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Anesthesia - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Anesthesia refers to the process of controlling pain or other sensations during surgeries or any other procedures (capable of causing pain) by using medicines known as anesthetics. Anesthetics are either given through injections or through inhaled vapors or gases. This medicine is used for blocking pain, making a person unconscious during surgery, etc. It also helps to control the blood pressure, blood flow, heart rate, and breathing rate of any person.

There are various types of anesthesia – Local anesthesia, general anesthesia and regional anesthesia which further includes Peripheral nerve blocks, Epidural and spinal anesthesia.

An anesthesiologist determines the quantity and types of anesthesia a person would require. Immense care is taken while administering anesthetics as any change in the prescribed quantity can lead to adverse effects.

How is the treatment done?

The various types of anesthesia are either given to the patients through injections or gases and vapors. The ways through which the various anesthesia are administered are as follows:

  • Local anesthesia – It is applied via an injection in the surgical area in order to block the pain. Thus, it results in the numbness of that part of the body while the person remains conscious.
  • General anesthesia – It works on the brain and the central nervous system of the patient and makes him/her unconscious and unaware. The anesthetic is administered to the circulatory system of the patient through injected drugs or inhaled gases. This kind of anesthesia is opted for major surgeries which may involve significant blood loss, breathing difficulty, etc.
  • Regional anesthesia - In this type of anesthesia, injection containing local anesthetic drugs are administered around major nerves of the body or/and the spinal cord. This is done so that a larger part of the body can be blocked from feeling pain. These medicines are also given to make the patient feel relaxed or sleepy during surgery. Regional anesthesia is mainly of two types. They are as follows:
    • Peripheral nerve blocks – This is specially used to prevent the patient from sensing pain around a particular nerve or group of nerves. These blocks are commonly used to perform procedures on the arms, hands, legs, feet or face.
    • Epidural and spinal anesthesia – This medicine is used to block pain from the spinal cord area or lower portion of the body such as hips, belly or legs. Therefore, it is administered directly in the spinal cord as well as the nerves that are connected to it.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The following people are eligible for the various types of anesthesia:

  • Prior to any major operation, a person is eligible for general anesthesia as the surgery requires him/her to remain unconsciousness. These surgeries usually take several hours and involve the chance of significant blood loss along with inducing breathing problem.
  • A person who needs any kind of minor surgery for example surgeries in hands, legs, etc. are eligible for local anesthesia.
  • If the patients need surgery around the spinal cord or the lower back portion of the body, then he/she becomes eligible for epidural and spinal anesthesia.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A person having various health and mental conditions should discuss it with his/her doctor so that the proper quantity of anesthesia can be determined. Otherwise, those patients may suffer from adverse reactions.

Are there any side effects?

General anesthesia has certain side effects if not administered in the proper manner:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea – This refers to a condition when an individual stops breathing while being asleep.
  • There are several other side effects which include shivering, nausea or vomiting, headache, sore throat, the rise in temperature, high blood pressure, delayed return to normalcy, etc.
  • There are some rare life-threatening effects which include malignant hyperthermia, respiratory failure and even death in very rare cases.

Other types of anesthesia may have effects like prolonged period of numbness, allergies, etc.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post-treatment guidelines include:

  • Keeping the patient under observation to monitor the person’s temperature, blood pressure, feeling of nausea and most importantly the proper functioning of the body.
  • The patient must follow eating and drinking guidelines as given by the doctor.
  • A person after recovering from the effect of anesthetic drugs should avoid driving, traveling on a plane, any strenuous activity, etc. It is always recommended not to travel alone immediately after recovering from anesthesia.

How long does it take to recover?

Anesthesia may last for 45 minutes to 4 hours depending upon the anesthetic drug used. While local anesthesia may last for an hour or so, general anesthesia or the epidural and spinal anesthesia usually lasts for 3-4 hours.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost depends on the procedure.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Once the effects of anesthesia wear off, the patient gains his/her consciousness.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Some herbal and homeopathic alternatives are available which can be used as alternatives for the various anesthetic drugs.

Safety: High Effectiveness: Very High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Recovery Time: Medium Price Range:

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A liver transplant surgery involves surgically substituting a problematic liver with a healthy liver from a different person. Usually, the healthy liver is taken from a person who has recently passed away. In some cases, a living person may also give away part of the liver. Usually, living donors are members of the family or someone who has a good blood type match. The liver regenerates lost tissues after a surgery; hence, the donor s liver becomes normal within a few weeks of surgery. You may require a liver transplant if your liver does not function optimally, owing to the below mentioned conditions: Cirrhosis: This is a chronic disease of the liver wherein, scar tissues replace healthy tissues in the liver, thus, not allowing the liver to function optimally. Metabolic disease: Disorders that modify the activity of the chemicals in the body Acute hepatic necrosis: This is a disorder that causes the healthy tissues in the liver to die Autoimmune disorders or liver cancer: Autoimmune disorders can cause healthy tissues in the liver to die as the immune system in the body starts attacking healthy tissues. Formation of malignant tumors in the liver can impair liver functioning. Procedure You have to undergo certain procedures before the surgery is conducted; a general health exam, imaging tests, blood tests and a psychological exam are conducted before the surgery. Based on the functioning of the liver and some other factors, your suitability for the transplant will be determined. The procedure begins with general anesthesia, following which an incision is made in the abdomen. The liver is then removed and replaced with a healthy one. Once the procedure is completed, the surgeon closes the incision with stitches. Aftercare Once the procedure is done with, you are kept in the intensive care unit for a few days. The doctor will monitor your progress and put you on medications. After the recovery, you will have to undergo check-ups at regular intervals. You may also have to take medications such as immuno suppressant to prevent your immune system from attacking the liver. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
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Fistula-in-Ano or Anal Fistula - How It Can Be Treated?

Dr. D U Pathak 86% (38 ratings)
General Surgeon, Jabalpur
Fistula-in-Ano or Anal Fistula - How It Can Be Treated?
An anal fistula, is also called as fistula- in -ano, it is a small channel that develops between the end of the large intestine called the anal canal and the skin near the anus. This is a painful condition, especially when the patient is passing stools. It can also cause bleeding and discharge during defecation. Genesis of fistula-in-ano Almost all anal fistulae occur due to an anorectal abscess that begins as an infection in one of the anal glands. This infection spreads down to the skin around the anus causing fistula-in -ano. The anorectal abscess usually leads to pain and swelling around the anus, along with fever. Treatment for anorectal abscess involves incising the skin over the abscess to drain the pus. This is done usually under local anesthesia. A fistula-in-ano happens when there is failure of the anorectal abscess wound to heal completely. Almost 50% of patients with an abscess go on to develop a chronic fistula-in-ano. Symptoms Pain- Constant pain which gets worse when sitting down Irritation around the anus, like swelling, redness and tenderness Discharge of blood or pus Constipation or pain while evacuation Fever Diagnosis A clinical evaluation, including a digital rectal examination under anesthesia, is carried out to diagnose anal fistula. However, few patients may be advised screening for rectal cancer, sexually transmitted diseases and diverticular disease. Treatment The only cure for an anal fistula is surgery. The type of surgery will depend on the position of the anal fistula. Most patients are treated by simply laying open the fistula tract to flush out pus, called Fistulotomy. This type is used in 85-95% of cases and the fistula tract heals after one to two months. Seton techniques: A seton is a piece of thread (silk, plastic) which is left in the fistula tract to treat anal fissures. This is used if a patient is at high risk of developing incontinence after fistulotomy. Advancement flap procedures: When the fistula is considered complex, carrying a high risk of incontinence, then this advanced technique is used. Other techniques like Fibrin glue and Bioprosthetic plug are also used to surgically treat anal fistulas. In the Fibrin glue technique, glue is injected into the fistula to seal the tract, after which the opening is stitch closed. Bioprosthetic plug is a cone shaped plug made from human tissue, which is used to block the internal opening of the fistula. After this stitches are used to keep the plug in place. Whatever the surgical technique, one can experience minor changes in continence. Patients usually don t require antibiotics after surgery but have to take pain medication. They may also have to use gauze to soak up drainage from anus. After surgery, patients should seek help if they have increased pain or swelling, heavy bleeding, difficulty in urination, high temperature, nausea or constipation.
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Everything You Want To Know About Endometriosis

FRCOG (LONDON) (Fellow of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists), CCT (Lon), DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Everything You Want To Know About Endometriosis
Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus the endometrium grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain sometimes severe especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual cramp that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis may include: Painful periods (dysmenorrhea). Pelvic pain and cramping may begin before your period and extend several days into your period. You may also have lower back and abdominal pain. Pain with intercourse. Pain during or after sex is common with endometriosis. Pain with bowel movements or urination. You're most likely to experience these symptoms during your period. Excessive bleeding. You may experience occasional heavy periods (menorrhagia) or bleeding between periods (menometrorrhagia). Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. Other symptoms. You may also experience fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. When to see a doctor See the doctor if you have signs and symptoms that may indicate endometriosis. Endometriosis can be a challenging condition to manage. An early diagnosis, a multidisciplinary medical team and an understanding of your diagnosis may result in better management of your symptoms. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells cells that line the inner side of your abdomen into endometrial cells. Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells cells in the earliest stages of development into endometrial cell implants during puberty. Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: Never giving birth Starting your period at an early age Going through menopause at an older age Short menstrual cycles for instance, less than 27 days Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces Low body mass index Alcohol consumption One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications Infertility The main complication of endometriosis is impaired fertility. Approximately one-third to one-half of women with endometriosis have difficulty getting pregnant. Endometriosis may obstruct the tube and keep the egg and sperm from uniting. But the condition also seems to affect fertility in less-direct ways, such as damage to the sperm or egg. Inspite of this, many women with mild to moderate endometriosis can still conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. Doctors sometimes advise women with endometriosis not to delay having children because the condition may worsen with time. Ovarian cancer Ovarian cancer does occur at higher than expected rates in women with endometriosis. Although rare, another type of cancer endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma can develop later in life in women who have had endometriosis. Diagnosis: To diagnose endometriosis and other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, the doctor will ask you to describe your symptoms, including the location of your pain and when it occurs. Tests to check for physical clues of endometriosis include: Pelvic exam. During a pelvic exam, the doctor manually feels (palpates) areas in your pelvis for abnormalities, such as cysts on your reproductive organs or scars behind your uterus. Often it's not possible to feel small areas of endometriosis, unless they've caused a cyst to form. Ultrasound. A transducer, a device that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of your body, is either pressed against your abdomen or inserted into your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound). Both types of ultrasound may be done to get the best view of your reproductive organs. Ultrasound imaging won't definitively tell the doctor whether you have endometriosis, but it can identify cysts associated with endometriosis (endometriomas). Laparoscopy. Medical management is usually tried first. But to be certain you have endometriosis, the doctor may advise a surgical procedure called laparoscopy to look inside your abdomen for signs of endometriosis. While you're under general anesthesia, the doctor makes a tiny incision near your navel and inserts a slender viewing instrument (laparoscope), looking for endometrial tissue outside the uterus. He or she may take samples of tissue (biopsy). Laparoscopy can provide information about the location, extent and size of the endometrial implants to help determine the best treatment options. Treatment for endometriosis is usually with medications or surgery. The approach you and the doctor choose will depend on the severity of your signs and symptoms and whether you hope to become pregnant. Generally, doctors recommend trying conservative treatment approaches first, opting for surgery as a last resort. Pain medications The doctor may recommend that you take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others), to help ease painful menstrual cramps. If you find that taking the maximum dose of these medications doesn't provide full relief, you may need to try another approach to manage your signs and symptoms. Hormone therapy Supplemental hormones are sometimes effective in reducing or eliminating the pain of endometriosis. The rise and fall of hormones during the menstrual cycle causes endometrial implants to thicken, break down and bleed. Hormone medication may slow endometrial tissue growth and prevent new implants of endometrial tissue. Hormone therapy isn't a permanent fix for endometriosis. You could experience a return of your symptoms after stopping treatment. Therapies used to treat endometriosis include: Hormonal contraceptives. Birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings help control the hormones responsible for the buildup of endometrial tissue each month. Most women have lighter and shorter menstrual flow when they're using a hormonal contraceptive. Using hormonal contraceptives especially continuous cycle regimens may reduce or eliminate the pain of mild to moderate endometriosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists. These drugs block the production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, lowering estrogen levels and preventing menstruation. This causes endometrial tissue to shrink. Because these drugs create an artificial menopause, taking a low dose of estrogen or progestin along with Gn-RH agonists and antagonists may decrease menopausal side effects, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and bone loss. Your periods and the ability to get pregnant return when you stop taking the medication. Progestin therapy. A progestin-only contraceptive, such as an intrauterine device (Mirena), contraceptive implant or contraceptive injection (Depo-Provera), can halt menstrual periods and the growth of endometrial implants, which may relieve endometriosis signs and symptoms. Danazol. This drug suppresses the growth of the endometrium by blocking the production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, preventing menstruation and the symptoms of endometriosis. However, danazol may not be the first choice because it can cause serious side effects and can be harmful to the baby if you become pregnant while taking this medication. Conservative surgery If you have endometriosis and are trying to become pregnant, surgery to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving your uterus and ovaries (conservative surgery) may increase your chances of success. If you have severe pain from endometriosis, you may also benefit from surgery however, endometriosis and pain may return. The doctor may do this procedure laparoscopically or through traditional abdominal surgery in more extensive cases. Assisted reproductive technologies Assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help you become pregnant are sometimes preferable to conservative surgery. Doctors often suggest one of these approaches if conservative surgery doesn't work.
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Popular Questions & Answers

I am 25 yers old, I have a problem from penis foreskin, and its fully tight foreskin,

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Hello I am 32 years old having small breast size I want to increase my breast size by natural method please suggest me any medication or tablet that I can increase it.

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Tell me what is the advantages and disadvantages of both (surgery and Normal Delivery).

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Respected Prasanta hi normal delivery has advantages of early mobilisation recovery . Disadvantages that if it is not possible and relatives pressure doctor for normal delivery then problem to mother and child both . Now for surgery means Caesarean section . Advantage painless due to Anaesthesia . Disadvantage pain after surgery , bed rest require for sometime, wound infection, hernia if internal stitches open up . Hope this clears your query thoroughly thanks regards dear
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Is tooth extraction during pregnancy is safe? I am in my second trimester n wisdom tooth extraction with help of L.A. Ii a been advised. What r the consequences? How much time it takes in the procedure n how much time it takes to heel?

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If the tooth extraction cannot be avoided at any account, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon can perform it with all preoperative and postoperative precautions. Whether it's having a tooth pulled, a root canal or just a routine cleaning, it's important for your health and the health of your baby not to ignore your teeth and gums during pregnancy. Ideal is 2nd trimester but in emergency we can do it at any trimester in minimum time with multiple assistance. Previously it was thought not to take xrays in pregnant lady but now it is also performed as researches has shown no impact on fetus with all necessary precautions taken while performing it. Hope it will help you and many others who are pregnant and suffering from gum teeth related problems.

Hi I recently gave birth to a baby girl just 8 days old. My question and worry about is anesthesia given to me during Cesarean and side affects. That day as human mistake I unknowingly had a sip of water before anesthesia or antibiotics were given .so said the said to doctor they gave ondem injection and one gastric before anesthesia was given and later due to a bad or untrained nurse I was given an antibiotic on third day as usual on wrist which she injected forcefully into the nerve through a pipe. It pained like hell. I almost screamed to peaks. The antibiotic did not go into the nerve. It blocked and swelled the wrist. It took three days to reduce the swelling on its own. My right head side full sweating. Due to humidity. And it's cold entire face on right. And even on eight side neck. My legs started swelling .I don't think it's water that caused swelling. Can you say why these many changes in this Cesarean.

Dr. Ruchi Gupta 91% (60 ratings)
MD - Anaesthesiology, DNB, MBBS, Diploma in Aesthetic Medicine
Pain Management Specialist, Amritsar
lybrate-user just relax nothing to worry. There is no problem of water you took if you were given injection in the back (spinal anaesthesia) problem could have come if general anaesthesia was required. Now since it's 8 days post caesarean. Nothing to worry. The pain you had could be due to blocked vein which sometimes open with pain or some antibiotics are painful to inject. Don't think of worst that could happen rather feel good that you are are ok & safe.
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Understanding The D&C Process!

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The uterus is operated through an incision in a D&C. True or false. Take a quiz to know now.
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