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Schizophrenia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a mental disease that generally appears in a person in early childhood or late adolescence. This mental disorder is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and several other cognitive impairments. Schizophrenia can be a lifelong struggle for people affected with this disease.People suffering from this mental disorder may hear sounds and voices that are not there in reality. Some patients suffering from schizophrenia can feel and even convince themselves that others are reading their minds, plotting against them or controlling how they are thinking.

Schizophrenic patients often remain withdrawn and feel distressed or even act fanatically at times.

People living with schizophrenic patients often find hard to understand what the patient is talking about. In certain instances schizophrenic patient’s remains completely still, without taking for days.On other occasions, schizophrenic patients, when they seem to feel fine, may start explaining what they are truly thinking about.It is a very true fact that the effects of this mental disease reach far beyond the patients themselves. It also affects their friends, families and the society.A sizable proportion of schizophrenic patients have to rely on others for their daily sustenance, since they often become unable to hold any job or take care of themselves.Many schizophrenia patients also resist their treatments as they feel that they are normal, and there is nothing wrong with them.

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

However, with proper treatments schizophrenic patients can also lead a productive life. But they are very few, since most of the schizophrenic patients have to cope with their symptoms throughout their lives.In many cases this mental disorder develops so slowly that the patient doesn’t even get the chance to know it, that they are schizophrenic for many years. Nevertheless, there are also many sufferers of this illness where they have schizophrenic all of a sudden.This disease affects approximately 1% of the global population. Experts on this disease say that this mental malady is probably several illnesses masquerading as one. Many others also say that schizophrenia may be the result of impaired neuronal development in the fetus’ brain, which later on in their lives emerges as full blown illness.

There are several evidences that suggests that environmental factors and genetic factors both acts together in bringing about this tragic and interminable disease. Which means, that the condition has and congenital inherited element, but it is also significantly triggered by environmental factors upon the patient.People who have no history of schizophrenia in their family, have less than 1% chance of getting affected by this illness, compared to people with a history of schizophrenia among their patients, where the risk is as high as 10%.

Some of the experts on this disease suggest that imbalance of a neurotransmitter known as dopamine, is involved in the onset of this mental disease. However, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin can also be involved in heralding this disease.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Having delusions of persecution or delusions of grandeur, where the patients feel that have extraordinary powers and gifts. Wide range of hallucination, such as hearing voices, smelling things that do no exists. Though disorder, where the patient may jump from one subject to another for no logical cause. Being unaware of the illness, or fear that the medications may poison them. Poor or inappropriate expressions of emotions. Inability to concentrate, plan ahead or remember things and organize their lives.

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Schizophrenia - How Does The Condition Manifests?

M. Phil Clinical Psychology, Ph.D - Psychology, MA - Applied Psychology, Post Graduate Diploma In Coaching
Psychologist, Delhi
Schizophrenia - How Does The Condition Manifests?

Genetics is a fascinating subject which has received much attention during present times in the field of medical science as it gives the solutions to many a puzzle. The same applies to the hard to pronounce medical term ‘schizophrenia’ that refers to a mental disorder which disrupts the innate human ability to feel, express, behave, and think clearly.

The condition is a chronic illness, and the disorder may last for years or even a lifetime. Often considered to be the most disabling of mental illnesses, schizophrenia does not refer to multiple or split-personalities. It is more about psychosis where patients become unable to differentiate between reality and fiction.

How does the condition manifest itself?
The symptoms of schizophrenia are rendered into three categories. The positive signs include delusions, hallucination, movement disorders, and dysfunctional, and unusual ways of thought. The negative symptoms include the inability to experience happiness or pleasure in everyday life, reduced talking, and difficulty in sustaining or beginning any activity. While ‘positive’ means exaggerating certain behavior in this context, the term ‘negative’ does not imply bad behavior, but the absence of regular behavior patterns. Then follows the cognitive aspect (the subtlest behavior changes) which includes trouble in paying attention, or problems with using memory, etc.

What could be the possible causes?
There’s no specific reason that may cause schizophrenia; however, some factors play an important role in making a person have this mental condition. Various environmental factors are suspected to be responsible for the condition; these may include viral infections, excessive exposure to toxins like marijuana, extreme stress, etc. In some instances, schizophrenia can occur solely due to abnormalities or chemical imbalances in the brain. Experts note that a history of schizophrenia in the family tree can increase the risk of schizophrenia in future generations.

Who can develop schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia can develop at any age. However, it is during the teenage years or the 20s when the condition takes effect. Though rare, it can sometimes invade the minds of children below five years of age.

How can it be treated?
There’s no cure available for schizophrenia. However, the periods of recovery from this illness and its symptoms can be reduced through various possible treatments. These include medication and psychosocial therapy, supportive psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery. The administration of these procedures can reduce the chances of recurrence and relapse. Sometimes hospitalization may become necessary as a part of treatment to stabilize patients that do not have anyone to take care of them at home.

Modern medicine is yet to discover failsafe remedies for schizophrenia. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the condition in patients. Hospitalization can reduce the chances of a relapse and can prevent the mental condition from worsening. The moment any sign of schizophrenia is noticed, one is strongly advised to opt for psychological treatment. These actions can help to reduce disruptions in a patient’s personal and social life.

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Schizophrenia - 5 Types & Their Signs!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Schizophrenia - 5 Types & Their Signs!

When you hear the word “schizophrenia”, the first thing that comes to mind are those serial killers shown on the TV or you call it split personality. But that is not the true meaning of it. It is not split personality or some kind of violent illness. Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental illness which makes it difficult to differentiate between what is real and what is false.

As this is a mental illness, you will not be able to see any changes physically. You need to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia in order to know if a person is suffering from this problem. There are different kinds of symptoms that are used for diagnosing schizophrenia, but they all differ from person to person. Also, the symptoms that you see now, may not be seen later as the disease progresses. There are different types of schizophrenia and each has different symptoms.

Here is a list of the different types of schizophrenia and the most predominant and significant symptoms of each type.

  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: People suffering from paranoid schizophrenia are characterized by strong auditory hallucinations and of being persecuted. However, they are very normal and function normally. But they are not ready to discuss their feelings openly and the symptoms are not observable. Other symptoms include anger, hostility and disorganized speech.
  2. Disorganized Schizophrenia: As the name suggests, people with disorganized schizophrenia exhibit disorganized thoughts. Delusions and hallucination may not be seen in this type of schizophrenia. The behavior of the affected person is quite disorganized or it is difficult to understand what they are saying. In fact, some emotions exhibited by the affected person are hard to understand or they are not at all relevant to the current situation. Their daily routine and activities will also be affected.
  3. Catatonic Schizophrenia: People with catatonic schizophrenia are characterized by increased or decreased movement. This symptom actually varies from person to person. Some people stay at a place for a long time without any kind of movement and some people keep moving for hours and do not stop. They do not speak for hours and sometimes they keep repeating the same thing over and over again. This has to be treated immediately as they will not be able to manage even their daily routine with this kind of behavior.
  4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Undifferentiated schizophrenia is a condition where the symptoms do not fall into any of the above three types. You will also be able to observe hallucinations, delusions, anger, disorganized speech or catatonic behavior.
  5. Residual Schizophrenia: As the name suggests, it is the residue of schizophrenia behavior, but it is less severe as compared to the past. Delusions, hallucination and disorganized speech may still be present but compared to the past, the patient would be doing better.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Autism & Schizophrenia - What Is The Difference?

Both schizophrenia and autism are considered to be neurological disorders resulting from atypical neural development, occurring due to a variety of causes. Both these disorders have a genetic predisposition that may be due to environmental factors. However, there are a few basic differences between the two disease conditions.

Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a spectrum of abnormal behaviour. They include persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities.

Signs of autism in babies

  1. By 6 months - No social smiles or other warm, joyful expressions; limited to no eye contact
  2. By 9 months - No sharing of vocal sounds
  3. By 12 months - No babbling or use of gestures to communicate; not responding to one’s name when called
  4. By 16 months - No use of words
  5. By 24 months - No meaningful or two-word phrases

Signs of autism at any age

  1. Avoids eye contact and wants to be alone
  2. Finds it difficult to understand other people’s feelings
  3. Speaks very less or has delayed language development
  4. Echolalia - Repeats words or phrases
  5. Cannot accept change in routine or surroundings
  6. Performs repetitive behaviours like flapping or rocking
  7. Has restricted interests and hobbies
  8. Reacts unusually intense to sounds, smells, tastes, lights, colours etc.

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that begins during late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavioural changes that cause social and occupational dysfunctions.

Signs of Schizophrenia

  1. The symptoms of schizophrenia are usually observed between ages 16 and 30, such as e.g. delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, movement disorders etc.
  2. Delusions are false beliefs of the patient that may take many forms like delusions of persecution or grandeur. You may feel somebody is controlling you or may think you have extraordinary powers and abilities.
  3. Hallucinations are when the patient hears voices more than seeing, feeling, tasting or smelling random things, which are not actually there.
  4. Thought disorders are when the person jumps from one subject to another for no logical reason.
  5. Some negative symptoms i.e. these are symptoms which are normally present in a healthy individual, but are absent in a schizophrenic patient. E.g. absence of facial expressions, lack of motivation etc.
  6. Cognitive symptoms affect the individual’s thought process. They can be positive or negative based on their expression. E.g. poor ‘executive functioning’ which deals with the ability to understand information and make decisions using them, finding it difficult to focus etc.
  7. Although both Autsim spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are interlinked in their causes and neurological background, the symptoms for each disorder are different.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Psychiatrist, Ranchi
Schizophrenia - Different Modes Of Treatment That Are Followed!

Are you aware of the schizophrenia and the adverse effects it inflicts on a person? Schizophrenia is a chronic and extremely severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, behaves, and feels. Schizophrenia patients seem like they are not aware of reality. The condition requires lifelong treatment, even after the symptoms leave. There are various types of treatments, which are used for schizophrenic patients. The treatment is usually guided by an experienced psychiatrist.

The various modes of treatments are as follows:
Medications: Medications are very important for the treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs are most commonly used. They help in managing the symptoms by affecting dopamine. Treatment using antipsychotic drugs aims at managing the symptoms effectively. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are also used for treatment. Several weeks are required for these medicines to show results. Most of the medications used for schizophrenia treatment are associated with severe side effects and are thus avoided by many people. The patient’s cooperation with treatment determines the choice of drug.

  • First generation antipsychotics: These medicines are associated with adverse neurological side effects, such as the possibility of developing tardive dyskinesia, which is an irreversible movement disorder.
  • Second generation antipsychotics: These medicines are preferred because of the lower risk of adverse side effects on the body than first generation medicines.

Psychological interventions: When the patient’s psychosis decreases, psychological and psychosocial interventions are required. They include the following:

  • Individual therapy: Psychotherapy is important for normalizing a patient’s regular thought patterns. Learning about ways to deal with stress, and identifying warning signs can help patients manage their condition better.
  • Social skills training: This aims at improving a schizophrenic person’s social interactions, communication and his/her ability to take part in daily activities.
  • Family therapyFamily therapy is important for educating the families of schizophrenic patients about the disorder, and let them know about the ways to deal with it.

Vocational rehabilitation and supported employments: Most people with schizophrenia need some kind of daily living support. Programs are offered by several communities and self-help groups for helping schizophrenic people with housing, jobs, crisis situations. With proper treatment, most schizophrenic people manage to deal with their symptoms and illness.

Hospitalization: During emergency or crisis periods of extreme symptoms, a patient may need to be hospitalized to get proper nutrition, basic hygiene, sufficient sleep, and safety.
Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT is carried out for schizophrenic patients who do not respond to drug treatment. This therapy is also beneficial for patients who have got depression. It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of schizophrenia. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Paranoid Personality Disorder - 12 Signs A Person Is Suffering From It!

MBBS, MD-Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Allahabad

The mind is a very intricate organ and controls the entire body functioning with great precision. Any small change in its wiring would mean changes in the way a person functions, including changes of emotions and feelings.

There is a group of personality disorders known as “cluster A” personality disorders. One of the most common forms in this is a paranoid personality disorder, also known as PPD. The onset of the problem is in early adulthood and men are more likely to have this condition as compared to females. People with paranoid personality disorder are very odd or have eccentric ways of thinking. The most common way of thinking is suspicion with no reason to do so.


  1. They are always on watch or guard and believe that others are out to harm or demean them.
  2. Their belief and distrust are often unfounded, and they find it very difficult to form close relationships, either at work or at home.
  3. There is always a doubt in terms of other people’s commitment and trust, and believe that others are out to use them and often end up deceiving them
  4. Find it very difficult to confide in people, and think the information they tell others may be used against them.
  5. They are always known to hold grudges from past experiences and find it very difficult to forgive others
  6. They are not open to criticism and are extremely sensitive to what others think of them or tell them
  7. Try to read between the lines and interpret more than the obvious
  8. They are very quick to retaliate and think others are constantly attacking what they say and/or do
  9. There is a constant thread of suspicion especially of their spouses or partners, which would be completely unfounded, and add unwanted strain on the relationships
  10. Refrain from forming close relationships and keep some distance even in close relationships. They are generally cold and can be jealous and controlling of their near and dear ones
  11. Firmly believe that their thoughts and words and actions are always right and do not believe in conflict resolution. They are usually argumentative, hostile, and stubborn
  12. They always present as tense and cannot relax very easily

Causes: There is usually a past history of emotional or physical abuse, which is unresolved, leading to these symptoms. Hypnosis, which is often used to diagnose the condition, is very helpful in identifying the cause.

Diagnosis: There are specific assessment tools and questionnaires which are useful in confirming the diagnosis.

Management: Psychotherapy where the person is taught to manage the above feelings and taught to communicate and cope with others. This is often combined with antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antipsychotics.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Popular Questions & Answers

What does tablets, qutipin,Risdone ,Zapiz do to schizophrenia patients rather than give a sleep like drugs. Used it for 1 year Not using for years. Felt no difference.

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear lybrate-user, What are the symptoms of schizophrenia you had, hallucinations, delusions or bizarre behaviour or negative symptoms? With adequate dose of risdone, they come under control. I don't know how much of risdone you have taken to find no difference. Usually it is 6-8 mg/day in divided doses. It does not give much sleep. But other side effects may be there. So doctors start with low dose and gradually increase it, if you tolerate it. Qutipin is little sedating and also it controls the symptoms at 600 - 800 mg/day. Again doctors start with low dose so that you don't oversleep. Zapiz is not a drug for schizophrenia. It is an add-on for sleep. If you don't want a sleeping tablet, you can stop zapiz.
1 person found this helpful

Sir I am suffering from schizophrenia doctor prescribed me trinicalm forte along with laser 6 mg, Resneex and sempneex 200 mg (amisulpride tablet. I am not getting any more benefits from especially trinicalm forte please advice me the substitute of this tablet (trinicalm forte)

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear lybrate-user, Trinicalm forte belongs to older first generation antipsychotic. You can replace it with newer second generation antipsychotic like Amisulpride. But the dosage of amisulpride needs to be fixed, depending on your improvement and side effects. Discuss with your psychiatrist about it. May be, she/he is in the process of shifting you from trinicalm forte to amisulpride.

Risdone liquid was given to my husband for at least 10 years by his parents. Now when he got to know he stopped taking it. Could you please tell me side effect of that as these days he is not behaving normally but not accepting it. Mood swings murmuring self laughing is major symptoms.

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear lybrate-user, Risdone was controlling your husband's symptoms of mood swings, murmuring and self laughing. Now risdone is not given, he is having all these symptoms. Please consult a psychiatrist who can prescribe tablets or long acting injectables for your husband. You can ask for side effects of risdone liquid, if it prescribed.
1 person found this helpful

My daughter is suffering with schizophrenia since 4 years. Treatment is continue under the advice of phycatist. Can I discontinue treatment?

MBBS, MD Psychiatry, DNB (Psychiatry)
Psychiatrist, Kolkata
Hello. Imagine if you are driving a ferrari at 100 kmps. Its going by smoothly. Would you suddenly brake for no good reason? Ideally not. Similarly if the pros of the treatment are outweighing the negatives, I urge you to not take such a drastic step. If you are in doubt please take another opinion but DONOT discontinue any medication on your own.

Table of Content

What is schizophrenia?

What Doctors say about Schizophenria :

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Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Here is detail about how to live and cooperate with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

Hello! My name is DR. Vikas Khanna and today I ll be talking very briefly about how to live and cope up with problems like Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder. It is especially for the people and family members of the patients who are suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which the patient lives in his own reality, he has his own imagined reality. His behaviors and his actions are totally disassociated with what we call our normal reality. We all have our own set of realities, we perceive the world in through our colored glasses but the reality of schizophrenic patient has no common ground with the world reality. The disease has a very strong genetic disposition and sadly its prognosis is poor.

So how to cope up with it? How to live up with it? Normally we force the patient to fit himself or herself into the reality of the world which is very disturbing for the patient. We are basically perpetuating the conflict by forcing the reality. They cannot change the reality, for them, that s the real world. Can we leave them in their own reality and at least do not aggravate the conflict? Similarly, in bipolar disorder, patients normally have episodes of high and episodes of low but we try to fit their highs into what we call normal. Can we let them enjoy their highs and not struggle with their loss?

If there is any further query, you can approach the platform lybrate and you can pose your question through email or call.
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Know More About Schizophrenia
Mai Dr. Rahul Chandhok mai ek senior consultant psychiatrist hun apnay clinic madhoc clinic mai or dehli ncr mai.

Aaj mai batt karunga schizophrenia k baray mai jo k ek prakar mansik rog hai schizophrenia ki pehchan abi b bhut kam hai takreeban jo humari population hai us mai dekha jata hai or jisko pehchanna mushkil rehta hai. Kyu k ajj b bhut log sochtay hai k schizophrenia k lakshan hai k koi bhoot preet agaya hai, k koi saya agaya hai ya ye log pagal ho gaye hai. Aur inka koi hall nae hai par ye ek aisai bemari hai k wektik ko lagta hai k log meray khilaf hai. Kissi ne muj par jado tona kar diya hai ya usay asazain ati hai jub k asal mai wahan nae hota. Usay lagta hai k tv ya akhbaar mai raha hai to humaray samnadid araha hai. Usaay neend anay mai dikkat hoti hai, concentration wo nahi kar pata, decision wo nahi lay pata, kahi baar to jub halaay bigarh jati hai to ye b hota hai nahana dhona b choot jata hai or apni dekh baal nahi kar pataaa. Aam bhasha mai aisi samasiya ko pagalpann k roop mai dekha jata hai. Par ajj k hissab say agar baat karaain to ilaaj uplapdh hai or koi b weaikti agar sahi samay par iski pehchan ho jaye or iska elaj properly ho jaye to utni he achi jewan wiyakti kar sakta hai jitna ki koi normal wiyakti par samasiya yebati hai k kahi par pehchan honay k bad elaj honay k bad aksar log dawai band kar daitay hai. Us ki waja say bar bar ye bemari lout k ajati hai or unhay lagta hai k shayad elaj sahi nahi ho pata or unhay ye samjnay ki zarurat hai schizophrenia jo bemari hai wo ek parkar say waisay he hai jaisaay kissi ko sugar blood presurd hojaye apko sahi theek awasta mai b dawai khani hoti hai agar ap aisa nahi karaaaain gay to apkay demag mai jo dopami naam ka chemical hai wo fir say bharna shru hojata hai jiss ki waja say bemari hoti hai is elawa agar ap nasheelay substance use kartay jaisay bhang ganja charas ya phir or nashelaay pradan jo apkay demag par asar daltay hai to wo b apkaaaay baaar baar aisay roog k ubhar anaay k chances banay rehtay hai so mai ye samjhana chahunga k schizophrenia ya is prakar ka roog agar apko hogaya hai to uska proper elaaj karwaiya jo phychatris duwara kiya jata hai agar apko lagta hai k han app ne pooja paat karna hai ya kissi baba wagaira k pass jana hai To ap us k sath kar saktay hai par ilaj jo dawa k duwara kiya jata hai ya injection k duwara kiya jata hai usay band na karain agar aisa karain gay to ap khud b acha jewan wiyaktit karain gay or apka pariwar b ziyada sukhi rahay ga humaray pass aksarvaisay marrez hai jo k kafi lambaay samay say is bemari mai theek hai or apna nokri karvrahay hai or apny pariwar k dekh bhal b kar pa rahaain hai.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice