Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and foetal infections, and also for sex determination, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains foetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing foetus, and then the foetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities. Amniocentesis (or another procedure, called chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) can diagnose these problems in the womb. Amniocentesis is performed when a woman is between 14 and 16 weeks gestation.
It might be helpful to have your bladder full during the procedure to support the uterus. Drink plenty of fluids before your appointment. After 20 weeks of pregnancy, your bladder should be empty during amniocentesis to minimize the chance of puncture. Your health care provider will explain the procedure and ask you to sign a consent form before the procedure begins. Consider asking someone to accompany you to the appointment for emotional support or to drive you home afterward.
This process can be used for prenatal sex discernment and hence this procedure has legal restrictions in some countries. used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. In which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing foetus and the DNA is tested for genetic abnormalities. The most common reason to have an 'amnio' is to determine whether a baby has certain genetic disorders or a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome.
Please follow the instructions given by the lab in charge Amniocentesis is a prenatal test in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed from the sac surrounding the foetus for testing. The sample of amniotic fluid (less than one ounce) is removed through a fine needle inserted into the uterus through the abdomen, under ultrasound guidance. The Specimen removed from uterus is tested in the lab and results sent to the doctor.
Chromosome Analysis Amniocentesis Karyotyping Amniotic Fluid
All age groups
Depend on the type of chromosomal anomaly/ abnormality
Causes of recurrent pregnancy loss
Testing for recurrent pregnancy loss
Several tests and examinations should be carried out for detection of pregnancy loss.
The treatment for women with recurrent pregnancy loss depends upon the underlying causes of the pregnancy loss.
Recurrent pregnancy loss may happen due to various reasons and proper tests, and treatment procedures should be carried out for curing pregnancy loss. This phenomenon affects a woman and her partner deeply. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
What is fetal ultrasound?
Fetal ultrasound is a test used during pregnancy. It creates an image of the baby in the mother's womb (uterus). It’s a safe way to check the health of an unborn baby. During a fetal ultrasound, the baby’s heart, head, and spine are evaluated, along with other parts of the baby. The test may be done either on the mother’s abdomen (transabdominal) or in the vagina (transvaginal).
There are several types of fetal ultrasound:
Ultrasound uses an electronic wand called a transducer to send and receive sound waves. No radiation is used during the procedure. The transducer is moved over the abdomen, and sound waves move through the skin, muscle, bone, and fluids at different speeds. The sound waves bounce off the baby like an echo and return to the transducer. The transducer converts the sound waves into an electronic image on a computer screen.
Why might I need fetal ultrasound?
Fetal ultrasound is a routine part of prenatal care in the U.S. This is because it’s a low risk procedure that gives important information. A routine prenatal ultrasound can check for defects or other problems in the fetus. The following can be examined:
A fetal ultrasound can also show:
Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to request a fetal ultrasound.
What are the risks of fetal ultrasound?
All procedures have some risks. The risks of this procedure include:
In some cases, an ultrasound may appear to show a problem that is not there called false-positive. The test can also miss a problem that is there called false-negative. In some cases, additional testing may be needed after a fetal ultrasound.
Fetal ultrasound is sometimes offered in nonmedical settings. This is done as a way to give keepsake images or videos for parents. In these cases, it’s possible for untrained staff to misread the images and give parents incorrect information. Make sure to have fetal ultrasound done by trained medical staff. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions.
Your risks may vary depending on your general health and other factors. Ask your healthcare provider which risks apply most to you. Discuss any concerns you may have.
The risk of a mental illness increases, if one or more of your family members have a mental disorder, but this increased risk doesn't guarantee that you will develop a mental illness. Not only have some mental illnesses been found to be hereditary in nature, but certain studies have found that some major mental illnesses can be traced to the same genetic variations.
Some hereditary psychiatric disorders are:
In 2011, a study pinned down a specific chromosome that may trigger depression development. Research on the hereditary properties of depression within families shows that some people are more prone to develop the disorder than others. If you have a parent or sibling that suffers from depression, you might be 1.5 to 3 times more likely to develop depression than those who do not have a close family member suffering from this condition. You are also more prone to developing bipolar disorder in such a scenario. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychiatrist.
Androgenic alopecia is a typical type of hair loss in both men and women. In men, this condition is also called as, Male Pattern Baldness. Hair is lost in an all around characterized pattern, starting above both temples. After some time, the hairline recedes to frame a characteristic "M" shape. Hair additionally thins at the crown (close to the top of the head), regularly advancing to partial or Complete Baldness.
The pattern of Hair Loss in women contrasts from male pattern baldness. In women, the hair winds up plainly more slender everywhere throughout the head, and the hairline does not recede. Androgenic Alopecia in women occasionally prompts add up to total baldness.
Androgenic alopecia in men has been, related with a many other medicinal conditions including coronary illness and growth of the prostate. Moreover, Prostate Cancer, Disorder of Insulin Resistance, (for example, diabetes and Obesity), and High Blood Pressure (hypertension) have been identified with Androgenic Alopecia. In women, this type of hair loss is, related with an expanded risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is, portrayed by a hormonal imbalance that can prompt sporadic Menstruation, Acne, Abundance hair somewhere else on the body (Hirsutism), and Weight Gain.
Androgenic Alopecia is an incessant reason for hair loss in both men and women. This type of hair loss influences an expected 50 million men and 30 million women in the United States. Androgenic Alopecia can begin in teenage also and risk increments with age; more than 50 percent of men over age 50 have some level of hair loss. In women, hair loss is no doubt after menopause.
Causes of Androgenic Alopecia
Change in Genetics
An assortment of hereditary and natural components likely, assume a part in causing Androgenic Alopecia. In spite of the fact that scientists are contemplating risk considers that may add to this condition, a large portion of these elements stay obscure. Scientists have discovered that this type of hair loss is, identified with hormones called Androgens, especially an Androgen called Dihydrotestosterone. Androgens are critical for ordinary male sexual development before birth and during puberty. Androgens likewise have other critical functions in both males and females, for example, controlling Hair Growth and Sex Drive.
Hair Growth initiates under the skin in structures called Follicles. Each strand of hair typically develops for 2 to 6 years, goes into a resting stage for many months, and afterward drops out. The cycle begins once again when the follicle starts growing another hair. Increased levels of Androgens in hair follicles can prompt a shorter cycle of hair growth and the growth of shorter and thinner strands of hair. Moreover,
To replace strands, which are shed off there is a deferral in the growth of new hair.
In spite of the fact that Researchers speculate that several Genes play a part in Androgenic Alopecia, varieties in just a single Gene, Androgen Receptor, have been affirmed in Scientific Studies. The Androgen Receptor Gene gives directions to making a protein called an Androgen Receptor. Androgen Receptors enable the body to react fittingly to Dihydrotestosterone and different Androgens. Studies propose that varieties in the Androgen Receptor Gene prompt expanded action of Androgen Receptors in hair follicles. It stays misty, nevertheless, how these hereditary changes increment the risk of Hair Loss in Men and Women with Androgenic Alopecia.
Researchers keep on investigating the association between Androgenic Alopecia and other medical conditions, for example, Heart Disease and Prostate Cancer in men and Polycystic Ovary disorder in Women. They trust that some of these disorders might be, related with elevated Androgen Levels, which may assist to describe why they have a tendency to happen with Androgen related Hair Loss. Other hormonal, natural, and hereditary components that have not been, recognized likewise might be included.
The Inheritance Pattern of Androgenic Alopecia is hazy in light of the fact that numerous hereditary and natural components are probably going to be included. This condition tends to cluster in families, in any case, and having a nearby relative with patterned hair loss has all the earmark of being a risk calculate for developing the condition.
Notwithstanding Male Pattern Baldness, Androgenic Alopecia in men has been, related with a few other therapeutic conditions including Coronary Heart Illness and augmentation of the Prostate. Moreover, Prostate Cancer, Disorders of Insulin Resistance, (for example, Diabetes and Obesity), and High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) have been identified with Androgenic Alopecia in men. In women, Androgenic Alopecia is, related with an expanded risk of Polycystic Ovary Disorder (PCOS) which is, described by a hormonal imbalance that can prompt sporadic Menstruation, Acne, Excess body hair (Hirsutism), and Weight Gain.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) gives the accompanying list of components that have been, reported in individuals with this condition. A significant part of the data in the HPO originates from Orphanet, a European uncommon disease database. On the off chance that accessible, the rundown incorporates an unpleasant gauge of how regular a component is (its recurrence). Frequencies depend on a particular study and may not be illustrative of all studies.
What is Genetic Testing?
Genetic testing is a sort of therapeutic test that distinguishes changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The consequences of a genetic test can affirm or preclude a speculated genetic condition or help decide a person’s chance of creating or passing on a genetic disorder. More than 1,000 genetic tests are at present used and more are being, developed.
Various techniques can be, utilized for Genetic Testing:
Molecular Genetic Tests (or Gene Tests) ponder single genes or short lengths of DNA to distinguish varieties or transformations that prompt a Genetic disorder.
Genetic testing is intentional. Since, testing has benefits and in addition restrictions and risks, the choice about whether to be tested is an individual and complex one. A Geneticist or Genetic Counselor can help by giving data about the advantages and disadvantages of the test and examining the social and enthusiastic parts of testing.
Each patient is exceptional and just the Doctor can assess and decide the Best Treatment.
Surgical Treatment of Androgenic Alopecia has great restorative outcomes. The principle issue is covering the Bald area with Donor Plugs (or follicles) adequate in number to be powerful. Micrografting produces a more Natural appearance than the old method of Transplanting Plugs.
It is critical for the patients with Androgenic Alopecia to be assessed for treatable reasons for "Telogen Effluvium" (diffuse Hair Shedding, frequently beginning abruptly) like anemia or hypothyroidism, particularly in patients who had a quick advance of their illness or a sudden begin of the sickness.
Different Names of Androgenic Alopecia
Female Pattern Baldness
Male Pattern Alopecia
Human sexuality is involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors.
The biological and physical aspects of sexuality largely concern the human reproductive functions, including the human sexual response cycle. Physical and emotional aspects of sexuality include bonds between individuals that is expressed through profound feelings or physical manifestations of love, trust, and care.
Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moral, ethical, and religious aspectsInterest in sexualactivity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Genetic studies work on In the study of human chromosomes in human sexuality,research has shown that "ten percent of the population has chromosomal variations that do not fit into the XX-female and XY-male set of categories"
The study of sexualityalso includes human identity within social groups, sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs).
GenderdifferencesSeealso: Sex differences in psychology § Sexualbehaviorother aspects of humansexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of oral sex, and attitudes toward homosexuality and masturbation, show little to no observed difference between males and females
Biological and physiological aspects-
Human reproductive system Like other mammals, humans are primarily grouped into either the male or female sex with a small proportion (around 1%) of intersex individuals, for whom sexual classification may not be as clear.The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive system, the sexual response cycle, and the factors that affect these aspects. They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses, heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.
The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior.[ The hypothalamus is important because of its relationship to the pituitary gland, which lies beneath it.The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Oxytocin, sometimes referred to as the "love hormone, is released in both sexes during sexual intercourse when an orgasm is achieved.[ Oxytocin has been suggested as critical to the thoughts and behaviors required to maintain close relationships. The hormone is also released in women when they give birth or are breastfeeding. Both prolactin and oxytocin stimulate milk production in women ] Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for ovulation in women, which acts by triggering egg maturity; in men it stimulates sperm production. Luteinizing hormone (LH)triggers ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg.