with complete focus on lifestyle changes, like proper diet management and exercising regularly.

3285 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Age 25, male (History: h/o stroke 10 yr old, recovered 70% but on bp medication for last 10 years, diagnosed as type 2 DM @ 19 age since that taking insulin and oral diabetes medicines) From last three months he has uncontrollable blood sugar despite maintaining all diabetes workout. ( diet, exercise, sleeping, medication etc) 1. Insugen 50/50  40 unit morning + 40 unit noons 2. Metformin 1000+ teneligliptin 20 (noon) 3.NPH 26 unit before sleep (10 pm) (added just 2 weeks before) Hba1c is 9.6 , after starting bed time NPH, FBS is now getting 140 to 160 ranges but high ppbs (280-320) range despite eating less and highly fluctuations in RBS (RBS always high)    Life style: same food timetable (low calorie) /fixed moderate exercise schedule/no alcohol/no smoking/etc. What should do now? His oral medications seem not working is there any chance that he has type 1 diabetes instead of 2. If that's so how confirm that.(He is obese, so the first doctor immediately diagnosed as type 2) I searched net and found that c-peptide test will do that, so to get correct insulin production should the external insulin need to stop one day before that test. Or is there any test to check the cause of hyperglycemia. Please ask if need any further information.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. I have gone through the details given. It is clear that at present the diabetes is totally uncontrolled. Because he is obese ((BMI 32.57 kgs/Sq meter), doctor must have concluded he has T2 DM. But it is better if you get C-peptide test plus GAD antibodies, to confirm whether there T1 DM. I have a few questions: 1) What is his routine diet? In detail like from early mornong till he goes to sleep. 2) What is the amount of daily exercise being done both interms of time spent and what activity is done? 3) Have the glucose levels remained high right from beginning or has this been noticed recently? 4) Has he been obese all along? 5) What are creatinine, urea and microalbun values? Please come back with these clarifications, then I may be able to guide. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

Hello sir, I am from Bangalore, I am 29 years old and am suffering from diabetic type one. Before 6 months back I know I had suffering from diabetic. And Daily I've 2 times insulin is der 1) human actrapid 14 unit at afternoon 2) at nite 12 unit human and 14 unit glaritu is der. Sir how much days shall I continue this process .still I am not got married also so. Please reply me .and and tablets also they r given me afternoon meal pioz 7.5 mg and at nite lipikind and pioz after food.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. I have gone through the details given, however, there is no mention of actual glucose levels like - fasting & PP and HbA1c%. If a person has Type! diabetes then only Insulin injection is given. Oral drugs do not work in that condition. Since you are also using Pioglitazone, that means it is Type 2 diabetes. Insulin is given to achieve a quicker control on blood glucose. In many cases once the strict control is gained, Insulin injections can be discontinued and patient can be maintained only on oral drugs. So it is better if you come back with necessary details as mentioned above, plus diet pattern, extent of daily exercise, lipid profile and BP readings, preferably in a private conversation (paid consultation), then I will be able to give specific guidance and even prescribe necessary drugs. In this communication we are supposed to give only general guidelines. No drugs can be prescribed. Thanks.

Hi. I have undergone some blood tests recently. I got th result of insulin in the range of Type 1 diabetes juvenile. On the other hand my FBS is 90, which is normal. I'm surprised at these results and would like to know what exactly is my health status.

DM - Endocrinology, MBBS, MD - Medicine
Endocrinologist, Bangalore
Hi lybrate-user, please consult a diabetes physician and try to do HBA1c this will gives you better idea about confirmation. You may require lifestyle modification to control your diabetes. Thanks.

I am a Type 1 Diabetic patient and I am going to a high altitude trekking. Besides my normal medication do I need to take any special care?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. It is very essential to monitor glucose levels carefully while one is on high altitude tricking. It is better to maintain glucose level around 160 plus (9 mMoles/L) so as to avoid hypoglycemia or hyper one. It is essential to carry glucose gels and even glucagon injections in case of hypoglycemia. Glucometers may not give correct readings due to extreme temperatures. Similarly Insulin also should be properly stored. High altitude can lead to hypoglycemia due to excess exercise or some times hyperglycemia due counter regulatory hormone activity. It is better to consult the medical staff available there. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

I have been talking Temsan H, 40 mg for the past two years, now my BP dropped to 70/90, I am 66 years old, marginally diabetic for past two years. Can I take 1/2 tablet same drug daily.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. Since your BP is fairly low, better to reduce dosage to 20 mg a day. Then check BP after a week. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

Types of Diabetes:
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Complications of Diabetes:
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Know More About Diabetes
There are a number of lifestyle ailments that plague people around the world. Cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes are just a few of them. Diabetes means your blood sugar level, called glucose, is too high. Blood glucose is the main kind of sugar found in your blood and is supposed to be your main source of energy.
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Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a collection of risk factors that increase the chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Lifestyle changes like losing weight, exercise, and dietary changes can help prevent or reverse metabolic syndrome.
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Diabetic people are prone to cataract. It may also cause kidney disease. People with kidney diseases are prone to heart attack.
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Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
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Obesity And Diabetes Surgery
Bariatric surgery has emerged as an impressive treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery is costly, but cost-efficacy analysis consistently shows that the additional years of lives gained through bariatric surgery can be obtained at a reasonable and affordable cost.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice