Stoke happens when the blood supply to the brain is either reduced or interrupted. When this condition happens, the brain cells do not get adequate oxygen or nutrients which causes the tissues in the brain to die. As being said, strokes occur due to impaired blood supply to the brain. So it happens either the blood supply channel has been blocked or some blood vessel in the brain has ruptured.
There are mainly three types of stroke:
This is the most common form of stroke, which account for more than 85% of strokes all across the globe. This type of stroke is a result of blocked or narrowed arteries, which sends blood to the brain. Arterial stenosis (narrowing) subsequently results in severe, reduction in blood flow to the brain. The block in arteries often happens because of blood clots. These clots can either get formed inside the main arteries that connect to the brain, or even in the narrowing arteries that are within the brain. These clots are mostly formed by fatty deposits within the arteries, which are medically known as plaque.
This kind of stroke happens mainly due to leaking or bursting arteries that spilled blood inside the brain. The leaked blood from the arteries puts pressure inside the brain and damages the cerebral tissues. Blood vessels during a hemorrhagic stroke can burst in the middle of the brain or near the surface of the brain cells, leaking blood into the cellular space between the brain and the skull. Hemorrhagic stroke can happen because of conditions such as trauma, hypertension, weakening in the vessel walls (aneurysm) or because of blood thinning medications like heparin and others. Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most prevalent type of hemorrhagic stroke. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is less common is the next type that happens during a stroke. In this case bleeding happens in the area the area between the brain and the thin tissue that separates it from the cranial bones, medically referred as the subarachnoid space.
TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)
TAIs are a little different from the other two forms of strokes. In this case the blood flow to the brain gets interrupted for a very brief period of time as it happens in ischemic strokes. TAIs are often caused by small blood clots in the arteries. However, nevertheless TAIs are also considered as medical emergencies, since they can be real warnings for future strokes. It has been found left untreated TAI patients have major strokes within a period of one year after getting affected with TAI.
Since it’s an absolute medical emergency, call a doctor immediately, if found that you or anyone near you has been identified with symptoms of stroke.