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Overview

Anesthesia - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Anesthesia refers to the process of controlling pain or other sensations during surgeries or any other procedures (capable of causing pain) by using medicines known as anesthetics. Anesthetics are either given through injections or through inhaled vapors or gases. This medicine is used for blocking pain, making a person unconscious during surgery, etc. It also helps to control the blood pressure, blood flow, heart rate, and breathing rate of any person.

There are various types of anesthesia – Local anesthesia, general anesthesia and regional anesthesia which further includes Peripheral nerve blocks, Epidural and spinal anesthesia.

An anesthesiologist determines the quantity and types of anesthesia a person would require. Immense care is taken while administering anesthetics as any change in the prescribed quantity can lead to adverse effects.

How is the treatment done?

The various types of anesthesia are either given to the patients through injections or gases and vapors. The ways through which the various anesthesia are administered are as follows:

  • Local anesthesia – It is applied via an injection in the surgical area in order to block the pain. Thus, it results in the numbness of that part of the body while the person remains conscious.
  • General anesthesia – It works on the brain and the central nervous system of the patient and makes him/her unconscious and unaware. The anesthetic is administered to the circulatory system of the patient through injected drugs or inhaled gases. This kind of anesthesia is opted for major surgeries which may involve significant blood loss, breathing difficulty, etc.
  • Regional anesthesia - In this type of anesthesia, injection containing local anesthetic drugs are administered around major nerves of the body or/and the spinal cord. This is done so that a larger part of the body can be blocked from feeling pain. These medicines are also given to make the patient feel relaxed or sleepy during surgery. Regional anesthesia is mainly of two types. They are as follows:
    • Peripheral nerve blocks – This is specially used to prevent the patient from sensing pain around a particular nerve or group of nerves. These blocks are commonly used to perform procedures on the arms, hands, legs, feet or face.
    • Epidural and spinal anesthesia – This medicine is used to block pain from the spinal cord area or lower portion of the body such as hips, belly or legs. Therefore, it is administered directly in the spinal cord as well as the nerves that are connected to it.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The following people are eligible for the various types of anesthesia:

  • Prior to any major operation, a person is eligible for general anesthesia as the surgery requires him/her to remain unconsciousness. These surgeries usually take several hours and involve the chance of significant blood loss along with inducing breathing problem.
  • A person who needs any kind of minor surgery for example surgeries in hands, legs, etc. are eligible for local anesthesia.
  • If the patients need surgery around the spinal cord or the lower back portion of the body, then he/she becomes eligible for epidural and spinal anesthesia.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A person having various health and mental conditions should discuss it with his/her doctor so that the proper quantity of anesthesia can be determined. Otherwise, those patients may suffer from adverse reactions.

Are there any side effects?

General anesthesia has certain side effects if not administered in the proper manner:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea – This refers to a condition when an individual stops breathing while being asleep.
  • There are several other side effects which include shivering, nausea or vomiting, headache, sore throat, the rise in temperature, high blood pressure, delayed return to normalcy, etc.
  • There are some rare life-threatening effects which include malignant hyperthermia, respiratory failure and even death in very rare cases.

Other types of anesthesia may have effects like prolonged period of numbness, allergies, etc.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post-treatment guidelines include:

  • Keeping the patient under observation to monitor the person’s temperature, blood pressure, feeling of nausea and most importantly the proper functioning of the body.
  • The patient must follow eating and drinking guidelines as given by the doctor.
  • A person after recovering from the effect of anesthetic drugs should avoid driving, traveling on a plane, any strenuous activity, etc. It is always recommended not to travel alone immediately after recovering from anesthesia.

How long does it take to recover?

Anesthesia may last for 45 minutes to 4 hours depending upon the anesthetic drug used. While local anesthesia may last for an hour or so, general anesthesia or the epidural and spinal anesthesia usually lasts for 3-4 hours.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost depends on the procedure.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Once the effects of anesthesia wear off, the patient gains his/her consciousness.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Some herbal and homeopathic alternatives are available which can be used as alternatives for the various anesthetic drugs.

Safety: High Effectiveness: Very High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Recovery Time: Medium Price Range:

Popular Health Tips

Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?

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Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?
Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain. Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to: Relax you Block pain Make you sleepy or forgetful Make you unconscious for your surgery Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE) Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to death & brain damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events: Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently. Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients. Other s are as listed below: Airway Obstruction Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery Aspiration Endobronchial Intubation Premature Extubation Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use. Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as: Pulse Oximetry Capnometry Combination of Both Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome.

What To Expect From Dilation & Curettage Process?

Dr. Hardik Shah 94% (92 ratings)
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What To Expect From Dilation & Curettage Process?
Dilation and curettage procedure which is commonly referred to as D&C is a minor surgical procedure where the cervix is dilated while a special instrument is used for scraping out the lining of the uterus. It is important to know what you can expect before, after and during the process so that you can stay ahead of unnecessary worries and help the process to be smooth and fruitful. When do doctors recommend dilation and curettage process? You may be required to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure for one of many reasons. It can be used for removal of tissues in the uterus during or after an abortion or miscarriage or to remove little pieces of placenta after delivery. This process aids in preventing infection as well as heavy bleeding. On the other hand, it can help in diagnosing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding including polyps, fibroids, hormonal imbalances and even uterine cancer. A sample of the tissues in the uterus is tested under a microscope to check if there is any abnormal cell present. What can you expect during the dilation and curettage process? The D&C procedure is a minor one and takes about 15 minutes even though you will have to spend about 4 to 5 hours in the healthcare facility. Before the procedure, your doctor would check complete history, and at this point, you should tell your doctor if you suspect that you are pregnant, you are sensitive to latex or any medicines or if you have a history of bleeding disorders. You will then be given anesthesia so that you don t feel any pain or discomfort during the procedure. Before this procedure, you will have to empty your bladder. The D&C procedure comprises two main steps, dilation, and curettage. Dilation involves opening of the lower part of the uterus or the cervix for allowing insertion of a slender rod. This is done to soften the cervix so that it opens and allows curettage to be performed. Curettage involves scraping of the lining and removal of the uterine contents with the help of a spoon-like instrument known as a curette. This may cause some amount of cramping, and a tissue sample would be taken out for examination in the laboratory. After the completion of the procedure, you may experience slight bleeding and cramping. In some rare cases, adhesions or scar tissues may start forming inside the uterus, and this condition is termed as Asherman s syndrome which can cause changes in the menstrual cycle along with infertility. This problem, if arises, can be solved with the help of surgery and therefore, you should report any abnormality in your menstrual cycle to your doctor.
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Are you worried about the labour pain? It is perhaps the most difficult phase of a woman's life. But today, there is no reason to worry for. Thanks to epidurals, you can give birth to your baby without experiencing the pain involved. Epidural is the new age anaesthesia. It is used to block pain in a specific region of the body. A patient is not made unconscious fully at the time of any surgery. He or she is given epidural for regional anaesthesia. Its use has become popular during childbirth. A pregnant woman is given epidural at the time of labour or c-section. It provides relief from the pain rather than cutting off the patient's feelings or senses. Although it has become a widely accepted technique, women worry about the safety of epidurals. They are concerned about the safety of the baby and their health. But it is absolutely safe. How do these work? There are nerves in our body, which carry the pain signals to the brain. These nerves pass through epidural spaces. Therefore, anaesthesia is injected into these spaces to stop the pain signal from reaching the brain. This blocks the pain. If you are pregnant and thinking whether to go for epidural or not, you will have a lot of questions in mind. Here's all that you need to know about epidurals: Effect on baby's and mother's health Use of epidurals tends to increase the time of labour by 20 minutes approximately. The mother may develop fever. However, it blocks the pain. This is some relief to the mother. As there is no pain, stress hormones are not released. Thus, blood will not be diverted from uterus and placenta. Baby's supply of nutrients and oxygen will remain intact. How painful it is? Women mostly worry about the painful insertion of the epidural needle. However, this will not hurt you. A small needle is first inserted to make the area numb. Thereafter the bigger needle is inserted. You may feel the discomfort for five seconds. The epidural medicine starts functioning just after 5 minutes of insertion. Procedure First the patient is made to take the suitable position. While some may be asked to lie sideways, others may be asked to sit straight. The area is cleaned with a solution. The small needle is first inserted to create numbness in the area. Once the area is numb, the bigger needle is inserted. You might feel a pinching sensation. Thereafter, a catheter is threaded to the epidural space, where the nerve carrying signal of pain passes through. Epidural medicines are pushed into the region via the catheter. Epidurals don't affect your nerve endings or spinal cord. They are pushed into the epidural space.
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Botox for Men - How It Works!!
Caring for their look is no longer only restricted to women, men care about their looks just as much as women. In fact, it would be more suitable to say that majority of today's population cares about their looks and appearance. In an effort to look younger many men now-a-days are turning to Botox injections in order to get a more youthful appearance. There is no significant difference between Botox effects on men and women. Here are nine things that men can expect with Botox treatment: A Ten Minute Procedure: The actually process of getting a Botox injection does not take longer than 10 to 15 minutes. There is no need for anesthesia and it can easily be performed as an outpatient procedure. A Botox injection is relatively pain-free. Get Back to Work: Botox is a procedure that you can get done even on your lunch break. Since it does not involve anesthesia of any kind, you can get straight back to the office within an hour of having the procedure. However, it is best to avoid strenuous activities and exercising for a week after the procedure. Quick Results: Botox results are not immediate but can be seen within 3 to 5 days of the injection being given. Optimal results can be noted 2 weeks after the process. Swelling and Bruising: Mild swelling is observed at the injection site, which resolves in max 1-2 hours, bruising is very rare, but if happens resolves on its own in 2-3 days maximum and can be easily concealed with light make up. Effects that Last 4 to 6 Months: Botox injections do make you look younger, but its effects do not last forever. The effect of Botox injections usually lasts for 4 to 6 months. After this, you will need to go through the procedure again to maintain the youthful appearance. Slowed Pace of Aging: Botox can also be used as a preventive measure when it comes to aging. Many men find that Botox can help prevent the formation of wrinkles and soften fine lines. Headaches: Though Botox injections are also a form of treatment for chronic migraines, one of the side effects of Botox is a mild headache. This should resolve itself within a few hours and is not something to worry about. A Few Side-Effects: Generally no untoward side effects are noted if done with the right technique, some rare side effects are drooping of eyelids which resolves on its own in 2 months. Compliments: 'Rested, refreshed, good'; These are some of the words you should get used to hearing when people talk about the way you look. As long as you use Botox in moderation and get the procedure done by an experienced doctor, you should be ready to look fabulous.
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Epidurals: What You Need To Know About It?
Are you worried about the labour pain? It is perhaps the most difficult phase of a woman's life. But today, there is no reason to worry for. Thanks to epidurals, you can give birth to your baby without experiencing the pain involved. Epidural is the new age anaesthesia. It is used to block pain in a specific region of the body. A patient is not made unconscious fully at the time of any surgery. He or she is given epidural for regional anaesthesia. Its use has become popular during childbirth. A pregnant woman is given epidural at the time of labour or c-section. It provides relief from the pain rather than cutting off the patient's feelings or senses. Although it has become a widely accepted technique, women worry about the safety of epidurals. They are concerned about the safety of the baby and their health. But it is absolutely safe. How do these work?: There are nerves in our body, which carry the pain signals to the brain. These nerves pass through epidural spaces. Therefore, anaesthesia is injected into these spaces to stop the pain signal from reaching the brain. This blocks the pain. If you are pregnant and thinking whether to go for epidural or not, you will have a lot of questions in mind. Here's all that you need to know about epidurals: Effect on baby's and mother's health: Use of epidurals tends to increase the time of labour by 20 minutes approximately. The mother may develop fever. However, it blocks the pain. This is some relief to the mother. As there is no pain, stress hormones are not released. Thus, blood will not be diverted from uterus and placenta. Baby's supply of nutrients and oxygen will remain intact. How painful it is?: Women mostly worry about the painful insertion of the epidural needle. However, this will not hurt you. A small needle is first inserted to make the area numb. Thereafter the bigger needle is inserted. You may feel the discomfort for five seconds. The epidural medicine starts functioning just after 5 minutes of insertion. Procedure: First the patient is made to take the suitable position. While some may be asked to lie sideways, others may be asked to sit straight. The area is cleaned with a solution. The small needle is first inserted to create numbness in the area. Once the area is numb, the bigger needle is inserted. You might feel a pinching sensation. Thereafter, a catheter is threaded to the epidural space, where the nerve carrying signal of pain passes through. Epidural medicines are pushed into the region via the catheter. Epidurals don't affect your nerve endings or spinal cord. They are pushed into the epidural space.
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Popular Questions & Answers

Is local anesthesia enough for dental keyhole tooth implant is general anesthesia needed?

Dr. Chintan Dobariya 90% (35 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Ahmedabad
Tooth implants most probably preferred in local anestesia and its enough to do well, no need to GA if any serious problem and condition come out.

Please suggest.Is dental anesthesia injection is painful and All the time dental anesthesia is successful or not.

Dr. Brenda William 86% (19 ratings)
Post Graduate Diploma in Healthcare Management (P.G.D.H.M), Certification in Full Mouth Rehabilitation, BDS, Endodontics certificate course
Dentist, Bangalore
Hello lybrate-user, An anesthetic injection is given so that you don't feel pain during the treatment time. If you are scared of injections generally then do request your doctor for a topical spray or gel so as to calm the site down before using the actual injection. This may help you largely if not entirely. About the success of the anesthetic it depends on several factors but if administered correctly using the right type then it is always a success. Also it helps if you are not too tense, to have a smooth experience :)

Hello doctor Can we use local anesthesia injection for painless bikini wax? Is it safe.

Dr. Poonam Patel Vasani 89% (902 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Anaesthesiology, FIPM, Fellowship in palliative medicine, certificate in interventional pain management
Pain Management Specialist, Pune
Local anesthesia injection if given by someone specialized in it is safe. You should also check for allergy to local anaesthetic first.

Will it be painful while removing and after removing teeth? And will it pain while giving anesthesia?

Dr. M R Pujari 92% (546 ratings)
MDS, BDS
Dentist, Bangalore
Hi. It is done under local anaesthesia, so pain during procedure. After procedure you should take painkillers. There will be mild bearable pain for next one to two days.

Before circumcision, doctor gives local anesthesia on penis, as injection? Is it painful?

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 97% (7401 ratings)
FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user ,hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* Local anesthesia is in the foreskin, not much painful, just bit pain for 2 - 3 minutes.* Another modality is penile block over suprapubic region of above root of penis, that is also just slight painful. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
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