Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Heart Attack: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Heart attack occurs when flow of blood to the heart gets blocked. It may be due to build up of fat, cholesterol and other substances in the arteries. You will feel extreme sensation or ache in your chest or arms, nausea and shortness of breath. One must always rush for medical help as soon as the slightest of these symptoms are felt. An electrocardiogram (ECG) is done to record the electric activities of your heart along with a blood test. The immediate medications given during heart attack are aspirin, thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, morphine and nitroglycerin. There are surgeries like coronary angioplasty and stenting and coronary artery bypass.

How is the treatment done?

Aspirin helps in maintaining blood flow through a narrowed artery by reducing blood clotting. Thrombolytics dissolve the blood clot that’s blocking blood flow to your heart. Consumption of this drug in time increases your chances of surviving the heart attack. Antiplatelet agents prevent existing blood clots from becoming larger and also stop the formation of new clots. Morphine helps you deal with the pain and discomfort. Nitroglycerin widens the blood vessels thus, improving the blood flow to the heart. Medications are not enough to deal with a heart attack. In addition to medications, you may have to undergo surgeries. Coronary angioplasty and stenting is done immediately after a heart attack. A long thin tube called catheter is passed through an artery in your leg or groin to a blocked artery in your heart. To restore blood flow to the heart, a metal mesh stent is inserted into the artery to keep it open. In some cases, one may need to go for bypass surgery. Veins and arteries are sewed in a place away from blocked or narrowed coronary artery. This allows the blood to bypass the narrowed section and reach the heart. You may remain in the hospital for several days if you have a bypass surgery.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

If you are going through acute chest pain, strange tightness in arms, shoulders and legs, sudden and huge amount of sweating, shortness of breath or light headedness; you must rush for medical help.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common reason for chest pains. Do not confuse these pains with heart attack.

Are there any side effects?

Surgeries may have side effects like mild weakness and pain in body for a few days.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

You must stay away from alcohol and tobacco. Control your blood and sugar levels. Make sure that your diet is very healthy consisting of proteins, whole grains, fish and beans. Make regular appointments with your doctor to keep a check on your improvement. Maintain your body weight and exercise regularly.

How long does it take to recover?

You may have to remain in the hospital for 5-7 days. It may take a few weeks for you to resume your routine activities to the fullest.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost of a bypass surgery ranges from ₹150000- ₹400000. Coronary angioplasty and stenting can cost ₹100000- ₹300000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The results of the treatment are permanent if proper care is taken.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are no alternatives to the treatment.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: High Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs 1,50,000 - Rs 4,00,000

Popular Health Tips

Early Diagnosis Of Myocardial Infarction And Emergency Management!

Cardiologist, Ghaziabad

Myocardial Infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a disorder in which there is a serious blockage of blood flow to the heart and its muscles.  The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. So you can understand that it's a really critical problem and the person suffering from it, needs to be diagnosed immediately.


Here are some symptoms which will help to you to understand whether a person is suffering from it or not:

  • The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.
  • Unexplained shortage of breath or trouble in breathing is an important symptom.
  • Nausea or vomiting may follow after the patient feels lightheaded.
  • Women can face abdominal pain or discomfort in different parts of their body.Women more often have atypical symptoms than men.
  • Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.
  • An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
  • If you identify any of these symptoms, you must immediately call the medical emergency team and must not neglect the symptoms because these symptoms are really dangerous and can indicate a serious health issue.

Immediate response for myocardial infarction: 

  • After you have identified any of the symptoms described above that person may be suffering from Myocardial Infarction, the first thing which you must do is call the emergency response team or ambulance. Here are some tips for such a situation:
  • The most important thing you must do is to stay calm and stay with the person all the time. Make the patient lie down and keep interacting with him or her.
  •  If the person affected is not allergic to aspirin, then make him or her chew a baby aspirin. Do not let the person swallow it without chewing because it becomes more effective in that case.
  • If the person stops breathing then you must perform the CPR immediately or someone around you who is qualified to do so. If you are alone then the medical response team can help you perform it by guiding you via phone.
  • The patient should be immediately shifted to a nearby hospital for immediate medical attention.
  • ECG should be done immediately to diagnose the condition.


A myocardial infarction requires immediate medical attention. Treatment aims to preserve as much heart muscle as possible and to prevent further complications. Treatment in general aims to unblock blood vessels, reduce blot clot enlargement, reduce ischemia. The main treatment for myocardial infarctions with ECG evidence of ST elevation (STEMI) inc.

2539 people found this helpful

Fast Heart Rate - Know Why It Happens!

MBBS, MRCP (UK), PG Diploma In Lipid Management, MBA (Healthcare)
Cardiologist, Bangalore
Fast Heart Rate - Know Why It Happens!

Tachycardia is the medical term of a fast heart rate. When a person’s heart beats for more than 100 times per minute, he/she is said to be suffering from tachycardia. Atria and Ventricles (both left and right) are the four major parts of the heart. They contract and expand so that blood can be pumped out of the heart and oxygen reaches all the organs of the body. Now, this pumping occurs at a stable pace, owing to electrical impulses that activate the pumping in the first place. When an underlying medical condition or a defect in the heart disrupts these electrical impulses a person is confronted with tachycardia.

In many people, no symptoms are observed until and unless it is detected by a blood pressure device or a tool that checks the pulse rate. But if the heart rate is significantly high a person might feel dizzy, fatigued. He/she can also suffer from shortness of breath, palpitation as well as chest pain.

When the heart beats faster than usual the oxygen in the body gets depleted, which can result in the death of myocardial cells, leading to heart attack.

Heart diseases like coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, heart muscle disease, tumors or infection can lead to increased rate of heart beat. Apart from that, other conditions that might lead to tachycardia are: stress, hormonal disorders, especially in case one is suffering from hyperthyroidism, blood loss etc.


If there is an underlying medical defect that is causing the increased heart rate in the first place, it needs to be treated. For example, if a person is suffering from hyperthyroidism then medicines are prescribed to regulate the function of the thyroid glands.

If tachycardia develops as a result of weakened heart muscle then medicines are given to strengthen the heart. Beta blockers are given to check the defective electrical impulse in the heart, if that is the cause of tachycardia. Depending on the condition of the patient anti-arrhythmic medicines might also be given. People who stand at a risk of receiving a stroke as a result of this condition are prescribed warfarin.

Surgery and Implantation

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
This procedure involves the insertion of an artificial device in the heart that controls the heart rate. It is equipped to send an electrical shock whenever it detects defective electrical impulse in the heart. In other words, it is designed to mechanically deflect the erroneous impulse.

If medications fail to rectify the disorder, a surgery has to be performed. In this case a section of the heart tissue is removed through operation. The scar that is left by the operation controls defective electrical impulse as a scar tissue is affirmed to be a bad conductor of electricity.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3084 people found this helpful

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - What Are The Symptoms?

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - What Are The Symptoms?

The coronary arteries supply the heart with oxygen-enriched blood and nutrients. If these arteries become damaged or diseased; they could cause Coronary artery disease or CAD. Plaque deposits on the walls of the arteries are the most common cause of this disease. This plaque is usually the result of high cholesterol levels. As the plaque builds up, the passage of blood flow is reduced. This reduces the amount of blood that reaches the heart. In cases of a complete blockage, CAD can even cause a heart attack. Because of its slow progression, this disease is often not diagnosed until it reaches a dangerous stage. However, it can be prevented and treated if diagnosed in time.



In the early stages of CAD, symptoms are not very noticeable. Symptoms become visible only when blood flow tCoronary Artery Diseaseo the heart reduces and the heart has to pump harder than normal. The most common symptoms experienced include:



  1. Chest Pain: This is also referred to as angina. It may feel like a tightening of the chest or pressure on the chest as though someone is pressing against it. This type of chest pain may be triggered by emotional or physical stress. It is usually relieved within a few minutes of stopping the activity. Women may experience this pain as a sharp, fleeting pain in the back, arm or neck.
  2. Breathlessness: When the heart does not receive enough blood, it has to work harder to pump blood through the body. This may be translated to breathlessness of shortness of breath when performing any type of physical activity. It can also cause extreme fatigue.
  3. Heart Attack: A heart attack is the most severe symptom of coronary artery disease. This is caused by the complete blockage of a coronary artery. A heart attack can occur without any symptoms or be preceded by slight symptoms. The signs of an impending heart attack include pain in the chest and shoulder, shortness of breath and extreme sweating. The chest pain may also travel to the lower jaw. These symptoms are more pronounced in men as compared to women. Women have a higher tendency of experiencing atypical signs such as extreme fatigue.

Other symptoms that might indicate coronary artery disease are dizziness, nausea and an irregular heartbeat. The good news is that this disease can be prevented. Staying physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing stress and eating a low fat and low salt diet can help reduce the risk of CAD.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1713 people found this helpful

Sudden Heart Attack - 8 Things That Can Be Of Great Help!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Sudden Heart Attack - 8 Things That Can Be Of Great Help!

Gone are the days when heart attacks were only experienced by people past a certain age. Today, a large number of younger people without any significant risk factors are affected by this condition as well. The changing lifestyle with highly stressful lives, poor eating and rest habits, and lack of physical exercise are all attributed as possible causes.

With everyone busy in their lived, there are increased number of instances where a person suffers a sudden heart attack at night, which goes unnoticed and the person dies unattended. The following are some tips to work at regularly, so that incidence of sudden heart attack is reduced.

  1. Understand the risks: Sudden heart attacks amount to a large number of deaths but these can be effectively reduced by the management of risk factors. Advancing age, being overweight, diabetes, smoking, family history, sedentary lifestyle and stress are all known to increase the risk of a sudden heart attack. It is very important to take note of these and act on these, so the condition can be managed. While age and family history cannot be modified, the others definitely can be.
  2. Weight management: It is very essential to maintain an optimal weight. The sedentary lifestyle that we all have become accustomed to has upped the risk for sudden heart attacks. So, weight management is of extreme importance in preventing sudden heart attacks.
  3. Watch what you eat: The increased consumption of processed, sweetened foods along with lack of fiber has led to poor overall nutrition. This is worsened by the use of artificial sweeteners, flavors, and preservatives. All these are significant risk factors which lead to heart attacks. A healthy eating habit has multiple benefits, with heart health being one of them.
  4. Optimal blood pressure: Blood pressure should be maintained at optimal levels so that fluctuations are minimized. These fluctuations, especially at rest, can lead to sudden heart attacks. Monitor constantly and keep a record to look for variations.
  5. Kick the butt: Smoking has multiple harmful effects on the health, and increased risk of sudden heart attack is one of them. Quit smoking and see your diabetes, blood pressure, and heart health improve. Avoid exposure to second-hand smoke where possible.
  6. Monitor and maintain cholesterol levels: This is a major reason for sudden heart attacks and needs close monitoring and maintenance.
  7. Sweat it out: Work out. Period, anything that works for you is fine, be it swimming, cycling, running, or jogging. Be active and see your heart thank you.
  8. Relax: Stress does not help, so don’t fret and chill. Once you do that, you are sure to see your overall health improve. Try yoga, meditation, music, or exercise – whatever does the trick for you.

With these measures, you can reduce the risk of heart disease to a large extent.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2478 people found this helpful

Heart Attack - The Warning Signs And The Preventive Measures

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in Interventional Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Heart Attack - The Warning Signs And The Preventive Measures

The oxygenated blood is vital for the functioning of the heart. A heart attack also termed as a Myocardial Infarction is a medical condition where the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart is affected (due to an arterial blockage triggered by coronary artery disorders or an injury). Devoid of oxygenated blood can result in severe damage to the heart muscles, at times with fatal consequences. A lot of the heart problems including a heart attack occurs because we tend to ignore the warning signs and symptoms. In this article, we will discuss some signs and symptoms of a heart attack that, by no means, should be neglected.

Warning signs that can be an indication of a heart attack-

  1. Pain in the chest: Chest pain and pressure (left side or center of the heart) that often spreads to the adjacent areas such as shoulders, neck, arms (one or both) or/and jaws may be indicative of a heart attack. Unfortunately, many people ignore the warning as a sign of heartburn and acidity, a mistake that can cost dearly.
  2. Profuse sweating: Sweating in the summer is understood but during winter or cold days (often cold sweats) should not be taken lightly at any cost.
  3. A person may also experience extreme weakness, lightheadedness (especially seen in women), vomiting, and nausea.
  4. Increased and irregular heart rate, palpitations and breathless are all indications of a problem that needs immediate medical attention to avoid any life-threatening consequences.

Unfortunately, in some people, especially those with diabetes tend to suffer an asymptomatic or a silent heart attack, complicating things further.

Preventive and safety measures to avert a heart attack

The signs and symptoms associated with a heart attack may differ within individuals. However, people with a history of heart problems ought to be careful.

  1. Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disorders, hypertension or high blood pressure can act as triggers resulting in a heart attack.Thus, a person suffering from any of the mentioned health problems (including a heart problem) should go for regular health check-ups.
  2. For heart patients, it is advisable to keep the prescribed medicines handy.
  3. Being overweight or obese can result in deleterious consequences. You don't need to starve yourself or get skinny but maintaining a healthy body weight can play a significant role in warding off many health disorders including a heart problem.
  4. Increased and uncontrolled alcohol consumption, smoking, drug abuse can spell doom for the heart. Quit smoking and drug abuse and your heart will thank you for ages. Alcohol, if consumed, should be within limits.
  5. Eat a nutritious and healthy diet. Spicy, fast and oily foods will do your heart more harm than good.
  6. Avoid stress and anxiety. Maintain a healthy sleep cycle.
  7. Skipping the medicines is a big No.
  8. Avoid being a couch potato if you want your heart to be healthy and disease free.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2592 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, Last month I arrested by cardiac arrested. After Angiogram found block 03, 100%,70%,80%.I am a Bangladeshi guy. Doctor has given advise for Wear Ring estimated 2.5 Lac taka. Please let me know in years country treatment Cost how much need.

DNB Cardiology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Mumbai
Hello lybrate-user, I would be able to let you know the Exact costing only after seeing the angiogram as we would be able to decide the best form of treatment. However if cost is an issue we should be able to treat in a Good hospital in Mumbai under 2 lakhs.

Hello sir, I have blood sugar I want information, how to secure my heart from diseases. My friend suggests me olive oil extra virgin and fish oil capsule in daily life. What you suggest me, whats your opinion sir.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in EP
Cardiologist, Delhi
Diabetes us caused by diet rich in glucose. Decrease such items, increase foods low in glucose. All oils have equal glucose, so choose any for use.

I don't smoke and I don't drink and neither consume any form of tobacco and now I have even reduced intake of fried items and junk food and increased intake of leafy vegetables, and even walk 7 kms a day, what are the chances of I getting a heart attack and how to prevent one? I am 25 years old and is self-employed and I weigh 56 kgs.

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
There is no chance of you getting a heart attack just like that. If you lead a healthy lifestyle, there can be no dangers. I recommend that you eat healthy, sleep well, exercise regularly and be emotionally balanced all the time. You may also read the book, "Reversing the Heart Disease" by Dr. Dean Ornish and follow his guidelines you will be just fine.
5 people found this helpful

Is there any medical which a person can have always and while Facing situation of HEART ATTACK he can can take and it will help it out immediately. If yes let me know the medicine name.

MCh (CTVS), FRCS - Cardiothoracic Surgery
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Bangalore
The 2 best medicines given during angina are sublingual nitrates and oral aspirin. But they are given to prevent progress of attack and not treat. Best is to go to a hospital immediately without wasting time.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Myths Related To Heart Attack
Relying on false assumptions can be dangerous to your heart. There are some common myths around heart attack which lead to confusions and can also result in consequences.
Play video
Heart Diseases
Heart disease symptoms depend on what type of heart disease you have. It's important to watch for cardiovascular symptoms and discuss concerns with your doctor. Cardiovascular disease can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations.
Play video
Heart Attack Warning Signs
Symptoms of Heart Attack

Hello! Good day, I m Dr. Balaji. I m a cardiologist, practicing at city of Hyderabad. Today I m going to briefly educate you about the Chest pain.

Chest pain is one of the commonest symptoms that I keep seeing in my daily OPD. Different spectrum of age groups come to me with chest pain from very small children to the elderly people. People are very confused about the origin of chest pain, what I mean, if it any kind of chest pain any place in the body they think it s something to do with the heart, they re going to get a heart attack, it s going to be a serious, life threatening condition and few of them come with a stricken of panic that they are going to collapse. Fortunately all chest pains are not heart pains and then today we are going to learn which kinds of pains are heart pains, which are not. When we need not go to a doctor, when we can just relax, when we need not get panicky and then probably we can also assure our friends, colleagues, family members if they have chest pain by gaining knowledge form this lecture.

See, once we have chest cage, the chest cage basically contains what? We have a skin, we have a hard tissue below that, we have a rib cage, we have a sternum, a vertical bone in the middle and we have nerves, we have arteries, we have lung tissue. We have lung tissue on either side and we have heart in middle and we have some blood valves coming from these. So, let us go one by one. Heart we know is important organ which gives pumping the blood all through our day and night and then the heart itself should get blood supply from arteries, these are called as coronary arteries. When these coronary are flowing and supplying the blood to the heart muscle then only the heart keeps pumping effectively without any pain.

So, let us just go to the, what are the causes of chest pain? What cause chest pain? The first thing I ve said is the muscle symptoms. So, we know that the chest wall is made of muscles and when these muscles become sore, when they become sprained, strained. When you life a weight or you know you have some kind of trauma tissue, you joined the gym or you lie down on the bed and particularly in a bad posture you can get some kind of pain. So if somebody gets chest pain probably during these activities we think it is a muscle pain, one need not be panicky, it s not heart pain. Okay!

The second pain is joint pains, what is called costochondritis. This is one of the very common pains in the practice. This middle bone this is called the breast bone or sternum hinges at the ribs through a joint. That s how when we breathe, when we breathe our rib cage moves because our hinges have joints. So, this is called as costochondritis. This costochondritis is nothing but a joint inflammation. You see that red spots, these are the inflammations. That means if there is an inflammation in these joints you ll have pain, the pains are localized, there are in the area not more than fingertip. They increase with pushing or pressing the chest and also they increase with deep breathing. So, if these kinds of pains are there, this can be because of the viral illnesses, there are innumerable, unknown causes of these kinds of problems. Pushing the weights, lifting heavy weights, this can also cause these symptoms. So, don t worry, these are not heart pains.

The other problems now-a-days we re seeing more with the software professionals, the persons who works systems, the persons who sit and do a job like clerical jobs, is spondylosis pain. You know this is the spine, you know we have a spine, which comes from, goes up to the coccyx. This is the spine which is a series of a bones arranged one above other like boxes and from between these boxes you ll get the nerves. These nerves supply the chest in a manner where each nerve supplies a specific area for example these are the different colours you are seeing in this diagram. These are supplied by different nerve roots so each nerve root supplies an area of the chest. So, when these kinds of nerve roots gets compressed for example c5, c6 nerve root gets compressed you ll feel pain along the hand. So, many of the patients come with, you know these software professional come with the pain that just goes along the hand. So this pain and we know by convention that you know that heart pains can go to the hands and is a popular belief even though there is no complete truth in it that heart pain always goes to the hand.

Most of times somebody complains about only pain in the hand especially in the neck, especially here in this region, this is basically a nerve root compression because of cervical spondylosis. As you see this, as I ve said the spine is a series of boxes of bone, from in between the nerve roots come. When they get compressed you feel this pain along the hand and also sometimes in the upper chest and also in the neck. If this series of nerves gets compressed they can have pain all around, and sometimes this pain can also goes to the chest and this causes confusion whether some heart pain is there, but this is not the heart pains. Please make sure that no, these kinds of pains are not heart pains and these kinds of pain does not cause a heart attack.

You see this, in these cervical spondylosis where does the pain go? See in this man the pain goes to the clavicle, this collar bone, it goes to the shoulder. It also can go along the chest. So, the pain can go all along left upper limb, sometimes right upper limb and maybe there, only in the shoulders not into the chest or to the hands or maybe go little down to the arms. These are all cervical spondylosis pains, nerve root pains not heart pains. One need not be worried about this kind of a pain.
Play video
Acute Heart Attack
Ways to manage Acute heart attack!

I m Dr. Viveka Kumar, Senior Director at Cath Lab Hospital in New Delhi, Saket. In this world now, the Indian population is suffering from epidemic, which is acute heart attack, or cardiovascular disease. It has become the number 1 killer for the younger generation that is the most productive age group of patients which is in the age group of 25 to 50 years of age. The treatment can be done only when the awareness is good, if the patients understand their disease, they get early warning signal.

The key to the treatment of this disease is early, i.e, diagnosis. So the moment if somebody gets chest pain associated with sweating with pain lasting for 15 minutes or more than that, then this is the situation where they should get alerted, get an ECG done, get the cardiac markers done and if the ECG changes are there, they must see a cardiologist, and get primary angioplasty or thrombolysis therapy in early hours are equally good. And early treatment is the most going to be more cheaper option, more effective option. And this is also a lifestyle disorder.

For prevention of that we need to have healthy lifestyle, we should stop smoking, we should have a good blood pressure control, diabetes control and cholesterol control has to be very meticulous, and then only this disease can be conquered.

If you want to reach to me, you can reach to me through Lybrate, or you can look at my website Thank you.
Play video
Coronary Artery Disease
Risk factors associated with heart attack

So when do we get the heart attack? What kind of people gets the heart attack? Previously people used to think heart attack belongs to the elderly people, post-retirement people. No, the heart attacks are happening, like 20% of the heart attacks are happening in the 40s. Alarmingly we have seen last one week, the 30s, that is, the 30s are the new 40s. From age 30 onwards the heart attack incidents are increasing. So now we see that age is no longer a criteria or factor for heart attack, although overall we have seen that the elderly people are supposedly more prone to heart stroke more frequently than the younger people. The people with diabetes or sugar, with hypertension, people with high cholesterol, people who are obese, the people who are more than the normal weight, people whose family members had a heart attack at any age. For example, somebody s ancestors or father or mother, or elder brother or younger, or elder sister had a heart attack, at 60 or at any age, then the chances of a heart attack are more in the person.

And of course, cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is an important cause of heart attack in any people. Cigarette smoking is one of the worst habits anybody can have, and it is killing many of the young people. Cigarette smoking is an important cause of heart attack and you must quit smoking altogether. Also, lack of exercise, and stress, physical or mental stress, anxiety- These are some of the risk factors that can be getting you a heart attack. If you are diabetic, have a tight control of your diabetes, if you have hypertension, you will regularly check your BP, check your sugar, take control of both of them. You should check your cholesterol, from age 20 onwards. If your cholesterol is high, control your cholesterol with a change in lifestyle and if a doctor prescribes you a tablet. Regularly check your cholesterol and keep it in control. Regular exercise is important, at least 30-40 minutes regularly, is must for everybody. If you are smoking, please quit smoking. Smoking is the commonest cause of death in any people. Young heart attack victims, most of them are smokers. If they quit smoking, the incidence comes down significantly. Take a balanced, healthy diet. Take small portions and see that your physical activities, not only the 30-40 minutes of exercise but all through the day you are physically active.

Can heart attack happen in women? Many people think that heart attack is a disease of men. Contrary to that popular belief, a heart attack is a number 1 killer in women as well. It is not breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer; it is not any other illnesses, that we think women suffer from. It is the heart attack, which is number 1 killer in women as well. So women beware, it is not just men s disease, it is your disease as well. And whatever I said about control, it applies to you all as well. Actually after age 50 onwards, after attaining menopause, women are more prone to heart attack than men. They have less prognosis, fewer survival rates, the chances of coming out of the hospital healthy is not equal to that of men. So women beware, you are more prone to heart attack than men, after age 50 than men. So as you see here, here is the evaluation; less than 30 years of age, heart attack rates are slowly increasing from 8.3 to 10.7, and as the year's progress, a number of young people are suffering a heart attack. It used to be a disease of the elderly more than 50 years of age, and now we are seeing the disease in the young people. And this is very, very alarming. Any victim, any heart attack victim, in families, small children fall prey to this disease, which is very, very alarming. You should have good knowledge of this condition and healthy lifestyle, and also, keep checking your parameters, your BP, and must keep checking or conducting tests, so that if something is happening (symptoms of heart attack) you can diagnose at an early age and prevent it.

What happens inside the heart when you get a heart attack? See, the cholesterol is here. There is no blood flow to the heart muscle. See this is a normal healthy heart, the heart muscles are reddish, but here it has become black when the heart attack is happening. That s the inside story of what is happening. So inside the blood vessels, that is the blood vessels of the heart, the cholesterol is building up, the cholesterol blocks and captures, it causes blood clots. The blood clots for a few minutes, that is why the heart attack comes all of a sudden. The build up cholesterol takes weeks or months, but the heart attack comes very fast. So how do we treat? We can give medicines, do an angioplasty stenting. We all know about the stent. When the vessel is blocked, we put a stent, and then the vessel here is normal, it is flowing well now. Or we can do a bypass surgery.

When blocks are there in different places (of the heart), we can take a new pipe from the leg or from the chest and stitch it here, so that the blood flows to the new pipe, as the old pipes are blocked. So friends, today we have briefly discussed what is chest pain? All chest pains we found out do not heart pains. What is heart pain? What are the symptoms of heart pain? What it looks like? How to differentiate it? May it be the day, night, any kind of circumstances, you need to transport the patient to the nearest hospital. After getting treated for heart disease, it is a lifelong discipline that you need to maintain, the drugs are for lifelong, the medicines etc are all lifelong. You need to continue following the doctor s advice and attend the doctor at periodic intervals. You have to quit smoking, you must take a healthier diet, you need to have an ideal body weight, you should exercise properly. And this knowledge, if you have gained anything, from my talk, then please spread to everybody; see that everybody is aware of this condition. As we discussed just now, that it is alarmingly true that the heart attack is happening in the 40s and the 30s, and that is an alarming situation.

You should make sure that everybody gets this knowledge and ultimately this knowledge will prevent this heart attack. Thank You very much- Dr. Balaji Rajamagiri, Cardiologist.
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