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Recurrent Early Pregnancy Loss - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Sheetal Sachdeva 89% (72 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics & Gynecology), DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Recurrent Early Pregnancy Loss - How Can It Be Treated?

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as a condition where the woman suffers three or more pregnancy losses consecutively and the miscarriages occur within 20 weeks from the last menstrual cycle of the women. This condition is fairly common in women. Some of the causes that may be responsible for this condition include genetic factors, uterine disorders, hypothyroidism, diabetes, anatomical or cervical conditions, endocrine-related disorders, auto-immune diseases, chronic endometritis, viral infection, ecological conditions, and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS).

As part of the RPL diagnosis, the medical experts will conduct a transvaginal ultrasonography during the early stages of the pregnancy. If the woman is not pregnant, had had two to three pregnancy losses in the past, and is being evaluated for pregnancy loss, the doctors may deem it suitable to conduct parental chromosome testing (karyogram). Also, blood tests may also be carried out to determine blood sugar levels, thyroid-related problems, ovarian dysfunction, and thrombophilia.

Treatment For RPL-

When treating a woman for RPL, the doctors will need to determine the cause of this condition. In cases of congenital thrombophilia and antiphospholipid syndrome, the doctors could prescribe anticoagulants if the woman has suffered recurrent miscarriages. Several studies conducted in the past have shown that through a course of antibiotics, women suffering from chronic endometritis can enjoy a healthy pregnancy. In cases wherein the woman is found to have a karyotypic disorder, she is advised to undergo genetic counseling. During the sessions, the genetic specialist will have a discussion on the type of genetic disorder and the possibility of future pregnancies.

Some couples may also opt for prenatal genetic studies for analyzing the genetic makeup of the fetus. In this procedure, chorionic virus sampling and amniocentesis may be carried out. In cases of chromosomal conditions, when treatment is not available, the in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedure may be advised. As a part of this treatment, the woman is given shots over a period of some days for eggs to grow in her ovaries. Then, the eggs are obtained through a minor surgery and a sperm is injected into them to enable the embryos to grow. Thereafter, a single cell of the embryo is subjected to biopsy and the genetic disposition is examined. This helps to prevent the transfer of an afflicted embryo. In cases of uterine abnormality, the doctors may conduct a surgery as a part of the treatment.

In cases of thyroid-related issues or diabetes, medicines for treating the respective conditions are prescribed. However, if the patient has antiphospholipid syndrome, they are given drugs to prevent the development of blood clots.

The condition of women who has a history of recurrent pregnancy loss must be monitored closely. Even if they are given proper treatment, the chances of future pregnancy loss cannot be ruled out completely. After each pregnancy loss, the woman may suffer from psychological trauma and she may harbor doubts about her ability to conceive as well. In such cases, they require counseling for helping them in overcoming their grief. Also, recurrent miscarriages can result in the women suffering from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular problems, and ovarian cancer at a later stage. During their later pregnancies, they run the risk of having preeclampsia as well. Moreover, the mortality rates of such groups of women are high.

Unexplained RPL: In cases of unexplained RPL, there are no treatments available. The afflicted groups are given counseling. By doing so, there is around 50 to 60 percent probability of them delivering in their subsequent pregnancy. However, with each pregnancy loss, the woman’s chances of conceiving diminish. Aspirin is not known to be effective in preventing recurrent miscarriages in women. Also, immunotherapy does not meet the desired results. Currently, the drug NT100 is under scrutiny for improving the chances of conception in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses.

In 2017 I suffering from pulmonary embolism. From this I take acitrom 1 mg .but at end of year I forgot to take acitrom for 15 day so there is clot .and clot is removal in Jan 2018. Now I take acitrom 3 mg and ecosprin 75 mg .what care should be taken to prevent clot .because doctor said you will take the medicines till end of life.

Dr. Sameer Mehrotra 89% (1202 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Cardiac Device Specialist (CCDS - Physician )
Cardiologist, Delhi
It is absolutely essential for you to be on anti-coagulant medications that will prevent further clot formation. Different types of medications are now available - Acitrom is one of those. If you are taking this then you should ensure that your INR is maintained in the range as prescribed by your doctor for the medicine to be effective. You should take warfarin diet. And donot remain immbolized for a long time, in long duration air flight wear stocking and keep moving your legs and toes. There are better medicines available as well which donot need INR testing and have lesser risk of causing bleeding but are slightly expensive than acitrom, you can discuss with your treating doctor regarding that.
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Ma jab badminton khel raha tha tab mari right pair mur gaya. Ab waha bohut pain hai or mera ankle bohut ful Gaya hai.

Dr. Rama Bhardwaj 92% (98 ratings)
PG Diploma in Health Promotion, Bachelor of Physiotherapy, certificate in Yoga Therapy & Ayurveda
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Ma jab badminton khel raha tha tab mari right pair mur gaya. Ab waha bohut pain hai or mera ankle bohut ful Gaya hai.
Get yourself checked by tomorrow by the doctor. It can be ankle sprain. Don't put load on affected leg. Regards.
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Knee Pain - How Physiotherapy Can Heal It?

Physiotherapist, Bangalore
Knee Pain - How Physiotherapy Can Heal It?

Knee pain or injuries are very common and have numerous causes. Knee pain can emerge from delicate tissue wounds like ligament sprains and muscle strains. Bone conditions like knee joint pain, Osgood Schlatters, and biomechanical dysfunction can also cause knee pain. Treatment can include basic knee mobilization techniques, taping, massages or knee strengthening exercises completely through a careful recovery method after knee replacement or reconstruction.

Physiotherapy can help you overcome the pain and increase your strength and flexibility. A physiotherapist can suggest you a number of treatments and also help you understand your issue and get you back to your everyday routine. Physiotherapists are said to be successful in getting rid of the source of the knee pain by diagnosing a cause. This includes tightness around the knee and treating it with stretching and exercises.

Following are some of the exercises a physiotherapist might generally recommend for knee pain:

  1. Hamstring stretch: Stretching keeps you flexible and increases your scope of movement, or how far you can move your joints in different directions. It additionally helps you reduce your chances of injuries and pain. Continuously warm up with a five minute walk first. Lie down when you are prepared to stretch your hamstring. Circle a bed sheet around your right foot, use the sheet to pull the leg up and hold for twenty seconds and then lower the leg. Repeat twice and switch legs.
  2. Calf stretch: Use a chair for balance. Bend your left leg. Step back with your right leg and gradually straighten it behind you. Press your left heel toward the floor. You should feel the stretch in the calf of your back leg. Hold for 20 seconds. Repeat twice and then switch legs.
  3. Straight leg raise: It helps build muscle strength to give support to the weak joints. Lie on the floor. Twist your left knee, foot on the floor. Keep the right leg straight, toes pointed up. Tighten your thigh muscles and raise your right leg.
  4. Quad set: With these, you don't raise your leg. Just tighten the thigh muscles, also called the quadriceps, of one leg at once. Begin by lying on the floor. Keep both legs on the ground, loose. Flex and hold the left leg tense for five seconds and then relax. Do three sets of ten repetitions. Switch legs after every set.
  5. Cushion squeeze: This move strengthens your legs from the inside so that they can support the knees. Lie on your back, both knees facing inwards. Place a cushion or a pillow between the knees. Press your knees together, squishing the cushion between them. Hold for five seconds and then relax. Do three sets of ten repetitions. Switch legs after every set.
  6. Heel raise: Stand tall and hold the back of a seat for support. Lift your heels off the ground and rise on the toes of both feet. Hold for three seconds. Gradually lower both heels to the ground. Do three sets of ten repetitions. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
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Do's & Don'ts For Liposuction!

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Ahmedabad
Do's & Don'ts For Liposuction!
Liposuction can be performed on obese people to help them lose weight. True or false? Take this quiz to find out.
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26 people took this quiz

I am 47 year old female. I had a fracture in the left ankle two years ago and had a plaster on for one month. After 1 year I had a sprain in the same left ankle and had a plaster again for a week. I was given some medicines but I have not got any relief. I can not walk for a long time and can not even run. It also becomes heavy making it difficult to walk. What should I do?

Dr. Rama Bhardwaj 92% (98 ratings)
PG Diploma in Health Promotion, Bachelor of Physiotherapy, certificate in Yoga Therapy & Ayurveda
Physiotherapist, Delhi
It is because your ankle was not properly trained. As we know our lower limb takes whole body weight, Improper management of ankle after an injury can cause recurrent sprains. I suggest you to take Physiotherapy session. If need any assistance please contact me personally. Regards.
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Dyspepsia Disorder: Tips to Overcome It

Dr. Parthasarathy G 90% (17 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, Fellowship in Hepatobiliary Surgery & Liver Transplantation, International Visiting Scholar
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Dyspepsia Disorder: Tips to Overcome It

Dyspepsia is a disorder of the stomach that is characterized by pain in the upper part of the stomach. It is not a single disorder, but is a collection of symptoms such as nausea, burping and bloating. It results when the acid of the stomach comes in contact with the mucosa of the digestive tract. These acids cause a breakdown of the mucosa leading to inflammation and irritation, which leads to indigestion. It may also result from eating disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of this disorder tend to occur mostly after consuming food and drink. In some cases, the symptoms tend to go away after eating or drinking. The symptoms of dyspepsia are: 

  1. You may feel bloated on a regular basis
  2. You may experience discomfort in your stomach
  3. Loss of appetite
  4. You may experience constant burping
  5. You may feel nauseous
  6. Symptoms of heartburn
  7. You may also experience chest pain and breathing difficulties
  8. You may be affected by jaundice

The various causes of dyspepsia are: 

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome, which hampers the movement of food through the intestines
  2. If you are unable to properly digest dairy products
  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease that results in reflux of the acids of the stomach
  4. Any inflammation of the gall bladder
  5. Various medicines such as aspirin, steroids and antibiotics may lead to dyspepsia
  6. If you suffer from depression or anxiety then it may lead to dyspepsia
  7. Excess consumption of chocolate, coffee and alcohol

Dyspepsia may be controlled by modifying your lifestyle. Some of the changes that you may make are

  1. Don't sleep immediately after eating, wait for at least two hours before you go to bed
  2. Avoid spicy foods as they tend to aggravate symptoms of dyspepsia
  3. Space out your meals, eat multiple smaller meals instead of few large ones
  4. Restrict smoking and alcohol consumption
  5. Lose weight as being overweight may lead to dyspepsia
  6. Avoid wearing tight clothes 
  7. Exercise on a regular basis to keep your body healthy and maintain optimal weight levels

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

965 people found this helpful

Migraine - It Is More Than A Headache!

MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Pune
Migraine - It Is More Than A Headache!

A migraine is something, which can really make a person’s day go from bad to worse. However, while popping an aspirin may be the age old solution for solving such a literally mind numbing issue, it really does not mean that this is the best solution. Theoretically, the best solution to a migraine should come naturally to the person, who is unfortunately the victim of a migraine.

It is more than a headache
When a person has a migraine, he or she is likely to know that this is the case due to a pulsating sensation behind the eye. In addition to this, there are quite a few other symptoms which include pain on one side of the head, nausea and a sensitiveness to light in its various forms.

Natural treatments for migraine
There are a range of possible natural solutions a person can make use of to get rid of migraine hits. 

  1. One of these solutions is quite simple, even if it sounds a little odd! Take a few cabbage leaves, crush them and using a soft cloth, apply the paste on the forehead of the person who is having a migraine attack.
  2. While a person who is down with migraine may feel that life has given him or her lemons, he or she should really not despair. This is because these lemons can be made use of, as well, in order to make the ill effects of the migraine go away. To do this, take five lemons, peel them, grind them well and then add a little bit of water to make a paste. Apply this paste to the patient’s forehead.
  3. Apart from using remedies to cure migraine, there are a few other things which are needed to be done in order to get up and running as soon as possible. One of these things is to get enough rest. Taking into account the fact that a migraine has the potential to severely hinder the prospect of a person functioning normally, for a person to push himself or herself against the intense migraine discomfort so as to fulfil his or her responsibilities will not only result in substandard work, but will also make the situation worse.
  4. Hot and cold compress can also go some way in improving a person’s migraine problem. 
  5. All beverages apart from water and tea should be avoided. Water hydrates and is essential while tea is diuretic.

If you follow these natural remedies, you will successfully be able to treat your migraine issue. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!  

1234 people found this helpful

Hi I am suffering lower right side abdominal cramping while coughing and pressing and while stretching.

Dr. Julie Mercy J David Raja 85% (5887 ratings)
Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
Hi I am suffering lower right side abdominal cramping while coughing and pressing and while stretching.
Not really as week before period you will not have any fluid discharge and also adbominal cramp might be due to menstrual cycles however this abdominal cramp is quite common in pregnancy women.
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Acute Sinusitis - Know Its Treatment Options!

Dr. Nishit Shah 84% (10 ratings)
ENT Specialist, Mumbai
Acute Sinusitis - Know Its Treatment Options!

The common symptoms of sinusitis include nasal blocking, mucopurulent discharge and headache or facial pain. Acute sinusitis is a type of infection of the sinus. It involves an infection or inflammation of your sinus membranes. The most common symptom of sinusitis is that you have trouble draining mucus from your nose. The sinus is the cavity around the nasal passage and it may swell up when this condition occurs. Usually, the symptoms are temporary. However, sometimes, especially if you suffer from chronic sinusitis, medical intervention is required...

  1. Saline nasal spray: This is a spray you put into your nose several times a day to clean your nasal passages.
  2. Nasal corticosteroids: There are many types of nasal corticosteroids. They include fluticasone, budesonide, mometasone, beclomethsone. These nasal sprays not only help to treat inflammation, they help prevent to prevent inflammation as well.
  3. Aspirin: This is a type of OTC pain relievers and they help relieve the pain of acute sinusitis. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are two other OTC pain relievers which can be used instead of aspirin.
  4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics are usually not required and should never be taken without the doctor's prescription. However, sometimes the doctor may recommend it if he thinks there is a bacterial infection or if the symptoms progress rapidly.
  5. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is given when allergies are the reason you are having acute sinusitis. It is rarely needed, however.
  6. Surgery: For sinusitis symptoms which are chronic or occur frequently, nasal surgery may be the best option for permanent relief. A number of different surgical procedures can be used to treat acute sinusitis such as balloon sinuplasty, endoscopic sinus surgery etc.
1 person found this helpful