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Schizophrenia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a mental disease that generally appears in a person in early childhood or late adolescence. This mental disorder is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and several other cognitive impairments. Schizophrenia can be a lifelong struggle for people affected with this disease.People suffering from this mental disorder may hear sounds and voices that are not there in reality. Some patients suffering from schizophrenia can feel and even convince themselves that others are reading their minds, plotting against them or controlling how they are thinking.

Schizophrenic patients often remain withdrawn and feel distressed or even act fanatically at times.

People living with schizophrenic patients often find hard to understand what the patient is talking about. In certain instances schizophrenic patient’s remains completely still, without taking for days.On other occasions, schizophrenic patients, when they seem to feel fine, may start explaining what they are truly thinking about.It is a very true fact that the effects of this mental disease reach far beyond the patients themselves. It also affects their friends, families and the society.A sizable proportion of schizophrenic patients have to rely on others for their daily sustenance, since they often become unable to hold any job or take care of themselves.Many schizophrenia patients also resist their treatments as they feel that they are normal, and there is nothing wrong with them.

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

However, with proper treatments schizophrenic patients can also lead a productive life. But they are very few, since most of the schizophrenic patients have to cope with their symptoms throughout their lives.In many cases this mental disorder develops so slowly that the patient doesn’t even get the chance to know it, that they are schizophrenic for many years. Nevertheless, there are also many sufferers of this illness where they have schizophrenic all of a sudden.This disease affects approximately 1% of the global population. Experts on this disease say that this mental malady is probably several illnesses masquerading as one. Many others also say that schizophrenia may be the result of impaired neuronal development in the fetus’ brain, which later on in their lives emerges as full blown illness.

There are several evidences that suggests that environmental factors and genetic factors both acts together in bringing about this tragic and interminable disease. Which means, that the condition has and congenital inherited element, but it is also significantly triggered by environmental factors upon the patient.People who have no history of schizophrenia in their family, have less than 1% chance of getting affected by this illness, compared to people with a history of schizophrenia among their patients, where the risk is as high as 10%.

Some of the experts on this disease suggest that imbalance of a neurotransmitter known as dopamine, is involved in the onset of this mental disease. However, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin can also be involved in heralding this disease.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Having delusions of persecution or delusions of grandeur, where the patients feel that have extraordinary powers and gifts. Wide range of hallucination, such as hearing voices, smelling things that do no exists. Though disorder, where the patient may jump from one subject to another for no logical cause. Being unaware of the illness, or fear that the medications may poison them. Poor or inappropriate expressions of emotions. Inability to concentrate, plan ahead or remember things and organize their lives.

Popular Health Tips

Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

Both schizophrenia and autism are considered to be neurological disorders resulting from atypical neural development, occurring due to a variety of causes. Both these disorders have a genetic predisposition that may be due to environmental factors. However, there are a few basic differences between the two disease conditions.

Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a spectrum of abnormal behaviour. They include persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities.

Signs of autism in babies

  1. By 6 months - No social smiles or other warm, joyful expressions; limited to no eye contact
  2. By 9 months - No sharing of vocal sounds
  3. By 12 months - No babbling or use of gestures to communicate; not responding to one’s name when called
  4. By 16 months - No use of words
  5. By 24 months - No meaningful or two-word phrases

Signs of autism at any age

  1. Avoids eye contact and wants to be alone
  2. Finds it difficult to understand other people’s feelings
  3. Speaks very less or has delayed language development
  4. Echolalia - Repeats words or phrases
  5. Cannot accept change in routine or surroundings
  6. Performs repetitive behaviours like flapping or rocking
  7. Has restricted interests and hobbies
  8. Reacts unusually intense to sounds, smells, tastes, lights, colours etc.

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that begins during late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavioural changes that cause social and occupational dysfunctions.

Signs of Schizophrenia

  1. The symptoms of schizophrenia are usually observed between ages 16 and 30, such as e.g. delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, movement disorders etc.
  2. Delusions are false beliefs of the patient that may take many forms like delusions of persecution or grandeur. You may feel somebody is controlling you or may think you have extraordinary powers and abilities.
  3. Hallucinations are when the patient hears voices more than seeing, feeling, tasting or smelling random things, which are not actually there.
  4. Thought disorders are when the person jumps from one subject to another for no logical reason.
  5. Some negative symptoms i.e. these are symptoms which are normally present in a healthy individual, but are absent in a schizophrenic patient. E.g. absence of facial expressions, lack of motivation etc.
  6. Cognitive symptoms affect the individual’s thought process. They can be positive or negative based on their expression. E.g. poor ‘executive functioning’ which deals with the ability to understand information and make decisions using them, finding it difficult to focus etc.
  7. Although both Autsim spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are interlinked in their causes and neurological background, the symptoms for each disorder are different.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3891 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Psychiatrist, Ranchi
Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Are you aware of the schizophrenia and the adverse effects it inflicts on a person? Schizophrenia is a chronic and extremely severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, behaves, and feels. Schizophrenia patients seem like they are not aware of reality. The condition requires lifelong treatment, even after the symptoms leave. There are various types of treatments, which are used for schizophrenic patients. The treatment is usually guided by an experienced psychiatrist.

The various modes of treatments are as follows:
Medications: Medications are very important for the treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs are most commonly used. They help in managing the symptoms by affecting dopamine. Treatment using antipsychotic drugs aims at managing the symptoms effectively. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are also used for treatment. Several weeks are required for these medicines to show results. Most of the medications used for schizophrenia treatment are associated with severe side effects and are thus avoided by many people. The patient’s cooperation with treatment determines the choice of drug.

  • First generation antipsychotics: These medicines are associated with adverse neurological side effects, such as the possibility of developing tardive dyskinesia, which is an irreversible movement disorder.
  • Second generation antipsychotics: These medicines are preferred because of the lower risk of adverse side effects on the body than first generation medicines.

Psychological interventions: When the patient’s psychosis decreases, psychological and psychosocial interventions are required. They include the following:

  • Individual therapy: Psychotherapy is important for normalizing a patient’s regular thought patterns. Learning about ways to deal with stress, and identifying warning signs can help patients manage their condition better.
  • Social skills training: This aims at improving a schizophrenic person’s social interactions, communication and his/her ability to take part in daily activities.
  • Family therapy: Family therapy is important for educating the families of schizophrenic patients about the disorder, and let them know about the ways to deal with it.

Vocational rehabilitation and supported employments: Most people with schizophrenia need some kind of daily living support. Programs are offered by several communities and self-help groups for helping schizophrenic people with housing, jobs, crisis situations. With proper treatment, most schizophrenic people manage to deal with their symptoms and illness.

Hospitalization: During emergency or crisis periods of extreme symptoms, a patient may need to be hospitalized to get proper nutrition, basic hygiene, sufficient sleep, and safety.
Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT is carried out for schizophrenic patients who do not respond to drug treatment. This therapy is also beneficial for patients who have got depression. It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of schizophrenia. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2386 people found this helpful

Paranoid Personality Disorder - 12 Signs A Person Is Suffering From It!

MBBS, MD-Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Allahabad

The mind is a very intricate organ and controls the entire body functioning with great precision. Any small change in its wiring would mean changes in the way a person functions, including changes of emotions and feelings.

There is a group of personality disorders known as “cluster A” personality disorders. One of the most common forms in this is a paranoid personality disorder, also known as PPD. The onset of the problem is in early adulthood and men are more likely to have this condition as compared to females. People with paranoid personality disorder are very odd or have eccentric ways of thinking. The most common way of thinking is suspicion with no reason to do so.


  1. They are always on watch or guard and believe that others are out to harm or demean them.
  2. Their belief and distrust are often unfounded, and they find it very difficult to form close relationships, either at work or at home.
  3. There is always a doubt in terms of other people’s commitment and trust, and believe that others are out to use them and often end up deceiving them
  4. Find it very difficult to confide in people, and think the information they tell others may be used against them.
  5. They are always known to hold grudges from past experiences and find it very difficult to forgive others
  6. They are not open to criticism and are extremely sensitive to what others think of them or tell them
  7. Try to read between the lines and interpret more than the obvious
  8. They are very quick to retaliate and think others are constantly attacking what they say and/or do
  9. There is a constant thread of suspicion especially of their spouses or partners, which would be completely unfounded, and add unwanted strain on the relationships
  10. Refrain from forming close relationships and keep some distance even in close relationships. They are generally cold and can be jealous and controlling of their near and dear ones
  11. Firmly believe that their thoughts and words and actions are always right and do not believe in conflict resolution. They are usually argumentative, hostile, and stubborn
  12. They always present as tense and cannot relax very easily

Causes: There is usually a past history of emotional or physical abuse, which is unresolved, leading to these symptoms. Hypnosis, which is often used to diagnose the condition, is very helpful in identifying the cause.

Diagnosis: There are specific assessment tools and questionnaires which are useful in confirming the diagnosis.

Management: Psychotherapy where the person is taught to manage the above feelings and taught to communicate and cope with others. This is often combined with antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antipsychotics.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2685 people found this helpful

Hallucinations - Who Is Likely To Suffer From Them?

MBBS, MD-Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Allahabad
Hallucinations - Who Is Likely To Suffer From Them?

Be it sound or smell, vision or touch or taste, our senses help us experience the world around us. The brain always responds when there is a stimulus. So, we see an object, hear a sound, feel something, etc. When there is no stimulus, but there is still a response, it is hallucinations. This sense of something which is not real is by definition hallucinations. This could be related to past experiences or our deep inner feelings and is much more common than we think.

Most psychiatry disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and other forms of dementia start off as hallucinations.

  1. Migraines usually are accompanied by visual aura.
  2. Brain tumors can cause different types of hallucinations depending on where it is located and the corresponding area it is affecting.
  3. Epilepsy also depends on the type of seizure, different hallucinations would be seen.


  1. Visual: Seeing things which are not there, for instance, flashes of light, insects crawling on self or another person, someone standing where no one is there, etc.
  2. Auditory: The affected individual could hear voices coming from inside himself or from outside. These voices could be giving instructions to the person, calling out to him/her, or be talking to each other.
  3. Olfactory: Again, these imaginary smells could be coming from within the person or from an external source.
  4. Tactile: The affected person could feel a rush of hot air being blown, feeling of insects crawling on the body, feeling of being tickled, etc.
  5. Gustatory (taste): When something is eaten, it could taste like something completely different, which is very odd. This could be related to some past experience in some people.

Hallucinations are initial symptoms of the onset of psychiatric disorders. In fact, most of these are insidious in onset, where it cannot be exactly identified when the disease began. Therefore, if a person has hallucinations for prolonged periods, and if they are progressing, it is best to get more testing done.

Other symptoms include:

  1. Confused thoughts
  2. Disorganized speech
  3. Incoherently speech
  4. Reduced social interactions

Who is likely to experience hallucinations?

  1. A person who gets very anxious, even about small things, a fear of losing touch with reality
  2. People with migraine headaches. These suffer visual hallucinations very commonly and may also have auditory hallucinations.
  3. Children who are having a fever. They might see or hear something which is not real.
  4. People on illegal drugs like amphetamines, LSD, and Ecstacy. In fact, this is what creates addiction.
  5. Sudden withdrawal from alcohol or drugs. It is always advisable to withdraw from illicit drugs under supervision as hallucinations are very common.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2778 people found this helpful

Schizophrenia - Common Problems Faced By A Person Suffering From It!

MS - Psychotherapy & Counselling
Psychologist, Chennai
Schizophrenia - Common Problems Faced By A Person Suffering From It!

Schizophrenia is a very serious psychological disorder which influences how a person feels, thinks, acts and reacts. A patient suffering from schizophrenia may experience issues recognising what is real and what is nonexistent; might be lethargic or unresponsive, and may experience issues communicating ordinary feelings in social situations.

The reason for schizophrenia is still hazy. A few theories and speculations about the reason for this disorder include genes (hereditary qualities), biology of the body (the unevenness in the brain’s functioning); or persistent viral infections and immune disorders. Some of the problems faced by schizophrenics are as follows:

  1. Delusions: People may feel that somebody is keeping an eye on him or her, or that they are somebody well known and famous.
  2. Development and movement problems: These include behaving in a strange manner, pacing around, posturing or shaking forward and backwards for no reason.
  3. Thought issue: Jumping from one topic to another in an unreasonable manner is also one of the symptoms or challenges of this condition. People may make up their own particular words or sounds.
  4. Hallucinating: Seeing, smelling, tasting, hearing or feeling something that does not generally exist. The most widely recognised symptom is listening to nonexistent voices that give orders or commands to the patients.
  5. Absence of feelings and emotions: An irregular feeling or expression may be experienced. For instance, crying at a joke when a typical reaction would be to laugh at it.

Despite these, some of the other very common problems faced by schizophrenic patients are as follows:

  1. Social withdrawal from family and friends
  2. Problems affecting in the ordinary exercises of life, for example, at work or school
  3. Poor hygiene and lack of cleanliness
  4. Mental shock
  5. Loss of proper sentence formation
  6. Issues deciding
  7. Overlooking or losing things
  8. Issues understanding ordinary sights, sounds, and sentiments.
  9. Moving rapidly starting with one thought then onto the next.
  10. Pacing and strolling in circles
  11. Unreasonable written work, yet without any meaning.

A person with schizophrenia is twice as likely to end up diabetic or experience the ill effects of the chronic obstructive pneumonia disease (COPD) than the general population. Individuals with schizophrenia regularly commit the normal error of attempting to overlook the sickness thinking that it does not exist.

Schizophrenia has crushed a considerable amount of lives throughout the years. The indications of schizophrenia can be exceptionally scary and unnerving. There are different treatment techniques that one can access to improve the lives of the people who experience the ill effects of schizophrenia. Treatment of schizophrenia has, however essentially enhanced throughout the years, and there is no motivation to trust that it will not keep on doing so. In case that you or someone close to you has schizophrenia, look for treatment in light of the fact that your odds of recovery are good and your odds of change are great. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychologist.

4043 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I was diagnosed for schizophrenia, Its been 5 years taking tablet. I can't memorize anything in my study. I can not concentrate in studies. Please help me to recover from that state.

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
Dear Lybrate user. I can understand. Memory and mind power depends on three aspects. Understanding, retention and recollection. Recollection is easy if your retention is proper and flawless. Retention is possible when you are able understand what you read or learn. To understand you should have concentration. Concentration comes from effective learning techniques based on creative and active learning. Physical exercise, outdoor games, entertainment, socializing coupled with systematic learning improves your memory and mind power. Vegetables, fruits and nuts are perfect for memory. Brain games like sudoku and jigsaw puzzles helps too. Avocados, Beetroots, Blueberries, Broccoli. Celery, Coconut Oil, Dark Chocolate etc are good for improving concentration and memory. I suggest online education counseling. Take care.
1 person found this helpful

29 year old male, has schizophrenia for the past 5 years, taking clozapine 50 mg amisulpride 1200 mg. Want to reduce the dosage. How to taper off it? Will reducing dosage affect in a negative way?

MD - Psychiatry, Diploma in Psychological Medicine-DPM, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
As schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder. Reducing or tappering of dosages may result in relapse. So tappering and dosage adjustment must be done under a guidance of psychiatrist only.
2 people found this helpful

I'm 22 years old male. I had been on a dose of soltus 50 for the previous four months but a few days ago my doctor changed my meds to Salmiride od 50 mg. Both of them are amisulpride 50 mg. What is the difference and why did my doctor change it? And also what is the difference between sustained release tablets and controlled release tablets?

MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
Doctor can change them to alter the same drug having some kind of resistance or drug duration change as desired based on clinical evaluation. It is common and wise to follow the same. All the best
1 person found this helpful

I am 23/Male. Taking treatment of Schizophrenia from past 3 1/2 years. Now, I am suffering from Memory and Concentration problem. Want to study B.A. In Psychology. Pls. Tell me clinical Psychology is good for my health or not.

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
Schizophrenia is a very complex and difficult disease top cope up with. Therefore studying psychology can add to your confusion and increase yoru distress especially when you are in the early stages of your condition. The first achievement you need to aim for is your stability for a fairly long time. when you feel well in control of your thoughts and emotions, it will be a good sign to then pursue these courses.

Table of Content

What is schizophrenia?

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

Play video
Know More About Schizophrenia
Mai Dr. Rahul Chandhok mai ek senior consultant psychiatrist hun apnay clinic madhoc clinic mai or dehli ncr mai.

Aaj mai batt karunga schizophrenia k baray mai jo k ek prakar mansik rog hai schizophrenia ki pehchan abi b bhut kam hai takreeban jo humari population hai us mai dekha jata hai or jisko pehchanna mushkil rehta hai. Kyu k ajj b bhut log sochtay hai k schizophrenia k lakshan hai k koi bhoot preet agaya hai, k koi saya agaya hai ya ye log pagal ho gaye hai. Aur inka koi hall nae hai par ye ek aisai bemari hai k wektik ko lagta hai k log meray khilaf hai. Kissi ne muj par jado tona kar diya hai ya usay asazain ati hai jub k asal mai wahan nae hota. Usay lagta hai k tv ya akhbaar mai raha hai to humaray samnadid araha hai. Usaay neend anay mai dikkat hoti hai, concentration wo nahi kar pata, decision wo nahi lay pata, kahi baar to jub halaay bigarh jati hai to ye b hota hai nahana dhona b choot jata hai or apni dekh baal nahi kar pataaa. Aam bhasha mai aisi samasiya ko pagalpann k roop mai dekha jata hai. Par ajj k hissab say agar baat karaain to ilaaj uplapdh hai or koi b weaikti agar sahi samay par iski pehchan ho jaye or iska elaj properly ho jaye to utni he achi jewan wiyakti kar sakta hai jitna ki koi normal wiyakti par samasiya yebati hai k kahi par pehchan honay k bad elaj honay k bad aksar log dawai band kar daitay hai. Us ki waja say bar bar ye bemari lout k ajati hai or unhay lagta hai k shayad elaj sahi nahi ho pata or unhay ye samjnay ki zarurat hai schizophrenia jo bemari hai wo ek parkar say waisay he hai jaisaay kissi ko sugar blood presurd hojaye apko sahi theek awasta mai b dawai khani hoti hai agar ap aisa nahi karaaaain gay to apkay demag mai jo dopami naam ka chemical hai wo fir say bharna shru hojata hai jiss ki waja say bemari hoti hai is elawa agar ap nasheelay substance use kartay jaisay bhang ganja charas ya phir or nashelaay pradan jo apkay demag par asar daltay hai to wo b apkaaaay baaar baar aisay roog k ubhar anaay k chances banay rehtay hai so mai ye samjhana chahunga k schizophrenia ya is prakar ka roog agar apko hogaya hai to uska proper elaaj karwaiya jo phychatris duwara kiya jata hai agar apko lagta hai k han app ne pooja paat karna hai ya kissi baba wagaira k pass jana hai To ap us k sath kar saktay hai par ilaj jo dawa k duwara kiya jata hai ya injection k duwara kiya jata hai usay band na karain agar aisa karain gay to ap khud b acha jewan wiyaktit karain gay or apka pariwar b ziyada sukhi rahay ga humaray pass aksarvaisay marrez hai jo k kafi lambaay samay say is bemari mai theek hai or apna nokri karvrahay hai or apny pariwar k dekh bhal b kar pa rahaain hai.

Play video
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Here is detail about how to live and cooperate with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

Hello! My name is DR. Vikas Khanna and today I ll be talking very briefly about how to live and cope up with problems like Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder. It is especially for the people and family members of the patients who are suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which the patient lives in his own reality, he has his own imagined reality. His behaviors and his actions are totally disassociated with what we call our normal reality. We all have our own set of realities, we perceive the world in through our colored glasses but the reality of schizophrenic patient has no common ground with the world reality. The disease has a very strong genetic disposition and sadly its prognosis is poor.

So how to cope up with it? How to live up with it? Normally we force the patient to fit himself or herself into the reality of the world which is very disturbing for the patient. We are basically perpetuating the conflict by forcing the reality. They cannot change the reality, for them, that s the real world. Can we leave them in their own reality and at least do not aggravate the conflict? Similarly, in bipolar disorder, patients normally have episodes of high and episodes of low but we try to fit their highs into what we call normal. Can we let them enjoy their highs and not struggle with their loss?

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