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Miscarriage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Cost

Last Updated: Feb 29, 2024

What is Miscarriage?

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Miscarriage is the sudden termination of pregnancy which usually occurs before 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is also one of the most common forms of loss of pregnancy. The causes of a miscarriage vary vastly from person to person and may or may not affect future pregnancies. Some causes are even genetic.

Furthermore, gynecological diseases like polycystic ovarian syndrome may also cause miscarriages. More often than not, early miscarriage occurs even before they come to know that they are pregnant. Your body takes a minimum of 2-3 weeks to recover from a miscarriage. In this article, we are going to discuss all that you need to know about miscarriage and miscarriage bleeding.

What are the different types of miscarriages?

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Commonly speaking, there are five types of miscarriages - missed, complete, incomplete, inevitable, or threatened.

Threatened Miscarriage:

A threatened miscarriage is usually the earliest sign of a miscarriage. At this point, you may or may not go through a miscarriage. The symptoms are light vaginal miscarriage bleeding or mild pain in the lower abdomen. However, these ""threatened"" symptoms may or may not result in an actual pregnancy loss. Sometimes, the pain and bleeding tend to go away and you can have a successful pregnancy. If you notice these signs, it is always better to consult a doctor immediately.

Inevitable Miscarriage:

Inevitable miscarriages are sudden miscarriages that proceed after symptoms of threatened miscarriage. The symptoms of inevitable miscarriage include very heavy vaginal bleeding and more painful cramps in the lower abdomen. Also, along with the bleeding, the developing fetus may come out. As the name suggests, this type of miscarriage happens all of a sudden and cannot be prevented.

Incomplete Miscarriage:

Incomplete miscarriages occur when there are bits of pregnancy tissue left behind in the uterus. In other words, an ongoing miscarriage at the time of diagnosis may show an incomplete miscarriage. If it is allowed to proceed naturally, it may take 2-3 weeks for these extra tissues to flush out of your uterus. However, it may also cause an infection. In that case, these extra tissues should be surgically removed by Dilation and Curettage (D&C).

Complete Miscarriage:

It is said to be a complete miscarriage when all the pregnancy tissues are removed from your uterus. Even so, there may be a continuous miscarriage bleeding from your vagina for a few days along with regular or occasional cramps in the lower abdomen.

Missed Miscarriage:

A missed miscarriage is not a very common type of miscarriage. However, when it does happen, the mother does not have any usual signs or symptoms of pregnancy loss. The baby dies in the uterus itself but there is no loss of miscarriage blood or occurrence of pain. This type of miscarriage is not easily diagnosed since it is asymptomatic. Therefore, it is always advisable to have a regular ultrasound during the pregnancy.

What are repeat miscarriages?

Repeat miscarriages are a result of Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is an autoimmune disorder where the body produces proteins responsible for blood clotting. In such a case the fetus dies resulting in repeated miscarriages. If there have been three consecutive miscarriages, it is convenient to say that pregnancy is difficult in the future.

After getting a miscarriage, when should try to be pregnant again?

It usually takes two to three months to recover from an early miscarriage. After at least two normal menstrual cycles, you are good to go for another try at pregnancy. However, it also varies from person to person. Some women may take a while before recovering from a recent miscarriage. Also, emotional well-being is important as well.

Symptoms of Miscarriage

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Before a miscarriage completely takes place there are a number of miscarriage symptoms that may occur during this time. Common symptoms that may occur before or during an early miscarriage:

  • Vaginal spotting
  • Light to heavy miscarriage bleeding from your vagina
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular uterine bleeding
  • Uterine contractions
  • Lower back pain or pelvic pain

Miscarriage Causes

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Most of the time miscarriages happen if the fetus does not develop properly. There are several causes of miscarriage. These causes can be either genetic or situational.

  • Age: Age is one of the most common causes of miscarriage. Women who are more than 35 years of age are prone to such miscarriages during their pregnancy.
  • Previous miscarriages: if a woman has gone through more than three previous miscarriages, it is likely that another miscarriage is about to happen.
  • Genetic anomalies: during fertilization, there are several chromosomal changes that an embryo might go through. Such changes may cause genetic anomalies which result in termination of the pregnancy or in other words, a miscarriage.
  • Uterine problems: Improper implantation as well as other uterine problems the fetus may not attach to the uterine wall as expected. This can cause miscarriages during pregnancy.
  • Other chronic diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid, or any other hormonal disease can also increase the risk of miscarriage.
  • Lifestyle conditions: Habits like smoking consumption of alcohol drugs or some other substances may also lead to miscarriages.

How can you prevent Miscarriage?

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Miscarriage is something that is not controllable. More often than not miscarriage cannot be prevented. However, maintaining a good and healthy lifestyle while you are pregnant can decrease the risk of having a miscarriage. Here are some dos and don'ts that you can follow to avoid pregnancy loss.

  • Get enough sleep
  • Regular exercise
  • Eat healthy and nutritious diets
  • Add seafood to your diet
  • Gain weight smartly
  • Don’t consume alcohol/caffeine
  • Don’t smoke
  • Don’t eat unpasteurized dairy products
  • Don’t consume raw meat
  • Don’t sit in a hot tub for too long

Dos in Miscarriage

  • Do get enough sleep: frequently getting tired during pregnancy is normal. This is why enough sleep is needed during this period. A minimum of 8 to 9 hours of sleep is necessary for a healthy pregnancy.
  • Do regular exercise: Exercising regularly keeps you active throughout these 9 months of pregnancy. It also helps you manage your weight during this time. Yoga is also beneficial for a healthy pregnant woman as well as a healthy baby.
  • Do eat healthy and nutritious diets: a healthy and balanced diet full of nutrients is beneficial for you as well as the growing baby inside you. Therefore, it is advised to eat vegetables, fruits, and proteinaceous foods like eggs and dairy products.
  • Do add seafood to your diet: Seafood like fish is rich in proteins that help in the development of a healthy embryo. They contain a protein called Omega 3 which is known for healthy heart development.
  • Do gain weight smartly: it is important to maintain healthy body proportions during the time of pregnancy. This is why gaining weight smartly is advised.

Don’ts in Miscarriage

  • Don't consume alcohol/caffeine: Consumption of alcohol has been proven to affect the growth of the developing baby inside you. Also, high caffeine in consumption may result in abnormalities in the fetus. Consumption of alcohol or caffeine may also result in miscarriage during pregnancy.
  • Don't smoke: has some very adverse effects on the developing status inside you. Low birth weight and learning disabilities are some of the complications that may occur after childbirth. Smoking during pregnancy can also result in miscarriage.
  • Don't eat unpasteurized dairy products: Unpasteurized dairy products may contain a lot of bacteria which can affect the fetus. This can result in miscarriage.
  • Don't consume raw meat: uncooked raw meat has bacteria that can cause infections in your uterus during pregnancy which can cause miscarriage or unwanted pregnancy complications.
  • Don't sit in a hot tub for too long: prolonged exposure to heat is not good for the developing fetus inside you. Relaxing as it may seem, it may be a cause of miscarriage. Therefore, it is advised as a don't.

Risk Factors of Miscarriage

  • Genetic abnormalities or chromosomal disorders: Genetic abnormalities in the foetus sometimes cause miscarriage.
  • Uterine abnormalities or structural issues: By preventing implantation or healthy foetal development, conditions like fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus) or an irregularly shaped uterus may raise the chance of miscarriage.
  • Infections during pregnancy: Some diseases, including rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and other STIs, can put the developing foetus in danger and raise the likelihood of miscarriage.
  • Blood clotting disorders or thrombophilia: Blood clotting disorders can cause the foetus to receive insufficient blood, which may cause a miscarriage.
  • Maternal lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, or exposure to environmental toxins can increase the risk of miscarriage.
  • Maternal health conditions: High blood pressure or poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy can raise the chance of miscarriage.

Miscarriage - Diagnosis and Tests

Diagnosis of miscarriage is quite simple. Miscarriage bleeding is commonly the first sign of a miscarriage. During regular checkups, the level of pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is measured. If there are visible abnormalities in the levels, then it can be a risk factor. There are a few other tests that can help in figuring out whether there is a miscarriage or not.

  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound is imaging of internal organs with the help of sound waves This is the most common test that can be done in order to detect a miscarriage. The results are very accurate and inexpensive.
  • Blood tests: Hormonal levels can be measured in blood tests. The abnormal level of pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) during pregnancy can be a sign of miscarriage.
  • Genetic screening: As stated above, most miscarriages take place due to genetic anomalies. Genetic screening helps in finding out such anomalies.
  • Hormonal tests: abnormal levels of some other hormones like FSH, Progesterone, and Estrogen can also indicate a miscarriage.

How long do you bleed after a miscarriage?

Miscarriage bleeding can occur for several days. It may vary from light bleeding to heavy bleeding or just vaginal spotting. If it is a threatened miscarriage, vaginal bleeding with dull cramps in your abdominal area is common. Sometimes, heavy bleeding may also occur which is a result of inevitable miscarriage.

How painful is miscarriage?

The pain experienced during a miscarriage can differ from person to person both physically and emotionally.

Physically: Miscarriage pain is frequently compared to severe menstruation cramps. While some women may have more severe discomfort, others may experience severe abdominal pain.

Emotionally: Miscarriage can be a painful and traumatic experience on an emotional level. It may result in emotions such as sorrow, grief, guilt, rage, and perplexity. Miscarriage can cause intense emotional suffering that may require support from family and friends, therapy, or support groups to help the grieving process.

What are the possible complications of Miscarriage?

Here are some of the complications that may occur after a miscarriage:

  • Excess miscarriage bleeding: Excess amount of miscarriage blood loss can be one of the biggest complications after miscarriage.
  • Incomplete miscarriage: The leftover tissues may not get flushed out completely, thereby causing an incomplete miscarriage.
  • Infection in the uterus: If all the unwanted tissues are not removed from the uterus, they may cause bacterial infections.
  • Blockage in the fallopian tube: Miscarriage can cause an infection in the fallopian tube and cause proximal tubal occlusion.
  • Asherman Syndrome: It is a complication that occurs after miscarriage surgery. There is a formation of adhesions or scar tissues that may cause future miscarriages.
  • Recurrent miscarriages: Due to complications during your current miscarriage, there can also be a chance of future miscarriages.
  • Emotional distress: Miscarriages take a huge toll on the patient's mental health. It may cause depression, mood disorder, and behavioral changes in a person.

Home Remedies for Miscarriage

Some home remedies that can help you get through a natural miscarriage are as follows:

  • Use heating bags for too much pain.
  • Take pain medications that can help with the cramps.
  • Use pads instead of tampons.
  • Have enough rest.
  • Drink more fluids.
  • Eat healthy food like green vegetables and fruits.

However, surgery is sometimes inevitable. If there is an incomplete miscarriage, meaning that leftover tissues are still there inside the uterus, then surgery should be performed to avoid infections.

What to eat after Miscarriage?

First and foremost, your body needs to rebuild the lost cells. For that protein is one of the most essential components. Therefore the diet you choose should be highly proteinaceous. Moreover, your diet should also be rich in

  • Vitamins
  • Iron
  • Folate
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Also a good amount of fluid intake

What not to eat after Miscarriage?

To prevent complications in the future one must avoid these foods given below:-

  • Junk foods
  • Low-fiber Starch
  • Fatty foods
  • Soy products
  • Sweets

Miscarriage Treatment

miscarriage treatment is easily accessible to all and can be availed at any hospital. The treatment requires care and medical assistance. If there is an incomplete miscarriage, a medical surgery known as Dilation and Curettage (D&C) is performed. Some medications can help the miscarriage to proceed naturally.

Miscarriage Treatment without surgery

Not all miscarriages require surgery. More often than not, miscarriages occur naturally and should be allowed to take their course in that way. Your uterus sheds away all the unwanted cells and tissues along with the dead fetus. Surgery is only necessary if there is a chance of incomplete miscarriage or missed miscarriage.

Which are the best medicines for Miscarriage?

Here is a list of some of the best medicines for miscarriage.

Miscarriage Surgery

The name of miscarriage surgery that is usually performed is known as Dilation and curettage (D&C). After an endometrial biopsy, the surgeon can proceed with this treatment. Miscarriages often leave some extra uterine tissues inside the womb. In D&C, the surgeon first dilates the cervix with surgical instruments to open it up. After that, they use a curette to suck or scrape out the extra unwanted tissues like in the uterus. This is usually performed when you go through heavy vaginal bleeding right after the miscarriage.

The procedure may sound overwhelming and scary but at Pristyn Care, you get the best doctors to do the job. Since a high expertise level is our specialty, it reduces the side effects and risks to a bare minimum.

How long does it take to recover from Miscarriage?

It usually takes two to three months to recover from a miscarriage. After at least two normal menstrual cycles, you are good to go for another try at pregnancy. However, it also varies from person to person. Some women may take a while before recovering from a recent miscarriage. Also, emotional well-being is important as well.

What is the price of Miscarriage treatments in India?

The price of miscarriage treatment by surgery varies from 20,000 INR to 40,000 INR. Government hospitals may charge less than private hospitals.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

No, not really. If you have gone through a recent miscarriage treatment, there is an 85% chance of bearing a healthy pregnancy on the next try. However, it is advisable to let your body heal before going for another pregnancy.

Who is eligible for the Miscarriage treatment?

Miscarriages happen naturally. Ultrasounds can confirm if there are any problems with implantation, or if the embryo is not alive. If there are no signs of infection then you should allow the miscarriage to naturally happen. However, women who are facing threatened miscarriage, that is light vaginal bleeding or dull abdominal pain can visit their respective doctors for a regular checkup. If there are any pregnancy tissues left in the uterus after the miscarriage, your doctor can scrape them out to avoid infection.

Who is not eligible for the Miscarriage treatment?

Miscarriage treatments are almost available for all patients. However, you may have allergies to a particular medicine. In that case, your doctor will prescribe a different one.

What are the post-treatment guidelines for Miscarriage treatment?

Miscarriages can take a heavy toll on your physical and emotional well-being. It is recommended that you should wait for 2-3 normal menstrual cycles before you try again to get pregnant. Since your body needs time to recover, it is also recommended to eat healthily. If you are facing any symptoms like vaginal bleeding, nausea, fever, or fatigue, immediately consult your doctor.

What are the side effects of Miscarriage treatment?

Miscarriage treatment usually does not have any side effects. However, some women may develop an infection in the uterus. This infection can cause pain in the lower abdomen, tenderness in the lower abdomen, vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding. Some other side effects can be nausea, chills, fever, and fatigue. However, Pristyn Care offers the best facilities that there are and the side effects of the surgery are very low.

Miscarriage - Outlook / Prognosis

After three back-to-back miscarriages, it is fair to say that your uterus is not able to sustain the embryo. However, this is a very common problem that is faced by a lot of women who are trying to conceive. Due to previous miscarriages, your baby may also have a preterm birth during the consecutive pregnancy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why am I not pregnant after a miscarriage?

Your body may take a few weeks to recover from a recent miscarriage. Some women also take more than two months to finally be ready for another pregnancy.

Why miscarriages happen in the first trimester?

Most of the miscarriages happening during the first trimester are due to chromosomal anomalies or abnormalities. These chromosomal defects can either occur spontaneously while fertilization or can be hereditary.

Why miscarriage happens in IVF?

IVF is mostly unsuccessful because of embryonic chromosomal variations. Most of these embryos, especially the ones that are created through IVF, are lost before birth. This happens either during the first three months of pregnancy or before implantation.

Why should you wait 3 months after a miscarriage?

Your body takes time to recover when it has gone through a miscarriage. The uterus and the menstrual cycle need to get back to normal before you can try for another pregnancy. Therefore it is advisable to wait for at least 3 months after a miscarriage.

Can miscarriage blocked fallopian tubes?

Yes. Miscarriage can cause an infection in the fallopian tube and cause proximal tubal occlusion. As a result of this, the proximal end of the fallopian tube, that is the end near the uterus, is blocked.

Can miscarriage cause back pain?

Yes. Just like premenstrual symptoms, a miscarriage can also cause lower back pain. Since the uterus constantly goes through contractions during miscarriages, it results in symptoms like this.

Can miscarriage happen before missed period?

Yes. It is usually termed as a chemical pregnancy. It is characterized by a miscarriage at a very early stage, that is before a missed period. Most of the time, people going through this type of miscarriage do not even notice it.

Can pineapple juice cause miscarriage?

Not really. There is no scientific proof for this. Although, pineapple does contain bromelain which is said to cause uterine contractions. However, it is mostly a myth with no scientific evidence.

What to eat in early pregnancy to avoid miscarriage?

Eggs are said to be beneficial in preventing miscarriages. Other than that fish, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products are also known to prevent miscarriages. In short, everything that is nutritious and healthy will benefit your pregnancy.


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Written ByDr. Irina DeyMBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery,Diploma In Gynaecology & Obstetrics,DGO,DNB - Obstetrics & GynecologyGynaecology
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