Polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS is a condition that happens to women. These women develop cysts on the ovary. These cysts are harmless yet they can cause hormone imbalance. Hormone imbalance leads to many other symptoms like irregular periods, acne, and extra hair growth on the body. In extreme cases, PCOS can cause insulin deficiency and lead to diabetes. It can also cause heart problems.
Small pearl like cysts are found in the ovaries of women who have PCOS. These cysts contain fluids and immature eggs. The presence of cysts in the ovary can hamper the production of hormones in the body. One hormone acts as a signal for production of another hormone. When one hormone is not produced it leads to a series of events. In women with PCOS, there is an excess production of male hormone androgen which is usually produced in minute quantities. This excess production leads to an excess of hair on the body.
Infertility in women is caused due to PCOS. Many a time PCOS are genetically inherited from either the mother or father side. PCOS also causes insulin resistance, women with PCOS have a high chance of developing diabetes due to the insulin resistance. Other complications that women develop due to PCOS include sleep apnea, problems with the heart and blood vessels, and uterine cancer.
Once a woman goes to a gynaecologist for the treatment of PCOS, she is thoroughly examined and checked for medical history. The gynaecologist will check for details of menstrual cycles and symptoms of excess hair growth, insulin resistance, hormone levels and examination of the pelvis to check for cysts in the ovaries with the help of an ultrasound.
After a thorough diagnosis of the condition, treatment begins. Treatment includes checking the age, symptoms and pregnancy plans of the patient. Treatment for PCOS includes birth control pills that will regulate the periods, ovulation induction, androgen blocking medications, topical anti-hair growth and excess hair growth treatments, treatment for skin problems. Ovulation induction is done to treat infertility and enable the patient to conceive.
The first and main step towards the treatment of PCOS is in reducing weight. A healthy weight is required to bring the hormones into the body to control. Eating a proper nutritious diet will enable one to bring weight in control. Besides a healthy diet, a person should focus on moderate exercise that will enable one to maintain the healthy weight.
Dealing with PCOS is stressful and time-consuming. Many women may need to visit a counsellor to keep depression away.