Heart attack occurs when flow of blood to the heart gets blocked. It may be due to build up of fat, cholesterol and other substances in the arteries. You will feel extreme sensation or ache in your chest or arms, nausea and shortness of breath. One must always rush for medical help as soon as the slightest of these symptoms are felt. An electrocardiogram (ECG) is done to record the electric activities of your heart along with a blood test. The immediate medications given during heart attack are aspirin, thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, morphine and nitroglycerin. There are surgeries like coronary angioplasty and stenting and coronary artery bypass.
Aspirin helps in maintaining blood flow through a narrowed artery by reducing blood clotting. Thrombolytics dissolve the blood clot that’s blocking blood flow to your heart. Consumption of this drug in time increases your chances of surviving the heart attack. Antiplatelet agents prevent existing blood clots from becoming larger and also stop the formation of new clots. Morphine helps you deal with the pain and discomfort. Nitroglycerin widens the blood vessels thus, improving the blood flow to the heart. Medications are not enough to deal with a heart attack. In addition to medications, you may have to undergo surgeries. Coronary angioplasty and stenting is done immediately after a heart attack. A long thin tube called catheter is passed through an artery in your leg or groin to a blocked artery in your heart. To restore blood flow to the heart, a metal mesh stent is inserted into the artery to keep it open. In some cases, one may need to go for bypass surgery. Veins and arteries are sewed in a place away from blocked or narrowed coronary artery. This allows the blood to bypass the narrowed section and reach the heart. You may remain in the hospital for several days if you have a bypass surgery.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common reason for chest pains. Do not confuse these pains with heart attack.
Surgeries may have side effects like mild weakness and pain in body for a few days.
You must stay away from alcohol and tobacco. Control your blood and sugar levels. Make sure that your diet is very healthy consisting of proteins, whole grains, fish and beans. Make regular appointments with your doctor to keep a check on your improvement. Maintain your body weight and exercise regularly.
You may have to remain in the hospital for 5-7 days. It may take a few weeks for you to resume your routine activities to the fullest.
The cost of a bypass surgery ranges from ₹150000- ₹400000. Coronary angioplasty and stenting can cost ₹100000- ₹300000.
The results of the treatment are permanent if proper care is taken.
There are no alternatives to the treatment.
Rs 1,50,000 - Rs 4,00,000
Formation of blood clots in the arteries of the lungs, heart or legs can actually kill a person. In such a case, the immediate medical action is necessary and the only way to deal with blood clots is thrombolysis.
Thrombolysis or thrombolytic therapy is a medical process that dissolves blood clots and facilitates blood flow to all parts of the body. Thus, it protects tissues and muscles from damage.
What are the causes of blood clots in the body?
How can you tell if you have blood clots?
• Swelling in one or more legs
• Cramp and tenderness in the legs
• Breathing trouble might indicate that blood clots have travelled to the lungs
• Sweating and frequent chest pain may suggest that blood clots have travelled to the heart
Thrombolytic drugs are injected into the body intravenously. They make their way to where the blood clots exist and dissolve them. If there is a medical emergency, the drugs are delivered to the exact location of the blood clots and immediately start dissolving them. Another method is inserting a device into the blood clot infested region to break the clots up. The drugs which on entering the body dissolve blood clots are called thrombolytics. There are many varieties of thrombolytics such as the following-
• Streptokinase - It is a kind of enzyme. It is used when a person has just suffered a heart attack or pulmonary embolism. Doctors do not usually prescribe the second usage of this drug. It is injected into a vein and can be administered to pregnant women.
• Tenecteplase - Also an enzyme, it is a plasminogen activator. When it binds to the surface of the blood clot, it makes the clot degenerate.
• Reteplase - It is actually extracted from E-Coli. It is a sterile intravenous bolus injection
The leading cause of heart attacks and ischemic heart disorder is the formation of blood clots in the arteries that connect the heart and the brain. Thrombolysis is often employed as an emergency treatment for this purpose. Thrombolysis is also effective against blood clots formed in the lungs (which lead to acute pulmonary embolism). Sometimes blood clots are formed in the legs, upper extremities of the body, the pelvic region (deep vein thrombosis). These clots may travel to the lungs and heart.
Consult your doctor before undergoing the treatment.
Myocardial Infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a disorder in which there is a serious blockage of blood flow to the heart and its muscles. The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. So you can understand that it's a really critical problem and the person suffering from it, needs to be diagnosed immediately.
Here are some symptoms which will help to you to understand whether a person is suffering from it or not:
Immediate response for myocardial infarction:
A myocardial infarction requires immediate medical attention. Treatment aims to preserve as much heart muscle as possible and to prevent further complications. Treatment in general aims to unblock blood vessels, reduce blot clot enlargement, reduce ischemia. The main treatment for myocardial infarctions with ECG evidence of ST elevation (STEMI) inc.
Tachycardia is the medical term of a fast heart rate. When a person’s heart beats for more than 100 times per minute, he/she is said to be suffering from tachycardia. Atria and Ventricles (both left and right) are the four major parts of the heart. They contract and expand so that blood can be pumped out of the heart and oxygen reaches all the organs of the body. Now, this pumping occurs at a stable pace, owing to electrical impulses that activate the pumping in the first place. When an underlying medical condition or a defect in the heart disrupts these electrical impulses a person is confronted with tachycardia.
In many people, no symptoms are observed until and unless it is detected by a blood pressure device or a tool that checks the pulse rate. But if the heart rate is significantly high a person might feel dizzy, fatigued. He/she can also suffer from shortness of breath, palpitation as well as chest pain.
When the heart beats faster than usual the oxygen in the body gets depleted, which can result in the death of myocardial cells, leading to heart attack.
Heart diseases like coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, heart muscle disease, tumors or infection can lead to increased rate of heart beat. Apart from that, other conditions that might lead to tachycardia are: stress, hormonal disorders, especially in case one is suffering from hyperthyroidism, blood loss etc.
If there is an underlying medical defect that is causing the increased heart rate in the first place, it needs to be treated. For example, if a person is suffering from hyperthyroidism then medicines are prescribed to regulate the function of the thyroid glands.
If tachycardia develops as a result of weakened heart muscle then medicines are given to strengthen the heart. Beta blockers are given to check the defective electrical impulse in the heart, if that is the cause of tachycardia. Depending on the condition of the patient anti-arrhythmic medicines might also be given. People who stand at a risk of receiving a stroke as a result of this condition are prescribed warfarin.
Surgery and Implantation
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
This procedure involves the insertion of an artificial device in the heart that controls the heart rate. It is equipped to send an electrical shock whenever it detects defective electrical impulse in the heart. In other words, it is designed to mechanically deflect the erroneous impulse.
If medications fail to rectify the disorder, a surgery has to be performed. In this case a section of the heart tissue is removed through operation. The scar that is left by the operation controls defective electrical impulse as a scar tissue is affirmed to be a bad conductor of electricity. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The coronary arteries supply the heart with oxygen-enriched blood and nutrients. If these arteries become damaged or diseased; they could cause Coronary artery disease or CAD. Plaque deposits on the walls of the arteries are the most common cause of this disease. This plaque is usually the result of high cholesterol levels. As the plaque builds up, the passage of blood flow is reduced. This reduces the amount of blood that reaches the heart. In cases of a complete blockage, CAD can even cause a heart attack. Because of its slow progression, this disease is often not diagnosed until it reaches a dangerous stage. However, it can be prevented and treated if diagnosed in time.
In the early stages of CAD, symptoms are not very noticeable. Symptoms become visible only when blood flow tCoronary Artery Diseaseo the heart reduces and the heart has to pump harder than normal. The most common symptoms experienced include:
Other symptoms that might indicate coronary artery disease are dizziness, nausea and an irregular heartbeat. The good news is that this disease can be prevented. Staying physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing stress and eating a low fat and low salt diet can help reduce the risk of CAD. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Gone are the days when heart attacks were only experienced by people past a certain age. Today, a large number of younger people without any significant risk factors are affected by this condition as well. The changing lifestyle with highly stressful lives, poor eating and rest habits, and lack of physical exercise are all attributed as possible causes.
With everyone busy in their lived, there are increased number of instances where a person suffers a sudden heart attack at night, which goes unnoticed and the person dies unattended. The following are some tips to work at regularly, so that incidence of sudden heart attack is reduced.
With these measures, you can reduce the risk of heart disease to a large extent.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!