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Schizophrenia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a mental disease that generally appears in a person in early childhood or late adolescence. This mental disorder is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and several other cognitive impairments. Schizophrenia can be a lifelong struggle for people affected with this disease.People suffering from this mental disorder may hear sounds and voices that are not there in reality. Some patients suffering from schizophrenia can feel and even convince themselves that others are reading their minds, plotting against them or controlling how they are thinking.

Schizophrenic patients often remain withdrawn and feel distressed or even act fanatically at times.

People living with schizophrenic patients often find hard to understand what the patient is talking about. In certain instances schizophrenic patient’s remains completely still, without taking for days.On other occasions, schizophrenic patients, when they seem to feel fine, may start explaining what they are truly thinking about.It is a very true fact that the effects of this mental disease reach far beyond the patients themselves. It also affects their friends, families and the society.A sizable proportion of schizophrenic patients have to rely on others for their daily sustenance, since they often become unable to hold any job or take care of themselves.Many schizophrenia patients also resist their treatments as they feel that they are normal, and there is nothing wrong with them.

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

However, with proper treatments schizophrenic patients can also lead a productive life. But they are very few, since most of the schizophrenic patients have to cope with their symptoms throughout their lives.In many cases this mental disorder develops so slowly that the patient doesn’t even get the chance to know it, that they are schizophrenic for many years. Nevertheless, there are also many sufferers of this illness where they have schizophrenic all of a sudden.This disease affects approximately 1% of the global population. Experts on this disease say that this mental malady is probably several illnesses masquerading as one. Many others also say that schizophrenia may be the result of impaired neuronal development in the fetus’ brain, which later on in their lives emerges as full blown illness.

There are several evidences that suggests that environmental factors and genetic factors both acts together in bringing about this tragic and interminable disease. Which means, that the condition has and congenital inherited element, but it is also significantly triggered by environmental factors upon the patient.People who have no history of schizophrenia in their family, have less than 1% chance of getting affected by this illness, compared to people with a history of schizophrenia among their patients, where the risk is as high as 10%.

Some of the experts on this disease suggest that imbalance of a neurotransmitter known as dopamine, is involved in the onset of this mental disease. However, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin can also be involved in heralding this disease.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Having delusions of persecution or delusions of grandeur, where the patients feel that have extraordinary powers and gifts. Wide range of hallucination, such as hearing voices, smelling things that do no exists. Though disorder, where the patient may jump from one subject to another for no logical cause. Being unaware of the illness, or fear that the medications may poison them. Poor or inappropriate expressions of emotions. Inability to concentrate, plan ahead or remember things and organize their lives.

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Schizophrenia - Symptoms And Therapeutic Treatments Of It!

M.S - Counselling & Psychotherapy, Post Graduate Diploma In Sexual & Reproductive Medicine, Certification In Counselling Process, LLB
Psychologist, Hyderabad
Schizophrenia - Symptoms And Therapeutic Treatments Of It!

Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder that affects an individual’s ability to feel, think, or behave properly. Schizophrenia makes it hard for a person to tell reality from fantasy.

The symptoms of schizophrenia are:

Hearing voices in the head
• Hallucinations
• Fearfulness
• The urge to withdraw from society and social activities
Difficulty concentrating

Although one can control the symptoms of schizophrenia with antipsychotic drugs, therapy can drastically improve their quality of life. The therapy combines both counselling and medication. Several types of therapy can help a schizophrenic. The most commonly practised are:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

This is a kind of interactive therapy session, which works only if a collective relation between the therapist and the individual suffering from schizophrenia is established. It is about analyzing the problem and setting goals to overcome it.

• The therapist focuses on the psychotic elements of schizophrenia (illusions and hallucinations) and helps the schizophrenic separate delusions and reality. It starts simply with learning to de-stress. CBT includes behavioural experiments, reality tests, cognitive restructuring.

• The schizophrenic is taught to avoid being confrontational and not to fear the psychotic experiences. Therapy helps strike a balance between the two extremes of psychotic and non-psychotic experiences.

Art Therapy

Art Therapy acts as a unique medium of expression for a schizophrenic.

• A person suffering from schizophrenia often finds it difficult to express himself/herself. With the patient guidance of a therapist, the individual uses paint, clay or other materials to voice their thoughts, feelings and fears.

• Art therapy also incorporates music, poetry, drama (any art form that the schizophrenic is comfortable with). Art Therapy works in groups as well. Interacting in a group teaches social skills. Communicating with people suffering from similar problems helps them get a better perspective and reduces the symptoms associated with the condition.

Family Therapy

Families are often confused about how to deal with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Family therapy is about establishing a bond between the schizophrenic and his/her family.

• Most importantly, bonding with the family helps gives an emotional boost to the individual. Knowing that she/he has the family’s love and support brings down hallucinatory episodes. Surveys suggest that family therapy helps improve the quality of life for a schizophrenic.

Therapy can help suppress the terrifying hallucinations and illusions and help a schizophrenic cope with his/her condition. However, at the end of the day, what a schizophrenic needs more than therapy and anti-psychotic drugs are your understanding and support.

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Schizophrenia - How Does The Condition Manifests?

M. Phil Clinical Psychology, Ph.D - Psychology, MA - Applied Psychology, Post Graduate Diploma In Coaching
Psychologist, Delhi
Schizophrenia - How Does The Condition Manifests?

Genetics is a fascinating subject which has received much attention during present times in the field of medical science as it gives the solutions to many a puzzle. The same applies to the hard to pronounce medical term ‘schizophrenia’ that refers to a mental disorder which disrupts the innate human ability to feel, express, behave, and think clearly.

The condition is a chronic illness, and the disorder may last for years or even a lifetime. Often considered to be the most disabling of mental illnesses, schizophrenia does not refer to multiple or split-personalities. It is more about psychosis where patients become unable to differentiate between reality and fiction.

How does the condition manifest itself?
The symptoms of schizophrenia are rendered into three categories. The positive signs include delusions, hallucination, movement disorders, and dysfunctional, and unusual ways of thought. The negative symptoms include the inability to experience happiness or pleasure in everyday life, reduced talking, and difficulty in sustaining or beginning any activity. While ‘positive’ means exaggerating certain behavior in this context, the term ‘negative’ does not imply bad behavior, but the absence of regular behavior patterns. Then follows the cognitive aspect (the subtlest behavior changes) which includes trouble in paying attention, or problems with using memory, etc.

What could be the possible causes?
There’s no specific reason that may cause schizophrenia; however, some factors play an important role in making a person have this mental condition. Various environmental factors are suspected to be responsible for the condition; these may include viral infections, excessive exposure to toxins like marijuana, extreme stress, etc. In some instances, schizophrenia can occur solely due to abnormalities or chemical imbalances in the brain. Experts note that a history of schizophrenia in the family tree can increase the risk of schizophrenia in future generations.

Who can develop schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia can develop at any age. However, it is during the teenage years or the 20s when the condition takes effect. Though rare, it can sometimes invade the minds of children below five years of age.

How can it be treated?
There’s no cure available for schizophrenia. However, the periods of recovery from this illness and its symptoms can be reduced through various possible treatments. These include medication and psychosocial therapy, supportive psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery. The administration of these procedures can reduce the chances of recurrence and relapse. Sometimes hospitalization may become necessary as a part of treatment to stabilize patients that do not have anyone to take care of them at home.

Modern medicine is yet to discover failsafe remedies for schizophrenia. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the condition in patients. Hospitalization can reduce the chances of a relapse and can prevent the mental condition from worsening. The moment any sign of schizophrenia is noticed, one is strongly advised to opt for psychological treatment. These actions can help to reduce disruptions in a patient’s personal and social life.

3961 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - 5 Types & Their Signs!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Schizophrenia - 5 Types & Their Signs!

When you hear the word “schizophrenia”, the first thing that comes to mind are those serial killers shown on the TV or you call it split personality. But that is not the true meaning of it. It is not split personality or some kind of violent illness. Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental illness which makes it difficult to differentiate between what is real and what is false.

As this is a mental illness, you will not be able to see any changes physically. You need to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia in order to know if a person is suffering from this problem. There are different kinds of symptoms that are used for diagnosing schizophrenia, but they all differ from person to person. Also, the symptoms that you see now, may not be seen later as the disease progresses. There are different types of schizophrenia and each has different symptoms.

Here is a list of the different types of schizophrenia and the most predominant and significant symptoms of each type.

  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: People suffering from paranoid schizophrenia are characterized by strong auditory hallucinations and of being persecuted. However, they are very normal and function normally. But they are not ready to discuss their feelings openly and the symptoms are not observable. Other symptoms include anger, hostility and disorganized speech.
  2. Disorganized Schizophrenia: As the name suggests, people with disorganized schizophrenia exhibit disorganized thoughts. Delusions and hallucination may not be seen in this type of schizophrenia. The behavior of the affected person is quite disorganized or it is difficult to understand what they are saying. In fact, some emotions exhibited by the affected person are hard to understand or they are not at all relevant to the current situation. Their daily routine and activities will also be affected.
  3. Catatonic Schizophrenia: People with catatonic schizophrenia are characterized by increased or decreased movement. This symptom actually varies from person to person. Some people stay at a place for a long time without any kind of movement and some people keep moving for hours and do not stop. They do not speak for hours and sometimes they keep repeating the same thing over and over again. This has to be treated immediately as they will not be able to manage even their daily routine with this kind of behavior.
  4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Undifferentiated schizophrenia is a condition where the symptoms do not fall into any of the above three types. You will also be able to observe hallucinations, delusions, anger, disorganized speech or catatonic behavior.
  5. Residual Schizophrenia: As the name suggests, it is the residue of schizophrenia behavior, but it is less severe as compared to the past. Delusions, hallucination and disorganized speech may still be present but compared to the past, the patient would be doing better.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4195 people found this helpful

Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

Both schizophrenia and autism are considered to be neurological disorders resulting from atypical neural development, occurring due to a variety of causes. Both these disorders have a genetic predisposition that may be due to environmental factors. However, there are a few basic differences between the two disease conditions.

Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a spectrum of abnormal behaviour. They include persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities.

Signs of autism in babies

  1. By 6 months - No social smiles or other warm, joyful expressions; limited to no eye contact
  2. By 9 months - No sharing of vocal sounds
  3. By 12 months - No babbling or use of gestures to communicate; not responding to one’s name when called
  4. By 16 months - No use of words
  5. By 24 months - No meaningful or two-word phrases

Signs of autism at any age

  1. Avoids eye contact and wants to be alone
  2. Finds it difficult to understand other people’s feelings
  3. Speaks very less or has delayed language development
  4. Echolalia - Repeats words or phrases
  5. Cannot accept change in routine or surroundings
  6. Performs repetitive behaviours like flapping or rocking
  7. Has restricted interests and hobbies
  8. Reacts unusually intense to sounds, smells, tastes, lights, colours etc.

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that begins during late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavioural changes that cause social and occupational dysfunctions.

Signs of Schizophrenia

  1. The symptoms of schizophrenia are usually observed between ages 16 and 30, such as e.g. delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, movement disorders etc.
  2. Delusions are false beliefs of the patient that may take many forms like delusions of persecution or grandeur. You may feel somebody is controlling you or may think you have extraordinary powers and abilities.
  3. Hallucinations are when the patient hears voices more than seeing, feeling, tasting or smelling random things, which are not actually there.
  4. Thought disorders are when the person jumps from one subject to another for no logical reason.
  5. Some negative symptoms i.e. these are symptoms which are normally present in a healthy individual, but are absent in a schizophrenic patient. E.g. absence of facial expressions, lack of motivation etc.
  6. Cognitive symptoms affect the individual’s thought process. They can be positive or negative based on their expression. E.g. poor ‘executive functioning’ which deals with the ability to understand information and make decisions using them, finding it difficult to focus etc.
  7. Although both Autsim spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are interlinked in their causes and neurological background, the symptoms for each disorder are different.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3892 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Psychiatrist, Ranchi
Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Are you aware of the schizophrenia and the adverse effects it inflicts on a person? Schizophrenia is a chronic and extremely severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, behaves, and feels. Schizophrenia patients seem like they are not aware of reality. The condition requires lifelong treatment, even after the symptoms leave. There are various types of treatments, which are used for schizophrenic patients. The treatment is usually guided by an experienced psychiatrist.

The various modes of treatments are as follows:
Medications: Medications are very important for the treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs are most commonly used. They help in managing the symptoms by affecting dopamine. Treatment using antipsychotic drugs aims at managing the symptoms effectively. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are also used for treatment. Several weeks are required for these medicines to show results. Most of the medications used for schizophrenia treatment are associated with severe side effects and are thus avoided by many people. The patient’s cooperation with treatment determines the choice of drug.

  • First generation antipsychotics: These medicines are associated with adverse neurological side effects, such as the possibility of developing tardive dyskinesia, which is an irreversible movement disorder.
  • Second generation antipsychotics: These medicines are preferred because of the lower risk of adverse side effects on the body than first generation medicines.

Psychological interventions: When the patient’s psychosis decreases, psychological and psychosocial interventions are required. They include the following:

  • Individual therapy: Psychotherapy is important for normalizing a patient’s regular thought patterns. Learning about ways to deal with stress, and identifying warning signs can help patients manage their condition better.
  • Social skills training: This aims at improving a schizophrenic person’s social interactions, communication and his/her ability to take part in daily activities.
  • Family therapyFamily therapy is important for educating the families of schizophrenic patients about the disorder, and let them know about the ways to deal with it.

Vocational rehabilitation and supported employments: Most people with schizophrenia need some kind of daily living support. Programs are offered by several communities and self-help groups for helping schizophrenic people with housing, jobs, crisis situations. With proper treatment, most schizophrenic people manage to deal with their symptoms and illness.

Hospitalization: During emergency or crisis periods of extreme symptoms, a patient may need to be hospitalized to get proper nutrition, basic hygiene, sufficient sleep, and safety.
Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT is carried out for schizophrenic patients who do not respond to drug treatment. This therapy is also beneficial for patients who have got depression. It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of schizophrenia. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Popular Questions & Answers

I am 27 years woman. I have pcod. My question is that my psychiatric Dr. P prescribed qutipin 25 but my gynecologist prescribed lonazep 1. which would I take for sleep?

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DCN -Diploma in Clinical Nutrition, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Noida
Hello Lybrate-User, if you have only sleep disorder I think lonazep will be better but if you have other psychiatric issues you should go by the prescription of psychiatrist as qutipin is used for mood disorders and schizophrenia.
3 people found this helpful

Hi, I want to take himalaya mentat tablets. Is that going to be a problem with taking it with clonazepam? I have paranoid schizophrenia, ocd and asperger and take anti psychotics and anti depressants. My doctor said it was okay to take it but I saw it wasn't.

PGDRP Rehabilitation Psychology , M.A Clinical Psychology, Certificate in Guidance and Counselling (CGC)
Psychologist, Agra
No you can take along with clonazepam but try to reduce dose of clonazepum after 1 week if you need further information about it call me. Psychotherapy sessions would also effective way to treat schizophrenia along with medicine.
1 person found this helpful

My brother he is having psychotic disorders (schizophrenia) from past 5 years, with consultation to a doctor we are giving him sizodon 3 and sizopin 50 (power varies) from past 3 years, but he is showing signs of no recovery, sometimes he is good in behavior and sometimes he is very bad, speaking unnecessary things, at times due to this my father unknowingly had to break the dosage, we are planning to see him more good places like Bangalore and vellore.

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear lybrate-user, schizophrenia is a chronic lifelong disorder. The drugs need to be given for a long term. Since your brother is young, he needs rehabilitation from now itself along with drugs. Sometimes he is bad means, that family has high expressed emotions. Continuous drugging is important - otherwise relapse will occur. Relapses take longer time to bring him under control. All these can not be done with your visit to bangalore or vellore. There is no one time cure. Your own psychiatrist will be able to manage with regular drugs and adjustment of dose. It is better to put him in your place in some college or job to keep him occupied. Spend your money for his future. Rather than the trips.
1 person found this helpful

Hi, I am from bangladesh. I am suffering from schizophrenia for last 5 years. I am taking telazine 5 mg, perkinil 5 mg, tofranil 25 mg, qutipin sr 200 and pantonix 20 under a psychiatrist in my country. I have hallucinations, dilutions, studying problems (when I try to read a book I don't understand), feeling someone controls me etc. What do you suggest me to do?

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear Lybrate-User, how much telazine, are you taking? It should be adequate dose, may be 15 mg, to control hallucinations and delusions. Please consult with psychiatrist of your country again. She/he may increase the dose for better benefit or may change the drugs to second generation antipsychotics like risperidone, olanzapine, etc. All psychiatrists study the same books and treat similarly - whether bangladesh or india.
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Table of Content

What is schizophrenia?

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

Play video
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Here is detail about how to live and cooperate with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

Hello! My name is DR. Vikas Khanna and today I ll be talking very briefly about how to live and cope up with problems like Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder. It is especially for the people and family members of the patients who are suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which the patient lives in his own reality, he has his own imagined reality. His behaviors and his actions are totally disassociated with what we call our normal reality. We all have our own set of realities, we perceive the world in through our colored glasses but the reality of schizophrenic patient has no common ground with the world reality. The disease has a very strong genetic disposition and sadly its prognosis is poor.

So how to cope up with it? How to live up with it? Normally we force the patient to fit himself or herself into the reality of the world which is very disturbing for the patient. We are basically perpetuating the conflict by forcing the reality. They cannot change the reality, for them, that s the real world. Can we leave them in their own reality and at least do not aggravate the conflict? Similarly, in bipolar disorder, patients normally have episodes of high and episodes of low but we try to fit their highs into what we call normal. Can we let them enjoy their highs and not struggle with their loss?

If there is any further query, you can approach the platform lybrate and you can pose your question through email or call.
Play video
Know More About Schizophrenia
Mai Dr. Rahul Chandhok mai ek senior consultant psychiatrist hun apnay clinic madhoc clinic mai or dehli ncr mai.

Aaj mai batt karunga schizophrenia k baray mai jo k ek prakar mansik rog hai schizophrenia ki pehchan abi b bhut kam hai takreeban jo humari population hai us mai dekha jata hai or jisko pehchanna mushkil rehta hai. Kyu k ajj b bhut log sochtay hai k schizophrenia k lakshan hai k koi bhoot preet agaya hai, k koi saya agaya hai ya ye log pagal ho gaye hai. Aur inka koi hall nae hai par ye ek aisai bemari hai k wektik ko lagta hai k log meray khilaf hai. Kissi ne muj par jado tona kar diya hai ya usay asazain ati hai jub k asal mai wahan nae hota. Usay lagta hai k tv ya akhbaar mai raha hai to humaray samnadid araha hai. Usaay neend anay mai dikkat hoti hai, concentration wo nahi kar pata, decision wo nahi lay pata, kahi baar to jub halaay bigarh jati hai to ye b hota hai nahana dhona b choot jata hai or apni dekh baal nahi kar pataaa. Aam bhasha mai aisi samasiya ko pagalpann k roop mai dekha jata hai. Par ajj k hissab say agar baat karaain to ilaaj uplapdh hai or koi b weaikti agar sahi samay par iski pehchan ho jaye or iska elaj properly ho jaye to utni he achi jewan wiyakti kar sakta hai jitna ki koi normal wiyakti par samasiya yebati hai k kahi par pehchan honay k bad elaj honay k bad aksar log dawai band kar daitay hai. Us ki waja say bar bar ye bemari lout k ajati hai or unhay lagta hai k shayad elaj sahi nahi ho pata or unhay ye samjnay ki zarurat hai schizophrenia jo bemari hai wo ek parkar say waisay he hai jaisaay kissi ko sugar blood presurd hojaye apko sahi theek awasta mai b dawai khani hoti hai agar ap aisa nahi karaaaain gay to apkay demag mai jo dopami naam ka chemical hai wo fir say bharna shru hojata hai jiss ki waja say bemari hoti hai is elawa agar ap nasheelay substance use kartay jaisay bhang ganja charas ya phir or nashelaay pradan jo apkay demag par asar daltay hai to wo b apkaaaay baaar baar aisay roog k ubhar anaay k chances banay rehtay hai so mai ye samjhana chahunga k schizophrenia ya is prakar ka roog agar apko hogaya hai to uska proper elaaj karwaiya jo phychatris duwara kiya jata hai agar apko lagta hai k han app ne pooja paat karna hai ya kissi baba wagaira k pass jana hai To ap us k sath kar saktay hai par ilaj jo dawa k duwara kiya jata hai ya injection k duwara kiya jata hai usay band na karain agar aisa karain gay to ap khud b acha jewan wiyaktit karain gay or apka pariwar b ziyada sukhi rahay ga humaray pass aksarvaisay marrez hai jo k kafi lambaay samay say is bemari mai theek hai or apna nokri karvrahay hai or apny pariwar k dekh bhal b kar pa rahaain hai.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice