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Overview

Benefits of Carbohydrates And Its Side Effects

Carbohydrates are essential elements for a balanced diet. The main types of carbohydrates present in foods include fiber, starch and sugar. Carbohydrates provide the fuel required for the body for physical activity, optimal organ function and brain function. The best sources of carbohydrates are fruits and vegetables because they contain vitamins, phytochemicals and minerals. They are the main source of energy and help in weight control, and help fight certain diseases like type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Carbohydrates with high glycemic index are ideal for athletes as they provide them with optimal energy levels to play the heavy-duty sport.

Benefits of Carbohydrates And Its Side Effects

Table of Content

Carbohydrates
Nutritional Value of Carbohydrates
Health Benefits of Carbohydrates
Energy for the Body
Uplifts Mood
Helps to Sleep Better
Provides Fiber to the Body
Helps to Prevent Diseases
Prevents Blood Clots
Useful to Control Weight
Improves the Digestive System
Helps to Keep Memory Sharp
Best Nutrient for Athletes
Risk of cancer is reduced with carbohydrates
Enjoy Healthier Skin
Uses of Carbohydrates
Side-Effects & Allergies of Carbohydrates
Origin And Cultivation of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide the energy needed to perform the important functions of the body and to keep it active. Only some carbohydrate sources are nutritious, as refined carbohydrates lack essential elements that promote health, such as, vitamins, dietary fiber and minerals. These nutritional substances are vital for normal functioning of our body because they contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, which our body is made of. During digestion glucose is released by carbohydrates, and transported to different organs through the blood. The cells of the organs convert carbohydrates into energy. To gain your daily dosage of energy consume t foods like vegetables, pasta, bread and whole grains.

Nutritional Value of Carbohydrates

Each gram of carbohydrate releases 4 calories of energy. This essential nutrient is available in two forms- complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. To prevent heart diseases and remain healthy, consuming carbohydrates with low glycemic index is important. Our body needs about 225-325 grams of carbohydrates for its optimal function, and that can be obtained by consuming a 2000 calorie diet.

Health Benefits of Carbohydrates

Mentioned below are the best health benefits of Carbohydrates
Health Benefits of Carbohydrates

Energy for the Body

Carbohydrates provide energy to the body, and thus it should be consumed, optimally. Excess of carbohydrate can cause conditions like obesity and increases the risk of heart attacks because excessive carbohydrate cannot be broken down by the body and is rather converted to fat and stored.

Uplifts Mood

Carbohydrates is responsible for mood and appetite enhancing chemical serotonin. This chemical not only helps people to feel full and satisfied with their meals but also improves the mood.

Helps to Sleep Better

Consuming low-fiber and high glycemic index carbohydrates at bed time is a good idea because it helps to sleep better.. The speed of the carbohydrate absorption and the digestion is measured mainly by the glycemic index. Thus, the higher the glycemic index, the better is the rate of absorption of carbohydrates.

Provides Fiber to the Body

Fiber is also referred to as roughage or bulk, and it is a part of the plant based food. Fiber is vital for regular functioning of the bowel. Also, the risk of diabetes and heart diseases is significantly reduced by consuming more fiber. Fiber is of two types- insoluble and soluble fiber. Barley, oats, legumes and psyllium are rich sources of soluble fiber that adds moisture to the stool. The cholesterol levels can also be reduced as these bind to the bile salts. The insoluble fiber is found in nuts, grains and in vegetables.

Helps to Prevent Diseases

Fibrous foods provide the strength to fight certain diseases . like obesity and type 2 diabetes. helps to lower cholesterol and aids digestion. However, it is important to consume the right amounts of calories, and exercise regularly to prevent heart related diseases.

Prevents Blood Clots

Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are an excellent source of dietary fiber. The formation of accumulated cholesterol and fat is inhibited by the dietary fiber which is known commonly as the plaque. The flow of oxygen rich blood is restricted if the plaque grows inside the body and that would lead to blood clots disorder, and which would result in heart attack. To prevent the formation of plaque, it is very important that carbohydrates are consumed.

Useful to Control Weight

Most often carbohydrates are blamed for weight gain, but these are also useful in controlling weight, if consumed in the right amounts. By consuming more vegetables and fruits, weight loss can be easily achieved. Avoid fad diets and include healthy carbohydrates in your diet for weight loss.

Improves the Digestive System

Including fiber-rich carbohydrate in your diet improves the health of the digestive system. Fiber present in carbohydrates adds bulk to the stool and facilitates its easy elimination from the body. Thus, the feeling of bloating or constipation is significantly improved with right carbohydrate intake.

Helps to Keep Memory Sharp

Including sufficient amount of energy-giving carbohydrates in the diet improves the ability to memorize.

Best Nutrient for Athletes

About 0.9 grams of carbohydrate received from 1 kg of food per hour when consumed with 0.2 grams of proteins per kg per hour improves the agility and stamina of the athlete, and helps them perform, optimally.

Risk of cancer is reduced with carbohydrates

Carbohydrates that contain plant fiber are known to decrease the possibility of different types of cancers such as stomach and colon cancers. Thus, by consuming whole grains, vegetables and fruits in the diet, people can significantly reduce the risk of cancers.

Enjoy Healthier Skin

Carbohydrates being a good source of dietary fibers is perfect for promoting healthier skin. The fiber is also very beneficial in eliminating the toxins from the body and for improving the health of the skin. The flow of blood will be clear and an individual would have a healthy and clear skin.

Uses of Carbohydrates

Some of the complex carb foods include oatmeal, yams, brown rice, white potatoes with skin, multigrain and 100% whole wheat bread. They are beneficial in regulating optimal brain and body functions. An individual can become more alert and agile smarter by consuming the right amounts of carbohydrates as they are the main sources of energy for our body. Risk of chronic diseases can be avoided by including healthy carbohydrates in the diet.

Side-Effects & Allergies of Carbohydrates

45-65% of the calories required by the body is contributed by the carbohydrates, and if recommended dosage is not taken, then it can lead to chronic diseases. Diseases caused by excessive consumption of carbohydrates include high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cholesterol. Including carbohydrates with high glycemic index is not good for the body as it can cause type 2 diabetes, weight gain and even heart disease.

Origin And Cultivation of Carbohydrates

45-65% of the calories required by the body is contributed by the carbohydrates, and if recommended dosage is not taken, then it can lead to chronic diseases. Diseases caused by excessive consumption of carbohydrates include high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cholesterol. Including carbohydrates with high glycemic index is not good for the body as it can cause type 2 diabetes, weight gain and even heart disease.

Popular Questions & Answers

Need a diet plane to loose my weight and fat lose any one can help me with my diet and.

B.Sc. - Dietitics / Nutrition, Masters in Nutritional Therapy, Certified Diabetes Educator
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Faridabad
Hi Lybrate user, I would suggest you to follow a diet rich in proteins and fiber (like- animal/plant proteins- chicken, eggs, fish, tofu, soy milk, pulses, soybean etc and fiber foods like- salad, fruits, vegetables). Limit the intake of high carbohydrates and sugars like- table sugar, sweets, refined flours products etc. Also try to keep yourself hydrated the whole day and even during exercises. You should exercise or walk for 20 mins per day will help you more fast in reducing weight. Also limit the intake of salt after 7 pm and avoid saturated fats and junk foods will you reduce weight. Good Luck!

My fasting sugar level is 140-150. But HBA1C is 6.4 level. I daily walk for 30-40 minutes. I don't take milk products, refined oils and also avoid packed foods. What more I should do to reduce fasting level. My medicine dose is 1000 mg metformin daily. I don't want to increase medicine. Or is HBA1C is ok.

Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Kolkata
Avoid rice and carbohydrates for eg. Potato, banana, all sugar containing products. Try taking some natural remedies like eat a lot of bitter gourd and methi. Soak methi seeds at night. Grind it into a paste and eat it with water in the morning on empty stomach. Two spoons of methi seeds. Do this for one month and see if there is any improvement.

Popular Health Tips

All That You Wanted To Know About Liver Transplantation!

MBBS, DNB ( General Surgery)
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Pune
All That You Wanted To Know About Liver Transplantation!

The liver has many functions, including building proteins and other substances for the body to use, removal of waste products and toxins from the blood drug metabolism and energy storage. Liver disease causes these crucial functions to fail and when the failure is too severe to respond to medication liver transplantation may be an option.

Apollo Hospitals is among the few recognized transplantation centers in the country and has one of the largest transplantation registries. As liver transplantation is a major surgical procedure, the patients and family have quite a lot of concern areas. This broucher provides brief answer to frequently asked questions.

The information contain herein is of general nature and should not be construed as specific medical advice. Please consult your doctor for more details.

GLOSSARY

  1. Ascites: A build up of fluid in the abdomen.
  2. Autoimmune: A condition that results when the bile ducts inside and outside the liver don’t have normal openings. Bile becomes trapped in the liver causing jaundice and cirrhosis. If this condition is present from birth then without surgery it may cause death.
  3. Biopsy: Removing a small piece of tissue to view under a microscope.
  4. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver condition cause by scar tissue and damage to cells. Cirrhosis makes it hard for the liver to remove poisons (toxins) like alcohol and drugs from the blood. These toxins build up in the blood and may affect the brain.
  5. Cyclosporine: An immunosuppressant used after transplantation to prevent rejection.
  6. Immunosuppressant: Medicines that stop your immune system from attacking bacteria viruses and transplanted organs.
  7. Jaundice: A symptoms of many disorders. Jaundice causes the skin and white of eyes to turn yellow.
  8. Mycophenolate mofetill: An immunosuppressant used after transplantation to prevent rejection.
  9. Sirolimus: An immunosuppressant used after transplantation to prevent rejection.
  10. Steroids: A group of immunosuppressant used after transplantation to prevent rejection.
  11. Tacrolimus: An immunosuppressant used after transplantation to prevent rejection.

What are the donor organ options that are used for transplantation in children?

  • Reduced size liver graft: a piece of a liver is taken from a beain-dead person(cadaver donor)
  • Living donor transplant: A piece of a liver from adult living donor and is used as a transplant for a child. Over the past 10 year, nearly 1000 of these transplants have been done throughout the world. They have been just as successful as transplants of whole organs. There are some risks of adult donation for transplant to a child. These risks seem to be much smaller than the risks of a living donor transplant to an adult.

Are there technical problems in doing a transplant on a child?

Yes. It is a little more difficult because the blood vessels are very small. Also, the care after surgery must be done in ICUs that can handle such small children.

Do children get the same ani-rejection drugs as adults?

In general, children get the same type of drugs that adults get. However, children may have different side effects. Therefore, only doctors who specialize in this field should handle the follow-up of children after transplants.

What makes a transplant successful?

First, you must have good medical care. Then, families and patients should make every effort to keep in touch with their medical terms. Children who get liver transplants will need to take drugs on schedule, see their doctor often and may need more procedures. All this will help to make transplants successful and will help to give long and healthy lives to the children. So make sure you stay in touch with your transplant team and follow their advice. Ask for counseling when you have any problems.

What does my liver do?

  • It helps digest your food
  • It clears some wastes from your blood
  • It makes proteins that help your blood to clot
  • It helps control the way your body, uses food and works with the body’s defense system
  • It helps use and store vitamins
  • It breaks down many drugs

What are the signs of liver problems?

Some signs of liver problems are:

  • Feeling weak and sick in your stomach and losing appetite
  • Muscle wasting(becoming skin and bones)
  • Fluid build-up in the abdomen(ascites)
  • Yellow skin and eyes(Jaundice)
  • Forgetfulness, confusion or coma(encephalopathy)
  • Swollen hands/ legs
  • Itching
  • Bruising, bleeding easily and nose bleeds
  • Blood in vomitus, bloody/ black bowel movements

What is liver transplantation?

Liver transplantation is surgery to remove a diseased liver and replace it with a healthy one. This kind of surgery has been done for four decades. Across the world thousands of people have had liver transplants and now lead normal lives.

Being tired and losing your appetite can be signs of liver problems. Liver transplants can help adults and children.

PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANTAION

Liver transplantation is now one of the best treatments for fatal liver diseases in children. New drugs and ways of doing surgery have greatly improved patient survival rates. In the liver transplants for children, there are two main issues.

  1. What caused the liver failure in the first place?
  2. What is the severity of disease process and how soon does the child need a liver transplant.

Why do children need liver transplant?

  • Billiary artesia: This is a disease in which a child is born with no bile ducts. It is the most common reason for liver transplants in children
  • Problems in digesting and using food: ‘Inborn errors of metabolism’ including the following conditions:
  • Alpha-I-antitrypsin deficiency tyrosinemia and wilson’s disease.
  • Lipid storage(Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-pick disease, Wolman’s disease, cholesterol ester storage disease)
  • Carbohydrate storage diseases(galactoserria and glycogen storage diseases)
  • Liver Cancers: Some liver cancers are found only in children
  • Sudden liver failure: This is a sudden liver failure that can cause death. It can have many causes. Mostly it comes from too much paracetamol or other drugs. In this kind of liver failure, a liver transplant can cure the problem if done early.

What is involved in the donor-evaluation process?

Donors undergo a thorough check-up that includes:

  1. Blood tests: Determine donor’s blood type, to see that it matches that of the person in need of the transplant. Blood tests are done to test the donor’s liver, kidney, and thyroid. Other trests are done to check for viruses such as hepatitis and HIV(the virus that causes AIDS)
  2. Physical Examination: If donor and recipient blood types are a close match the donor will get physical examination.
  3. Ultrasound: An ultrasound is done for the liver, other organs and the blood vessels
  4. Other Tests: Such as MRI, and CT Scans, help to give a complete view of the donor’s organs
  5. Tests of the lungs and heart may also be done. It takes 2 to 4 days for a donor to go through these tests. In an emergency situation, it can be done in as little as 48 hours

For how long does the donor remain hospitalized?

Donors stay in the hospital for up to 7 days after surgery. They may spend their first night after surgery in the ICU. The nest day they often go to the general surgical floor where the nurses have experience in caring for liver donors. Donors are encouraged to get out of bed and walk as soon as they are able.

How long before the liver donor is fully recovered?

For the most part, it takes about 4 weeks to recover from surgery. In the month after leaving hospital donors return to the hospital regularly to be checked. Donors often get back to work within 3 to 6 weeks. The medical staff will let you know when it is safe to return to normal life.

What are the donor’s health care costs?

The health insurance of the person who gets the transplant covers the donor’s health care costs. This includes the costs of the check up, doctor’s fess, hospital costs, and follow-up visits after surgery.

What are the reasons for needing a liver transplant?

In adults, the most common reason for liver transplantation is Liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is caused by many different types of liver injuries that destroy healthy liver cells and replace them with scar tissue. Cirrhosis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis B and C, alcohol, autoimmune liver disease, build-up of fat in the liver and hereditary liver diseases. Sometimes the cause of liver cirrhosis is not known.

In children, the most common reason for liver transplantation is a billiary atresia. Bile ducts, which are tubes that carry bile out of the liver, are missing or damaged in this disease and obstructed bile causes cirrhosis. Bile helps digest food.

Other reason for needing liver transplantation is certain liver cancers, benign liver tumors, and hereditary diseases.

Sudden or rapidly developing liver failure may sometimes affect children and adults. The common causes of certain viral illness and reaction to some medicines like excess does of pain killers and even certain herbal/ traditional medicines. A liver transplant can save a life if undertaken at the right time.

How will I know whether I need a liver transplant?

Based on your sickness and liver disease status, your doctor may recommend you to the liver transplant unit for further evaluation. You will meet the liver transplant team. The team is usually led by a liver transplant surgeon and includes liver specialists (hepatologists), nurses, and other health care professionals. The transplant team will arrange blood tests, x rays, and other tests to help make the decision about whether you need a transplant and whether a transplant can be carried out safely.

Other aspects of your health like the condition of your heart, lungs, kidneys, immune system, and mental health will also be checked to be sure you’re strong enough for surgery.

Can anyone with liver problems get transplant?

You cannot have transplant if you have

  • Cancer in another part of your body
  • Serious heart, lung or nerve disease
  • Active alcohol or illegal drug abuse
  • An active severe infection
  • Inability to follow your doctor’s instructions

How did living-donor liver transplantation begin and how common is it?

Living donor transplants were first done in children because of the long waiting period for cadaver organs and increasing death rate on the list. It was done in children in the 1980s and is now being done in adults for the last 8 years. In India because of relative lack of cadaveric organs, the majority of transplants are done using living donor organs.

Who can become a donor?

People who want to be liver donor are carefully checked to ensure that they can safely give a part of their liver and that their liver is healthy. The first concern is the safety of the donor as well as being sure that the graft will work for the person in need. The risks to the donor are real. Discuss this with your doctor. In general liver donors must:

  • Be good in health
  • Have a blood type that is a close match to the blood of the person in nedd.
  • Not have a selfish motive for donating

There should be no pressure of any kind on a person to donate part of his liver nor should there be any money given or received.

LIVING DONOR TRANSPLANTATION

What is a living donor liver transplant?

A living-donor transplant is when someone who is alive gives a part of his or her liver to a person who needs a transplant. Family members such as parents, sisters, brothers, adult children or someone close, such as a spouse, may offer to give part of his or her healthy liver. This can be done because a healthy liver can grow new tissues. After the transplant, the liver parts of both the donor and person in need will grow and form complete organs.

What are the benefits of living donor liver transplantation?

The best reason for living donor transplant is that it shortens the waiting time for a liver. The timing of the surgery can be planned. The chance for as successful transplant is increased. Today, thousands of patients await liver transplantation but only handful cadaveric organs become available every year. A living-donor transplant gives those in need an early transplant before their liver failure gets worse and their livers are in danger.

How long does it take to get a new liver?

If the transplant team recommends that you need a transplant, you will be counseled regarding your options of living donor liver transplant or cadaver liver transplant.

If you have a living donor in your family your waiting time could be as short as one week. The living donors and donated livers are tested before transplant surgery. The testing makes sure the liver is healthy, matches your blood type and is the right size so that it has the best chance of working in your body.

In case you do not have a living donor, your name will be placed on a waiting list with your consent. Your blood type, body size and how sick you are, plays a role in deciding your place on the list. Currently, the sickest people are at the top of the list, so you may have to wait your turn.

While you wait for a new liver you and your doctor should talk about what you can do to stron for the surgery. You will also start learning about taking care of a new liver.

Where do the livers for transplantation come from?

Whole livers come from people who are brain dead (heart beat still present). These people are on breathing machines in various hospital ICUs. This type of donor is called “cadaveric donor”. Alternatively, a healthy person in the family can donate a part of his or her liver for the patient with liver failure. This kind of donor is called a ‘living donor’. More information on living donor liver transplantation is included in the latter part of this booklet.

Financial resources/ Health Insurance

You should check to be sure that you will be able to cover the cost of liver transplantation and prescription medicines. You will need certain medicines after the surgery and some for the rest of your life. Check with your employer, health insurance policy or aid organizations if they can support you in part or full.

What happens in the hospital?

When a liver is available, you will be prepared for the surgery. If your new liver is from a living donor, both of you and the donor will be in surgery at the same time. If your new liver is from a person who has recently died, your surgery will start when the new liver arrives at the hospital.

Can I go back to my daily activities?

Yes. After a successful liver transplant, most people can go back to their normal daily activities. Getting your strength back will take some time, depending on how sick you were before the transplant.

You will need to check with your doctor on how long your recovery period will be

  • After recovery, most people are able to go back to work
  • Most people can go back to eating as they eat before. Some medicines may cause you to gain weight others may cause diabetes or rise in your cholesterol. Meal planning and a balance low fat diet can help you remain healthy.
  • Most people can engage in physical activity after a successful liver transplant
  • Most people returned to normal sex life after liver transplantation. It is important for a woman to avoid becoming pregnant in the first year after transplantation.

You should talk to your transplant team about sex and reproduction after transplantation.

If you have any questions, you may check with your doctor before starting any activity.

Eating a healthy diet and taking the medications are part of taking care of your new liver.

What are the other problems that can damage the liver transplant?

Return of the problem that made the transplant necessary in the first place in less than 10% of patients with liver transplants. Also hepatitis C virus may damage a transplant if the patient was infected before the operation took place.

Rarely occurring problems include:

  • Blockage of the blood vessels going into or out of the liver
  • Damage to the tubes that carry bile in to the intestine

What if the transplant doesn’t work?

About 90% transplanted livers are still working after 1 year and about 85% livers are working at 5 years after transplant. If the new liver does not work or if your body rejects it, your doctor and the transplant team will decide whether another transplant is necessary.

How do I take care of my liver after I leave the hospital?

After you leave the transplant center at the hospital, you will see your doctor often to be sure your new liver is working well. You will have regular blood tests to check that your new liver is not being damaged by rejection, infections or problems with blood vessels and bile ducts. You will need to avoid sick people and report any illness to your doctor. You will need to eat a healthy diet, exercise and not drink alcohol. You should only use medicines, including ones you can buy without a prescription, after counseling your doctor. It is important to do what your doctor says to take care of your new liver.

During Surgery

The surgery can take from 6 to 14 hours. While the surgeon removes your diseased liver, other doctors will prepare the new liver.

The surgeon will disconnect your diseased liver from your bile ducts and blood vessels before removing it. The blood that flows into your liver will be blocked or sent through a machine to return to the rest of your body. The surgeon will put the healthy liver in place and reconnect it to your bile ducts and blood vessels. Your blood will then flow into your new liver.

After Surgery

You will stay in the hospital for an average 2 to 3 weeks to be sure your new liver is working. You will take medicines to prevent rejection of your new liver and to prevent infections. Your doctor will check for bleeding, infections and rejection. During this time you will start to learn how to take care of yourself and use your medicines to protect your new liver after you go home.

In the hospital, you will start eating again. You will start with clear liquids, then switch to solid food as your new liver starts to work.

What are the likely complications following a liver transplant?

Minor wound infection and discharge of liquefied fat is seen in about 10% of people. This will settle with little or no intervention. Major wound infection needing another surgery is extremely rare.

By now you are aware that liver transplantation involves making a lot of connections. There is an extremely small chance that these connections can become too tight or too loose. We have a very highly trained team of doctors who are able to treat them with minimally invasive techniques without resorting to another surgery.

Hepatic Artery Thrombosis (HAT) / Clotting of the hepatic artery is a rare complication seen in less than 4% of the patients and portal vein thrombosis is even rarer and is seen in less than 1% of the patients. When identified, the clot will have to be removed and it will involve another surgery. In spite of all this, if we are not successful, re-transplantation will be necessary.

What is rejection?

Rejection occurs when your body’s natural defenses, called the immune system, damage the new liver. Your immune system keeps you healthy by fighting against things that don’t belong in your body, such as bacteria and viruses. After a transplant, it is common for your immune system to fight against the liver and try to destroy it.

How is rejection prevented?

To keep your body from rejecting the new liver, you will have to take medicines. These drugs such as tacrolimus, cyclosporine, steroids, sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are called immunosuppressant. Immunosuppressants weaken your immune system’s ability to reject your new liver.

Do immunosuppressants have any side effects?

Yes. You can get infections more easily because these drugs weaken your immune system. You will need to stay away from people who are sick. These drugs may also increase your blood pressure, cause your cholesterol to rise, cause diabetes, weaken your bones and may damage your kidneys in the long run. Steroid drugs may also cause changes in how you look by causing weight gain. Your doctor and the transplant team will monitor these effects and treat you for any complications that may occur.

What are the signs of rejection?

Doctors will check your blood for liver enzymes at the first sign of rejection. Often rejection does not make you feel ill. Sometimes rejections can cause- pain, fever, jaundice, and changes in liver function tests.

Often a liver biopsy is needed to diagnose rejection. For a biopsy, the doctor takes a small piece of the liver to examine under a microscope. Blood tests will show if the new liver is being rejected.

Why liver is an important organ of the body?

The liver is one of the largest organs in your body. It helps digest the food you eat and convert it into energy. It also helps fight infections and cleans your blood, thus making it a very vital organ.

How lifestyle can affect the health of liver?

Due to our changing life style patterns, alcohol is consumed either as a status symbol or to cope up with stress. Alcohol puts a lot of stress on the liver, such continuous state of stress usually results in liver damage.

What are the different common diseases related to liver?

Cirrhosis, Viral hepatitis (Most common form across the world are Hepatitis A, B & C), fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disorders are the common disease of liver.

What is a liver transplant and why is it done?

Simply put ‘Liver Transplantation’ is surgery to remove a diseased or injured liver and replace it with a healthy one from another person, also called as a donor.In adults, the most common reason for needing a liver transplant is ‘Cirrhosis’. This is caused by various different types of diseases which destroy the healthy liver cells and replace them with scar tissues.

What are the types of liver transplants?

There are two types of liver transplants – Living Donor and Deceased Donor Transplants. In case of the 'living donor' Liver Transplant, a portion of Liver from the living donor is removed and transplanted in the recipient patient. In both recipient and donor, the liver regenerates to necessary size in about 6 to 8 weeks. Only near relatives can donate. In deceased donor liver transplants, the donor is a brain dead person.

How much time is needed for patient to recover after liver transplant?

Recovery time ranges from 1 to 2 weeks. Proper care, follow-up and life-long medications are required for the new Liver to function properly.

Can liver grow back to normal after the transplant?

Yes. Liver is the only organ which can regenerate in case of living donor liver transplant, a portion of liver from the living donor is removed and transplanted in recipient patient. In both recipient and donor, liver regenerates to necessary size in 6-8 weeks. Only near relatives can donate liver in this case.

What does Sahyadri Hospital has in offering for Liver care?

Sahyadri Hospitals has an A-Z Liver Wellness Clinic dedicated for management of all types of diseases related to Liver, Pancreas, Bile ducts & Gall bladder. It Offers state-of-the-art facilities for Liver, Kidney & Pancreas Transplant with 24/7 availability of dedicated multi-disciplinary ‘Liver Team’, including Hepatologist, Critical Care Physicians and Liver Transplant Surgeons, a well-equipped Intensive care unit with dedicated nurses, physiotherapist and nutritionist.

What are the major risks in donating?

As with any major surgery, there will be pain from the incision, which will get better with time. Other risks to the donor include bleeding, infection, and temporary bile leaks. Fatalities in transplantation have been reported from certain transplant centers in the world but it is rare. Most have full recoveries and are healthy. Discuss regarding risk to the donors with your transplant surgeon.

What happens during donor surgery?

The incision is the shape of mirror image of ‘L’. The gallbladder is always removed. The donor’s liver is split into two parts. One part is removed for the transplantation. The surgeon then closes the wound with sutures and staples. There are later removed at a follow-up visit to the surgeon’s office. The liver begins to heal and grow new tissue. It takes about 8-21 weeks for the liver to grow back to its normal size.

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Indian Superfoods You Must Try

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Indian Superfoods You Must Try

1. Ragi: Known as finger millet, this is a fiber-rich, gluten-free superfood that’s perfect for vegetarians. The generous amounts of protein and calcium with its abundance of other vitamins and minerals, this super cereal can also reduce your risk of stroke and regulate blood sugar levels, weight watchers and diabetics can truly enjoy this grain because of its low glycemic index.

2. Walnuts: These nuts don’t just add crunch and flavor to your meals. Walnuts also have a wide array of nutrients and polyunsaturated fats to offer you. From tryptophan to omega-3 fatty acids to antioxidants, a lot of benefits make it special.

3. Chia seeds: A classic superfood, even just a tablespoon of chia seeds is full of calcium, protein, and micronutrients. Your heart, joints, and digestive system will appreciate you for making chia seeds a part of your daily diet.

4. Ghee: Once considered a cause of obesity, clarified butter has made a comeback as a global superfood. Though dense with calories and saturated fats, ghee is also free of sugar, protein, and carbohydrates. A healthy drizzling of ghee over your meals will allow you to enjoy its many vitamins, including conjugated linoleic acid, an antioxidant containing anti-viral properties.

5. Figs: The high amounts of fiber in figs have made them a treatment for constipation and skin infections. Figs are also known to be more nutritious than raisins, dates, and even apples. The proteins, calcium, iron, and potassium in this super fruit make it a healthy addition to salads and desserts.

6. Apricots: A fruit that’s delicious and healthy both dried and fresh. The nutrient-dense apricot has been known to aid in digestive health and lift up energy levels. Whether you choose to have it fresh or dried, you can enjoy your apricot knowing it’s packed with good stuff like vitamin phosphorous, and fiber.

7. Black rice: A nutty and fragrant must-try for rice lovers. This grain is high in fiber, iron, thiamine, and antioxidants, especially anthocyanin, which reduces cholesterol and improve liver function. If you’ve grown tired of quinoa or brown rice, then consider giving black rice a try.

8. Alphonso mango: A cup of this seasonal fruit will give you 76 percent of your daily vitamin c requirement. The potassium and vitamin c in this tropical treat can also lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Eating this when you can will help you feel full longer while also boosting your digestive system’s ability to burn calories.

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Home Remedies For Diabetes

Diploma in Naturopathy & Yogic Science (DNYS), bachelor Of Science in Nursing
Yoga & Naturopathy Specialist, Ahmedabad
Home Remedies For Diabetes


Natural hone remedies to treat diabetes at home

Diabetes treatment: 15 home remedies to treat diabetes at home (thinkstock photos/getty images)

India is said to be the diabetes capital of the world. With nearly 50 million people in india suffering from diabetes, the country has a big challenge to face. First, let's know what is diabetes. The elevated sugar in the blood is called diabetes. There are two primary reasons behind diabetes - one is when our body stops producing insulin and second is when the body does not respond to insulin that is produced by the body. Insulin is broken down by the body and used as energy, which is transported to the cells. There are two types of diabetes - type I diabetes and type ii diabetes. Let's know about them in a little detail: 

Type I diabetes 


Type I diabetes usually occurs in people who are below the age 20 and that is why it is also called as juvenile diabetes. In this type, the body becomes partially or completely unable to produce insulin. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease. In this, your immune system attacks the pancreas from where the insulin is produced, thereby making the pancreas inefficient or unable to produce insulin. Type I diabetes cannot be prevented, it can only be controlled with healthy lifestyle changes.

Type ii diabetes

Type ii diabetes is more common than type I diabetes in india. Type ii diabetes usually happens to people who are above the age of 40. This type of diabetes is caused due to insulin resistance. In this case, the pancreas produces insulin but the body is not able to respond to it properly. There can be many reasons behind type ii diabetes. Some of the reasons can be being overweight, high blood pressure, having a poor diet, taking too much stress, hormone imbalance, certain medications and leading a sedentary lifestyle. Though type ii diabetes can be reversed. 

Let's us know some natural ways by which we can treat diabetes at home: 

What not to eat: 

There are some foods which can negatively impact your diabetes. So, the first thing you need to do is to remove these foods from your diet. 


1. Refined sugar - we all know that sugar, until it is in its most natural form, is bad for people suffering from diabetes. When consumed, refined sugar spikes the blood sugar rapidly. Sometimes even the natural form like honey can cause a sudden spike in the blood sugar levels. So, it's better to avoid refined sugar by all means if you are a diabetic. 


2. Whole grains - grains that have gluten in them should be avoided. Gluten is associated with diabetes as its intake can cause leaky gut leading to inflammation which in turn can lead to auto immune diseases. 


3. Alcohol - alcohol consumption is directly related to diabetes. Alcohol not only damages your liver but also attacks the pancreas that produces insulin. Diabetes is linked with consumption of heavy alcohol which is two to three glasses a day. Beer should especially be avoided as it has a lot of carbohydrates. 


4. Cow's milk - just like whole grains, cow milk can trigger the immune system which can lead to inflammation. Milk coming from sheep and goat is not harmful in fact it helps to maintain the blood sugar level. But the conventional cow milk can be dangerous for you if you are suffering from diabetes. 


5. Gmo foods - gmo foods have the capability to promote diabetes along with causing liver and kidney diseases. Go for products which are labeled as gmo-free. 

What to eat and do 

Cinnamon 

Cinnamon contains a bioactive compound that can help to fight and prevent diabetes. Cinnamon is known to stimulate the insulin activity and thus regulate the blood sugar level. As excess of anything is bad, likewise cinnamon if taken in excess can increase the risk of liver damage due to a compound called coumarin present in it. The true cinnamon, not the one buy from shops (cassia cinnamon) is safer to have.

How to consume cinnamon 

- mix half or one teaspoon of grounded cinnamon with warm water and have it once daily. 

- boil raw cinnamon in 2 glasses of water. Let it cool for 30 minutes and have it daily.

Aloe vera

Aloe vera is easily found in indian households. Though it's bitter in taste, but combing it with buttermilk makes it taste better. Usually, aloe vera is used for beauty purposes but as it has anti-inflammatory properties it can heal the wounds. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, it is said to control the blood sugar levels. 

Jamun 

Jamun and its leaves have proven to be helpful in lowering the blood sugar levels. Consuming approximately 100 grams of jamun every day is said to show tremendous improvement in your blood sugar levels.

Vitamin c

Vitamin c is not only good for skin but also for diabetes. Recent studies have shown that consuming approximately 600 mg of vitamin c daily can improve the blood sugar level significantly. People who have chronic diabetes should consume foods rich in vitamin c every day. Some foods rich in vitamin c are amla, orange, tomato and blueberry. 

Exercise

One of the main reasons behind type ii diabetes is being overweight. Any kind of physical activity, be it yoga, zumba, aerobics, gymming, playing sports can significantly improve blood sugar level by maintaining your weight. Not only this, walking every day can help to reduce the blood sugar level tremendously. 

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PCOD - What Diet Must You Follow?

Master of Science (Diabetics & Food Services Management)
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
PCOD - What Diet Must You Follow?

A rising number of teenage girls in the country are getting affected with Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease or PCOD. Though an advanced menarche has become very rampant these days, there are many young women who are suffering from a delay in menarche which in turn is leading to PCOD as opined by gynaecologists. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle among young people have caused a rapid doubling of PCOD cases in the past five to eight years.

Occurrence and Symptoms:

Gynaecologists report that they get at least 15 fresh instances of PCOD cases, and a considerable number of teenagers aged 16-17 are not getting their menarche. Such patients are recommended to take a strictly balanced diet which will help them to lose weight. Initially, their mothers think that they would experience their menarche in proper time, but some girls are diagnosed with PCOD when taken to a family gynaecologist. Even worse, they could never imagine that their obesity can pave the way for such a grave health issue. PCOD can cause numerous other problems like delayed and irregular menses, rapid weight gain and tremendous difficulty in losing weight, developing acne and blocked skin pores.

Furthermore, it leads to thinning of hair and excessive growth of hair on chest, back and face. Infertility, continual miscarriage, high blood pressure and high blood sugar are also common with PCOD.

Help yourself with the right diet:

There is no proven evidence regarding the cause of PCOD though gynaecologists are of the opinion that some females possess a predisposition to this disease, and it may run hereditarily in the family. You can alleviate your PCOD symptoms to a considerable extent by regulating your diet properly.

Have loads of fruits and green leafy vegetables and try to abstain from dairy products as many experts believe that dairy products are a direct cause of an increase in insulin levels, which can aggravate skin troubles along with other PCOD symptoms. Avoiding red meat and eating lean meat instead will help the condition and reduce the chances of infertility. It is always recommended to avoid hydrogenated and saturated fats, which are normally found in animal and dairy-based food. Try to put a stop to cheese, cottage cheese, clarified butter, pork, lamb, beef, etc. and certain baked products like cookies, cakes and fudges as they will trigger a rise in your blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

The following dietary tips can be helpful with the condition:

  • High levels of the insulin hormone causes PCOS symptoms like high blood sugar, increased hair growth, weight gain etc. So, refined foods rich in fat and carbohydrates should be consumed in small amounts.
  • Whole foods in their natural, uncooked form should be consumed fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans etc. These are low glycemic foods that reduce the glucose circulation by insulin.
  • Green vegetables have antioxidants. These are good for women with PCOS because they have a high amount of oxidative stress.
  • Your daily diet should contain at least 30 grams of fiber to improve the digestion process and remove toxins.
  • Soy products should also be avoided, especially if you are trying to conceive, because they interfere with the ovulation cycle.
  • Processed fat is harmful but essential fatty acids found in avocado, fish, olive oil and nuts are important for the body.
  • High levels of male hormones also cause high cholesterol. So foods which have high saturated fats like butter, cream, coconut oil and fatty meat should not be included in the regular diet of women with PCOS.
  • Protein-rich foods like lean meat, fish, legumes, whole grains are beneficial as protein can stabilize blood sugar. These foods also keep you feeling full and prevent over-eating.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2351 people found this helpful

Diabetes & Obesity - Understanding The Link Between Them!

PGDDM Diploma In Diabetology
Diabetologist, Siwan
Diabetes & Obesity - Understanding The Link Between Them!

Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with a variety of causes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called high blood sugar or hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism, the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates, sugars and starches found in many foods, into glucose, a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. Diabetes develops when the body doesn't make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both.

The two main types of diabetes are:

Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, though it can appear at any age. In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Heredity plays an important part in determining who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Genes are passed down from biological parent to child.

Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older people who are also overweight or obese. The disease, once rare in youth, is becoming more common in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors, including insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's muscle, fat, and liver cells do not use insulin effectively.

Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Diabetes: Physical inactivity and obesity are strongly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. People who are genetically susceptible to type 2 diabetes are more vulnerable when these risk factors are present. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.

An imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity can lead to obesity, which causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Central obesity, in which a person has excess abdominal fat, is a major risk factor not only for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but also for heart and blood vessel disease, also called cardiovascular disease (CVD). This excess belly fat produces hormones and other substances that can cause harmful, chronic effects in the body such as damage to blood vessels.

So, measuring your waist is a quick way of assessing your diabetes risk. This is a measure of abdominal obesity, which is a particularly high-risk form of obesity. Women have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if their waist measures 80cm (31.5 inches) or more. Asian men with a waist size of 89cm (35 inches) or more have a higher risk, as do white or black men with a waist size of 94cm (37 inches) or more.

Simple Steps to Lower Your Risk: Making a few lifestyle changes can dramatically lower the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. The same changes can also lower the chances of developing heart disease and other life taking cancers.

1. Control Your Weight: Being overweight increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes seven-fold. Being obese makes you 20 to 40 times more likely to develop diabetes than someone with a healthy weight. Losing weight can help if your weight is above the healthy-weight range. Check your BMI. Losing 7 to 10 percent of your current weight can cut your chances of developing type 2 diabetes in half.

2. Get Moving and Turn Off the Television: Inactivity promotes type 2 diabetes. Working your muscles more often and making them work harder improves their ability to use insulin and absorb glucose. This puts less stress on your insulin-making cells.

3. Tune Up Your Diet: Four dietary changes can have a big impact on the risk of type 2 diabetes-

Choose whole grains and whole grain products over highly processed carbohydrates.

  • Skip the sugary drinks, and choose water, coffee, or tea instead.
  • Choose good fats instead of bad fats.
  • Limit red meat and avoid processed meat; choose nuts, whole grains, poultry, or fish instead.

If you are already suffering from diabetes, then do take a walk everyday and adopt healthy eating habits. Along with that relieve your stress and take proper doses of insulin or medications as prescribed by your doctor.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

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Table of Content

Carbohydrates
Nutritional Value of Carbohydrates
Health Benefits of Carbohydrates
Energy for the Body
Uplifts Mood
Helps to Sleep Better
Provides Fiber to the Body
Helps to Prevent Diseases
Prevents Blood Clots
Useful to Control Weight
Improves the Digestive System
Helps to Keep Memory Sharp
Best Nutrient for Athletes
Risk of cancer is reduced with carbohydrates
Enjoy Healthier Skin
Uses of Carbohydrates
Side-Effects & Allergies of Carbohydrates
Origin And Cultivation of Carbohydrates