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Overview

Diabetes - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes- Most people generally develop type 1 diabetes before the age of 40. It is also known as early onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent diabetes. People who have type 1 diabetes usually have to take insulin injections. They also need to ensure blood glucose levels by carrying out blood tests and following a strict diet.
  • Type 2 diabetes- This form of diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce adequate insulin for the proper functioning of the cell which produces insulin. Many people are able to control type 2 diabetes by controlling their blood glucose levels, exercising a lot, consuming a healthy diet and losing weight. Overweight and physically inactive people are at a higher risk of getting type 2 Diabetes. Eating a lot of junk food and food rich in sugar can also contribute to type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes- This form of diabetes usually affects women during pregnancy. Many women have high levels of glucose in their blood during pregnancy because of the inability to produce insulin. If gestational diabetes is not controlled on time, it can be fatal for the baby and a lot of complications can arise during childbirth. The newborn can be bigger than she/he should normally be.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

The doctor usually diagnoses Diabetes by conducting a series of tests such as the A1C test, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Complications of Diabetes:

Type diabetes
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Symptoms
Increased thirst Frequent urination Hunger Fatigue and blurred vision

Popular Health Tips

Diabetes & Kidney - What Are The Complications?

FISN, FISPD, MD - General Medicine, MBBS, DM
Nephrologist, Delhi
Diabetes & Kidney - What Are The Complications?

At a point when our bodies process the protein we eat, the procedure creates waste products. In kidneys, millions of tiny blood vessels act as filters since they have even tinier holes in them. As blood flows through these vessels, little molecules such as waste items may press through the gaps. These waste items turn out to be a part of the urine. Helpful substances, such as protein and red blood cells are too enormous to go through the gaps in the filter and stay in the blood.

Diabetes and kidneys: Diabetes can harm the kidneys. Abnormal amounts of glucose make the kidneys filter a lot of blood. After a couple of years, they begin to spill and helpful protein is thereby, lost in urine. Having low protein levels in the urine is called micro albuminuria.

Medication: When kidney disease is analyzed on time, during micro albuminuria, a few medications may keep kidney disease from getting worse. Having elevated levels of protein in the urine is called macro albuminuria. When kidney disease is looked up some other time during macro albuminuria, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually follows.

Causes: Strain on the organs may cause the kidneys to lose their filtering capacity. Waste items then begin to develop in the blood. Finally, the kidneys start to fail. This failure, ESRD, is intense. A patient with ESRD needs a kidney transplant or a blood filtration by a machine (dialysis).

Other complications: Individuals with diabetes will probably have other kidney-related issues such as bladder infections and nerve damages in the bladder.


Preventing complications: Not everybody with diabetes goes through a kidney disease. Elements that can impact kidney disease improvement include genetics, blood-sugar control and blood pressure. The more a person keeps diabetes and blood pressure under control, the lower the chances of getting a kidney disease.

Keeping your glucose level high can counteract diabetic kidney problems. Research has demonstrated that blood glucose control diminishes the danger of micro albuminuria by 33%. For individuals who suffer from micro albuminuria have now a reduced danger of advancing to macro albuminuria. Different studies have recommended that blood glucose control can reverse micro albuminuria.

Treatment: Essential treatments for kidney infection include control of blood glucose and blood pressure. Blood pressure dramatically affects the rate at which the condition progresses. Indeed, even a gentle increase in blood pressure can rapidly aggravate a kidney infection. Four approaches to bring down your blood pressure are:

 

  1. Shedding pounds
  2. Eating less salt
  3. Maintaining a strategic distance from liquor and tobacco
  4. Exercising regularly

A low-protein diet can decrease the amount of lost protein in the urine and increase the protein levels in the blood. Never begin a low-protein diet without talking to your physician or nephrologist. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2883 people found this helpful

Bariatric Surgery For Type 2 Diabetes - Does It Help?

Fellowship in Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery, Fellowship in Advanced Laproscopy & Bariatric Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Bariatric Surgery For Type 2 Diabetes - Does It Help?

Bariatric surgery is a surgery performed on the stomach and is usually recommended for people who are obese. If you have a BMI value more than 40, then this surgery is a very good option. Along with those having an obesity problem, this surgery is also said to be ideal for those people who are suffering from type 2 diabetes and having a BMI value between 35 to 40.

There are many studies which show that there is a great improvement in people with type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery. Even the cholesterol and blood pressure levels can also be controlled with the help of this surgery. Post-surgery, you will have to take fewer medicines or in some cases, you need not have to take medicine at all.

How does the doctor decide if you need bariatric surgery?
Basically, there are two things that will be considered by the doctor. The first one is the BMI value, which should be above 35. And the second parameter to consider is if you have tried any other methods to lose weight but did not succeed. Based on these and if you are ready to face the mental and physical challenges after the surgery, you will be advised to go through this surgery. You should make sure that you are doing regular exercise and also eat less.

Types of bariatric surgeries for type 2 diabetes

  1. Gastric bypass: In this kind of surgery, the stomach is divided into two parts. One small part at the top is separated from the lower part of the stomach. Whatever you eat, will go into this small part of the stomach and that makes you feel full faster. Also, fewer nutrients and calories are absorbed into the body. After this kind of surgery, more than 80 percent of diabetes patients showed no signs of diabetes at all.
  2. Gastric sleeve: In this surgery, a large portion of the stomach is removed and hence you will be able to eat less. This also reduces the amount of ghrelin, the hormone responsible for making you feel hungry, produced. This is successful in 60 percent of people with type 2 diabetes.
  3. Adjustable gastric band: A small inflatable band is placed around the stomach. This will look like a small pouch at the place where the food goes in. This pouch will get full a lot quicker and hence you will not be able to eat too much.

Does it help?
Some surgeries show 80 percent success rate and some show 60 percent success rate, but that is in terms of diabetes levels. Due to less food, the body will not get the required minerals and vitamins, which will result in other health complications. Some surgeries are also irreversible. So, it is your doctor who understands the surgery and your health better and they will always suggest the best option for you. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1741 people found this helpful

Type 2 Diabetes - What All Should You Know?

PG Fellowship In Diabetes, PGC in Diabeties, DFM, MBBS
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Type 2 Diabetes - What All Should You Know?

Diabetes is a condition that cannot be cured. It is a lifelong disease that can be only managed. The way your body handles glucose is affected by this condition. Diabetes is classified into Type 1 and Type 2. Most people affected by diabetes have Type 2 diabetes. In few cases, the blood sugar levels are above normal. Yet, it cannot be high enough to be called diabetes. This condition is called prediabetes. People with such condition have a higher risk of being affected by diabetes. When one is diagnosed with diabetes, a lot of factors should be taken care of. The first thing you need to be careful about is the food intake. Physical activities and exercises, too, should be given importance.

Role of insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The food you eat contains glucose, a form of sugar. This has to be converted into energy, which is done by insulin. When you are affected by Type 2 diabetes, your body still produces insulin. When your body cannot make use of it, the condition is called insulin resistance. To cope with this, the pancreas produces more insulin to convert the sugar into energy. But, still it cannot be used efficiently and sugar build up keeps growing.

The causes: You could have been affected by Type 2 diabetes because of various factors. It can be because of hereditary reasons. DNA can influence the way your pancreas produces insulin. You can be at a higher risk of diabetes when you both your parents are a diabetic. If you have excess weight around the middle or abdominal area, you are at an increased chance of being affected by Type 2 diabetes. Excess weight can lead to insulin resistance. Childhood obesity can result in diabetes in the teens and adults who are in their early twenties. Wrong communication between the cells and broken beta cells, too, can lead to Type 2 diabetes.

Risk factors: Low HDL cholesterol, heart diseases, high triglycerides, gestational diabetes, PCOS, depression, and prediabetes are some of the risk factors you need to be cautious about. When you know your medical history and undergo periodic checkups, you can assess your chances of getting affected by it. You can also find that various lifestyle factors play a vital role here. If you spend most part of your day sitting, or you have a sedentary job, your chance of getting affected by Type 2 diabetes is alarming. The same is applicable for smoking. Obesity or being overweight can also lead to Type 2 diabetes. Stress is a factor that can affect your health, and can also trigger this condition. You need to sleep for at least 7 to 8 hours per day. When you do not get adequate sleep, again, you are at risk. This does not mean sleeping more is safe. 10 or more hours spent sleeping again can cause type 2 diabetes.

If you want to keep off the risk factors, lose weight. Don’t get into crash diets. You can try healthy foods in portions. Do workouts. Cardio workouts are a good choice Stay off from junk foods and carbonated drinks. When you find the symptoms of being thirsty often, blurred vision, frequent urination, and numbness in feet, check your blood sugar levels. Speak to your doctor and take the right medication for diabetes. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1880 people found this helpful

Diabetes - Can Medication Make You Put On Weight?

PGP In Diabetologist, Fellowship in Non-Invasive Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Diabetes - Can Medication Make You Put On Weight?

The lifestyle condition, diabetes, is occurring in a substantial percentage of the population across the world, and quite a lot of research goes into the treatment options. If you experience a weight gain as you started taking medication for diabetes and wondering if there could be a correlation between the two, your observation is most likely correct as studies report that diabetic medication in some rare cases can lead to weight gains in some patients.

Weight gain due to insulin

  • Insulin is used to control blood glucose levels by enabling glucose absorption in the body. However, excess glucose in the blood can sometimes be not used as energy by the muscles and is often stored as fat. Moreover, many patients that take insulin to reduce blood sugar levels might be taking too much insulin, which leads to increased appetite, and it makes them eat much more than they normally would. If you happen to be putting on weight while being on insulin, it is recommended to consult your physician immediately to help control weight gain.
  • As the insulin runs through its course of treatment and reduces the blood glucose levels in the body, it should reduce an adult's appetite to normal, and the cravings for food will also reduce over time. It is also to be noted that low levels of blood sugar due to an overdose of insulin can lead to increased appetite and ask your physician to revise the insulin dosage can help.

Weight gain due to Sulphonylureas

  • Sulphonylureas is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for blood glucose control that works by stimulating a patient's pancreas to produce higher levels of insulin. By doing so, the body has access to more insulin, and it helps transfer glucose out of the blood and into cells which can be used as energy. Just like the health risks that are associated with taking insulin, if you happen to be putting on weight because of Sulphonylureas, you need to visit your physician immediately to seek treatment and bring the symptoms in check.
  • Steroid hormones are also recommended by many physicians in cases of high blood glucose, and they can have the same symptoms and effects as insulin or Sulphonylureas. Lower insulin levels always need to be supported by a healthy diet and proper lifestyle changes to allow the treatment to be effective.

So, if you notice any signs of weight gain while undergoing treatment for diabetes, you should consult your physician at the earliest to avoid further complications. It is important to not to cut back on the dosage of the prescribed medications to deal with the weight gain issue as it will not help and consulting a physician is the right way to go about it.

3 people found this helpful

Surgical Treatment For The Infected Diabetic Foot!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Vascular Surgery
Vascular Surgeon, Bangalore
Surgical Treatment For The Infected Diabetic Foot!

Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which is increasing in incidence. A number of people are being affected, and the age of onset is decreasing. The issue with managing diabetes is that it is a multi-system disease, and affects almost the entire body system. The circulatory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems and overall metabolism are all severely affected as the disease progresses. Therefore, early detection is highly helpful as it aids in controlling the progression of the disease as well as in arresting its symptoms.

Infections, especially in the leg, which lead an individual to suffer from a diabetic foot are due to two reasons:

  • Nervous system: Diabetes results in a reduced sensation of the nervous system, especially in the distant organs like the toes and legs. As the sensory perception is reduced, small hurts and wounds in the legs go unnoticed and the person does not feel any pain.
  • Skin: Once diabetes sets in, the collagen formation and wound-healing capability is reduced. The rate of regeneration of tissues is reduced. So in addition to the reduced sensation, the rate of healing is also reduced.
  • These wound infections could be limb threatening or non-limb-threatening. As the infection progresses from mild to moderate to severe, the wound progresses from a small ulcer to cellulitis involving the infection of the subcutaneous layer. This then progresses to gangrene, which refers to the death of the underlying tissue due to chronic infection. This infection gradually reaches the bone to cause osteomyelitis.

The primary problems with severe cases of diabetic foot include:

  • Hypoxia it reduces the oxygen supply
  • Debris due to infection and death of subcutaneous tissue
  • Nutritional deficiencies is a common side effect of diabetes
  • Lack of vascularity due to atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis

How does surgery help?

  • Sharp surgical debridement: This is done in cases that only have a deep cellulitis or gangrene. The infected tissue is marked out along with a good margin of normal tissue, completely debrided leaving normal margins. This allows diagnosing the extent of the infection, clear debridement, and also promotes wound healing. The skin closure is done with skin grafts from another portion, usually the thigh or torso. Postop care is essential for success.
  • Amputation: In people where the infection is quite deep, with or without osteomyelitis (bone involvement), amputation may be required. This amputation may be only of the toes, the foot, or below or above the knee depending on the stage of identification and extent of infection. This helps in improved diabetic foot control as well as re-ulceration, which can be quite complicated.

While surgery comes with its own set of complications, it sometimes helps in treating severe diabetic foot infections. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2043 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I suffering from type 1 diabetes so I take Novomix 50 insulin two times in day but My sugar level not control so tell me How to control my sugar level because fasting 160 approx. Pp 200 approx. So please tell me about diet plan whose to control my sugar.

MBBS, MD
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Gradually increase insulin dose and monitor blood sugar you will get desired results. Use lots of vegetables and salad. Avoid junk food, take small frequent meals, avoid sugar jaggery honey in any form, avoid sweets, sweet fruits like mangoes, banana,grapes, cheekoo etc. Use whole grain flour instead of maida.
3 people found this helpful

Diabetic on glimepiride2, metformin 2000 mg, teneligliptin5 and still uncontrolled. Can a sglt2 inhibitor added to this regimen.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. It is difficult give a clear answer whether a SGLT - 2 Inhibitor can be added to existing therapy withput knowing full details of the case. I need to know the following: Fasting, PP glucose levels, HbA1c%, weight, height, serum creatinine & urea levels, eGFR and whethe there is microalbuminura. If kidney function is compromised or eGFR is low, then certain drugs can not be sude including metformin and SGLT-2 Inhibitors. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

I am taking metride 2 (glimepiride 2 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg) for blood sugar. Can I take generic medicine of same content if yes suggest me the best medicine?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. You can take generic drugs with same combination, But please observe whether you are getting similar control of blood glucose on changing. Then please do continue those. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

I have been suffering from diabetes for last 12 years. The condition has got severe from last 3 months. Though injecting insulin showed improvement but I am not comfortable with needles. Please suggest an effective way out.

MD - Medicine, MBBS, DTCD
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
These days there are many new and effective medications which can control diabetes and delay the use of insulin. You need a more detailed consultation.

Dear Doctor, Thanking to you for giving me this opportunity. My mother is diabetic patient. She have sugar level before 297 and after 395. I want to concern to diet for her. She is 56 year.

Fellowship in Critical Care Medicine, Post Graduate Diploma in Diabetology (PGDD)
Diabetologist, Thane
It's highly uncontrolled sugar levels. In long run it may damage kidney and Cardiac functions. Send her recent treatment n reports.

Table of Content

Types of Diabetes:
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Complications of Diabetes:
Play video
Diabetes Treatment
Diabetes is a serious disease that you cannot treat on your own. Your doctor will help you make a diabetes treatment plan that is right for you -- and that you can understand. Treatment for diabetes requires keeping close watch over your blood sugar levels (and keeping them at a goal set by your doctor) with a combination of medications, exercise, and diet.
Play video
Diabetes In Pregnancy
Diabetes is the most common medical complication during pregnancy . No matter what type of diabetes you have, there are many steps you and your health care team can take in order to have a safe and healthy pregnancy.
Play video
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes and is one of the major component of diabetic foot. It is caused by neuropathic (nerve) and vascular (blood vessel) complications of diabetes.
Play video
Risk Factors Of Diabetes And How To Be Aware Of Them
There are few common yet important factors that increase risk of diabetes , such as obesity , smoking , unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Other reasons could be family history, infections or pancreas diseases. One must consult a good doctor in case diagnosed with any symptoms of diabetes.
Play video
Treatment Modalities In Diabetes
Hello! Good Morning!

I am Dr. Anirban Biswas. I am an endocrinologist practicing in South Delhi. Today I am going to answer a few questions asked by my patients regarding new treatment modalities in diabetes and a few questions on insulin.

Q1. Mrs. Anshu Garg: Whether a person who is on insulin can be shifted to oral medicines?

Answer: My answer is Yes. Why not? We can always shift a patient from insulin to oral medicines if there are certain conditions which are fulfilled. We need to perform a few tests and based on that we can find out whether the pancreas are still active. I personally have shifted around more than 1000 patients who were on insulin to non-insulin based regimens or they have substantially lowered their insulin requirement and I have detailed all this in my website www.insulin.com. So, it is possible that there are newer drugs which can make it possible.

Q2. Mr. Atul Thakur: What are the newer medicines that can be used?

Answer: There are two classes of new medicines which have arrived. First are the gliptins which are based on the ingredient pathway and they act not necessarily on the pancreas. They act through the intestinal pathway of controlling sugar. Now let me explain you how this is possible. We all know that there is a test done in which we feed a patient 75 grams of glucose. This test is known as the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and when scientists were replicating the OGTT through intravenous glucose, they were surprised to find out that only 25 grams of glucose is sufficient to replicate the graph of 75 grams of glucose in OGTT.

So, where does this 50 grams of glucose go, which was fed orally? Scientists asked this because both the graphs were similar. So the answer lies in ingredient pathway. So ingredient pathway was responsible for taking care of the 50 grams of extra glucose which had been fed orally. So, in this way we came to know about the ingredient pathway.

The other treatment modality which has arrived is the SGIT tool, the receptor inhibitor pathway which acts through the kidneys. It decreases the retention of glucose through the kidneys and increases the excretion of glucose through the kidneys and this results in fall in the sugar level in the patient s body. It also causes some increment in the blood pressure and the cholesterol level also. So, these are the two essential newer modalities which have arrived.

Q3. Ravi Bhatnagar: What is CGMS?

Answer: CGMS is Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device. This has been found to be useful in not control of the sugar level like the fasting, BP and the HbA1c levels. Other than that, it has been found to improve the glycemic variability, i.e., the day-to-day variations of the sugar levels can be very easily found out, and this device is available and has been manufactured by Abbott. This is a very good sensor device which can be pain free and can be used in all the patients and I have used in my patients and have got excellent results.

With this I come to the end of today s Questions & Answers and hope to see you soon.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice