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Overview

Chemotherapy - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Chemotherapy is used in the treatment of cancer. There are a wide variety of drugs that are used in this method of treatment. Since cancer involves cell division, chemotherapy works to counter this effect by destroying the cancerous cells. In cases where surgery is used to remove the cancer is ineffective, the oncologist will recommend the treatment of chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy is sometimes used in conjunction with radiation and surgery in the treatment of cancer. It might be used to destroy the cancerous cells that remain after radiation therapy or even in order to shrink a cancerous growth before surgery or radiation therapy. The treatment is effective in decreasing the number of cancerous cells in the body and also helps to manage the symptoms of cancer.

While chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment, cancer cannot be cured completely. The chance of recurrence of cancer is always a possibility.

There are various side effects that occur after the course of chemotherapy treatment. The side effects that occur during the course of chemotherapy are relatively few.

Chemotherapy is administered in a course or a series of sessions that vary from person to person. The course could be every day for a week or once a week over a period of 8 weeks. It is also possible for the course to last several months. The variation of the time period for a course of chemotherapy depends on the recommendation from the oncologist and according to the drug being administered.

How is the treatment done?

Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of treatment wherein the drug attacks the cancer cells and destroys them. This form of treatment is administered in a number of ways. It could be given to the patient intravenously or as a tablet or even injected into the skin. A cycle of chemotherapy could be given on a daily basis for a week. Then the patient is given a resting period of two-three weeks before continuing with another cycle. Therefore one cycle could last for 3-4 weeks. However, the length of these cycles differs according to the type of drug and the patient.

When the drug is administered intravenously; a nurse will insert a needle into the vein in your arm which allows the chemo drug to drip through the IV. This happens at each session of the cycle of chemotherapy treatment. After the drug has been administered the nurse will then remove the needle. This process can take a few hours per session. The patient may experience exhaustion and fatigue during the session.

If it is a capsule or a tablet then the drug is given orally. You will be asked to swallow the pill and flush it down with a glass of water. The chemotherapy drug can also be administered directly to the affected organs or directly to an affected artery. In some cases, the drug can be injected into the skin, arm, leg or hip of the patient.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The eligibility for the treatment of cancer with chemotherapy depends on the following criteria:

  • Most patients with breast cancer are eligible for chemotherapy, except in certain cases according to the discretion of the oncologist. Patients with 3rd or 4th stage of cancer can be treated with chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy is the best form of treatment for patients when the cancer cells have spread throughout the body and in the bloodstream or within the lymphatic system.
  • There is no particular age limit for chemotherapy. While patients who are elderly might be prone to additional side effects, chemotherapy is effective in treating patients of all ages.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

The medical professional in charge of the treatment will decide whether or not you are eligible for chemotherapy treatment. In general, chemotherapy is used to treat various types of cancer. But in certain cases, chemotherapy might not be advisable. They are -

  • Pregnant women in their first trimester are not eligible for chemotherapy. After the first trimester, they can safely proceed with this treatment.
  • Chemotherapy is usually not for people who suffer from cancer which does not spread quickly.

Are there any side effects?

The side effects of chemotherapy are as follows:

  • Nausea and vomiting: Patients often experience these symptoms after each chemotherapy session.
  • Exhaustion and fatigue: It is normal to experience fatigue, weakness, and exhaustion for a while after the treatment has been administered.
  • Hair loss: One of the most evident side effects of chemotherapy is the loss of hair. Sometimes patients bald gradually, while others might not lose much hair. In many cases, the hair grows back after the treatment is over.
  • Minor symptoms like fever, weight loss, constipation are commonly experienced after chemotherapy treatment.
  • Patients may notice changes in their skin or nails and have bleeding gums or mouth sores. After chemotherapy patients bruise easily, experience changes in their sense of taste, nerve damage and even loss of appetite.
  • Certain major side effects include; problems with fertility, memory problems or heart disorders.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The guidelines that you should follow after the treatment of chemotherapy are:

  • Post-treatment patients suffer from sensitivity to sunlight. They should avoid direct sun exposure and use sunscreen for protection.
  • To deal with hair loss, you can use a wig to cover your head or cut your hair short.
  • It is important to eat healthy food and eat five short meals rather than three full meals in a day.
  • According to the doctor’s recommendation, you must take the medications as prescribed.
  • You can practice meditation and relaxing techniques. But it is important to stay active and exercise as much as possible, without straining yourself.

How long does it take to recover?

The amount of time it takes to recover depends on various factors such as stage of cancer, type of cancer, type of treatment and number of sessions. But on an average, the chemotherapy treatment lasts for about 2 to 6 months. Recovery at the end of the treatment can take a few weeks to a month.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The price of each chemotherapy session can range from Rs 15,000 to Rs 1, 00,000. Each patient might have to undergo a series of around 6 to 8 sessions or any number of sessions that the oncologist recommends.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The results of chemotherapy are not permanent since there is always a possibility of cancer to recur. Numerous studies show that patients have gone into remission after treatment with chemotherapy and surgery. The survival rate for cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapy is relatively high.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The alternative methods of treatment of cancer besides chemotherapy are radiation therapy, surgery, homeopathic medicines.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Low Relative Risk: High Side Effects: High Recovery Time: High Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 1, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Going For Chemotherapy - 12 Things You Must Ask Before You Say Yes!

MBBS, Md - Radiation Oncology
Oncologist, Hyderabad
Going For Chemotherapy - 12 Things You Must Ask Before You Say Yes!

Ok, so now that cancer has been diagnosed, and the uncomfortable news that chemotherapy has to be undergone has been put across to the patient, what does a person do? What are his options? Can his/her life ever get back the same meaning and luxury as it had before? These are some of the common queries that would get formed in the mind of the person before undergoing chemotherapy. While chemotherapy itself can be physically daunting, preparing for it and acknowledging it can reduce the hardships and make us less vulnerable. There are also a series of questions to ask the physician before opting for it.

Before that, there is one basic fact that we should acknowledge. It is simply that chemotherapy is not 100% efficient. It has never been, and there are reasons it could never be. The simple fact being that chemotherapy destroys healthy cells along with cancerous cells. It is not selective in killing cancerous cells. The treatment also hampers the immune system to an extent thus making the body prone to a wide variety of infections and diseases. This can inflict serious damage if not properly prepared for. Now let us take a look at some important questions and queries that should be asked to a physician before opting for a chemotherapy treatment.

12 Things you must ask your doctor
1. Why is chemotherapy being recommended for me?
This is the first question to ask and to know why it has been suggested for you instead of other alternative methods.

2. How successful is it for my type of cancer?
Chemotherapy has to be successful or at least minimize the symptoms to an extent. Else there is no reason for you to undergo chemotherapy. Make sure that this aspect is discussed in detail with the physician.

3. What are the side effects?
This is one of the most important queries to be addressed. Chemotherapy is always with side effects - both short term and long term. They have to be addressed before opting for the treatment.


4. What will the treatment involve?
It is mandatory to know the treatment plan and the type of drugs that will be used.

5. What will be the duration of each treatment?
It is important to know the length of each treatment and duration. Some of the treatments have to be done in the hospital, and proper planning needs to be done before each cycle.

6. How many sessions will the chemotherapy treatment consist of?
A key point to be addressed is the number of sessions needed to make the chemotherapy a success.

7. What are the drugs that would be taken?
Knowing the drugs will play a significant role in identifying the disease. Kindly ensure that the physician discusses in detail about the types of drug used.

8. Are there any other drugs that could be used for fewer side effects?
Consult with your physician about your aversions and check if there are other drugs that can minimize the side effects.

9. What would be the other treatment along with the chemotherapy?
Get to know the other treatments that you have to undertake along with chemotherapy. Usually, these types of treatments would be taken to minimize the side effects.

10. Are there any other drugs that are undergoing trials that could be prescribed for me?
This is a general awareness, and since research is always done for improving the treatment, the doctor can advise on the new types of drugs that are available in the market.

11. Is there any alternative treatment available than chemotherapy?
Alternative treatments are mostly rare but you can check across with the physician to get a general awareness.

12. Who is the emergency contact person if I get unwell during treatment?
Have the contact number always with you. There can be some side effects and illness that have to be addressed without losing time when undergoing the treatment.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3079 people found this helpful

Radiotherapy - Is It Beneficial For Lung Cancer?

MD - Radiation Oncology, MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD)
Oncologist, Delhi
Radiotherapy - Is It Beneficial For Lung Cancer?

As much as you want to avoid, there are things you have no control over. Lung cancer (Bronchogenic Carcinomas) is one such nemesis that can throw life in shambles. The malignant tumor that originates in the lungs slowly spreads onto the other distinct and vital organs as well. Thought to be mostly affecting men who are chain smokers and into severe tobacco consumption, incidences of lung cancer in women are rising at an alarming rate over the past few years. Non-smokers may also be susceptible (to a lesser extent though) to lung cancer.

Lung cancer can be either

  • Non-small cell lung cancers: The NSCLC, accounting for ~85% of the lung cancer is one of the most common types of lung cancer affecting people, NSCLC may further be divided into
  • Adenocarcinoma: This type of NSCLC originates mostly in the peripheral regions of the lungs and may affect (spread) the lymph nodes. Non-smokers and women are mostly at the receiving end (other than the chain smokers).
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Also known as Epidermoid Carcinoma, often affects men, epidermoid carcinoma may originate in the tissues that line the bronchial tubes. The lymph nodes are often affected by Epidermoid Carcinoma.
  • Large-cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma: The point of origin of large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma is the surface of the lungs. They have a higher probability of spreading to the lymph nodes.
  • Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma: Though rare, bronchioalveolar carcinoma originates close to the air sacs.
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC, accounting for ~25% of the lung cancer): As the name suggests, SCLC is marked by the rapid proliferation of small cells into large malignant tumors. SCLC can move throughout the body (affecting vital organs).

Radiotherapy to treat Lung cancer:
Radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of lung cancer. The radiation therapy is mainly of two types

  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT)
  • Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy)

In external beam radiation therapy, high-energy rays are focused on the cancer cells (thereby resulting in the apoptosis of the cancer cells) externally, from outside the body. EBRT is particularly helpful in case of Non-small cell lung cancers.

The EBRT may be of the following types

  • 3D-CRT (Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy): An advanced radiation therapy, 3D-CRT accurately marks the position of the cancer cells (using advanced computers). The treatment ensures minimum damage to the other healthy cells and tissues (energy rays are directed at the affected cells from different positions).
  • SBRT (Stereotactic body radiation therapy): This is a radiation therapy used in the treatment of NSCLC, when it is at a nascent stage.
  • IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy): As the name suggests, in IMRT, the intensity of the radiation reaching the normal tissues and cells can be modulated. Like 3D-CRT, the radiation in IMRT is directed from different angles (for maximum results).
  • Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy): This type of radiation therapy is generally used to deal with lung cancers that tend to block the airways. In this therapy, the radiation process is carried out through a narrow tube, thereby, shrinking and collapsing the tumor.

The effect, dosage, and duration of radiation therapy depend on the stage and severity of the condition. In some cases, radiation therapy may be given together with chemotherapy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2818 people found this helpful

APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?

MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?

There are more than hundred varieties of blood cancer, but the most common ones are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of leukemia, is when the white blood cells in the marrow begin to grow uncontrollably. This is an acute condition and both the onset and progress are very rapid. The cause is not known, and given the rapid progress, even treatment is often difficult. A more severe form of AML is the APML which is acute promyelocytic leukemia, which leads to reduced number of white and red blood cells and plasma.

This causes the following symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Increased incidence of infections
  • Excessive bleeding from even minor cuts
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Blood in the urine
  • Extreme paleness and tiredness

What is different about APML?

There is one distinguishing factor with APML, which is that they contain a protein which when released into the bloodstream can cause severe bleeding, which may be very difficult to control. Chemotherapy kills these cells and so releases the proteins into the bloodstream. These cells need to be managed without chemotherapy, as the patient can even die of uncontrolled bleeding. With medical advances, two non-chemotherapy agents have been identified – all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, vesanoid, or tretinoin) and arsenic trioxide (ATO or trisenox).

  1. ATRA: This is a type of vitamin A which is used either alone, in combination with chemo, in combination with arsenic trioxide, and also in combination with both chemo and arsenic trioxide. The effect is different in different people – helps control spread, helps prevent recurrence, and helps control symptoms. In many people, it has been successfully used instead of chemotherapy. ATRA is also used as a long-term maintenance agent. Side effects from ATRA include fever, dry skin, rashes, mouth sores, increased cholesterol, and swollen feet. These go away with stoppage of the drug.
  2. ATO: Arsenic is poisonous when given in large amounts. However, it was discovered that it could be used to treat APML with effects similar to ATRA. It is used alone, in combination with chemotherapy, with ATRA, or with both. It helps control the growth of cells and also helps in long-term maintenance therapy. ATO dosage needs to be monitored as it can cause heart rhythm issues.

With both these drugs, there is a significant side effect, known as differentiation syndrome. Often seen during the first cycle of treatment, this happens when the leukemia cells release a protein into the blood. Symptoms include fever, breathing, kidney damage, and severe fluid buildup. With these two drugs being widely used effectively, chemotherapy is not the only treatment option for APML. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3306 people found this helpful

Modern Day Targeted Chemotherapy & Cancer Care!

MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
Modern Day Targeted Chemotherapy & Cancer Care!

In the past, cancer was a disease that could not be cured. It was a threat to mankind. But as science has developed tremendously through all these years, today it is possible to fight cancer.
Cancer therapies have evolved with time. Until the late 90s, most of the drugs worked by killing the cancer cells. Some of the normal cells were also killed by them, but it was acceptable due to the huge effect on cancer cells.

In modern days, targeted therapies are being performed. Targeted therapy is a process of cancer treatment where instead of the cancer cells, the changes in the cells are targeted. Changes that help the cells grow, divide and thus spread cancer have been observed and so researchers can diagnose the right treatment that can block these affects and prevent cancer. This therapy uses drugs and it is different from traditional chemotherapy.

There are two types of Targeted therapy.

  • Small-molecule drugs: These drugs are small so that they can enter cells easily and target the changes inside the cells. They are taken as pills. They work by keeping the tissue around the tumor and starve it by stopping blood vessels that bring it nutrients.
  • Monoclonal antibodies: These are used to target the outer surface of cancer cells. They work like a plastic plug in an electric socket. They help chemotherapy and radiation therapy to cure cancer cells.

Fields:

Targeted therapies are used in the fields below
Breast cancer
Lung cancer
Colorectal cancer
Melanoma
Kidney cancers

How It Works:
Targeted therapy can be used as a treatment option for cancer in the following ways:

  1. Destroy cancer cells: Cancer cells hide well from the immune system. This therapy points them out so that the immune system can destroy them. It also boosts the immune system to work better.
  2. Stop cancer cells growth: This therapy interferes with the proteins that divides the cancer cells and thus controls their growth.
  3. Kill the tumor: Blood vessels feed the cancer tumor. This therapy surrounds the tumor and stops the blood supply so that the tumor does not grow and remains small. And if the tumor already has blood supply, then it kills the blood vessels and causes the tumor to shrink.
  4. Deliver cell-killing substances: It delivers the cell-killing substances to the cancer cells. They are the monoclonal antibodies that are combined with chemotherapy drugs, toxins and radiation.
  5. Cause cancer cell death: Cancer cells avoid the dying process. These therapies cause them to go through the process.

Side Effects:
Targeted therapies are less toxic than standard chemotherapy. So it is a better option but it still has some side effects.

  1. Diarrhea
  2. Liver problems
  3. Skin problems
  4. Problems with wound healing
  5. Difficulty with blood clotting
  6. High blood pressure
  7. Gastrointestinal perforation

Even though it has some side effects, it is still way better and much more effective than traditional chemotherapy. So, cancer patients are advised to go through this modern-day therapy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3062 people found this helpful

Understanding About FUE & FUT Technique!

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship Reconstructive Microsurgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Gurgaon
Understanding About FUE & FUT Technique!

Hair loss is one of the major cosmetic concerns, and this could be due to multiple causes, including heredity, stress, environmental pollutants, thyroid disease, chemotherapy and vitamin deficiency. However, with advancements in surgical procedures, hair loss can be treated effectively with hair transplantation. With premature hair loss becoming extremely common, the number of women and men going for hair transplantation is constantly on the rise.

There are two main types of hair transplantation techniques i.e. follicular unit extraction and follicular unit transplantation abbreviated as FUE and FUT respectively. The hair has a root portion called the follicle, which is essential for hair growth. In both the hair transplant procedures, the follicles are replaced in the area of hair loss, allowing for regrowth of the hair. The results can vary depending on the type and quality of hair and other environmental and dietary factors.

FUE: This involves the extraction of the hair follicles from the back of the head (or other donor sites like chest or back) using a small circular instrument. Over the next few days, this is then harvested and then placed back into the recipient area. This gets ‘accepted’ in the new area and then new hair begins to grow after a few days. This entire procedure may need to be repeated until the desired results are achieved. There would be multiple, tiny, non-pigmented dots in the donor site, which may not be a significant cosmetic concern. FUE is often indicated in younger people who have shorter hair styles and have not previous hair transplants without very good results.

 

FUT: Also known as follicular unit strip surgery, this involves removing areas of the scalp which have dense hair growth. A thin layer of the scalp of about 6 to 10 inches is removed and the scalp closed. This is then divided into multiple graft strips which are then transplanted into the recipient area. The surgeon creates holes through needles or a scalpel and then plants the grafts. Another sitting might be required to increase the density of the hair. This is a simple procedure where the hair from one part of the scalp is removed and transferred to the area where there is no hair. FUT is preferred by people who prefer a better quality of hair and slightly longer hair. In both cases, it is always advisable to talk to your doctor about what to expect and have realistic expectations about the results to expect.

Response to the treatment can widely vary across people, and some may require more than one sitting if the desired results are not achieved. Seeing hair grow not just improves appearance but also improves self-image and confidence for a person.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2923 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello sir good morning. I'm brijesh, I want to know. How to fight against radiation and chemotherapy? Coz I have oral CANCER and already done SURGERY. Thank you sir.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Medical Radio Therapy, DNB
Oncologist, Bangalore
Hi, it's not fight against radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it's go along with them. You need to fight against the cancer. During the above said treatments you will be regularly monitored by your Doctors for the toxicities and managed accordingly. Additionally you should be having a positive thoughts and hopes that you will successfully fight against the cancer and follow the instructions given to you by your doctors.
4 people found this helpful

My mother has undergone angioplasty opn one stent has been placed on 04.02.2017, she is also suffering from breast cancer with 3rd stage. Pl tell what is your opinion on chemotherapy for cancer treatment i. E. When it can be started.

MBBS, MD - Medicine, MD - Oncology, Fellow of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (FRSTM & H)
Oncologist, Delhi
Dear, any chemotherapy if suggested for treatment of breast cancer of your mother, it is not going to harm your mother as regards stent is concerned. Whether she needs chemotherapy is to be determined.in some patients the status of breast cancer is such that hey do not need chemotherapy but only hormones or growth restraining single drug chemotherapy. For this we need to have all the details of your mothers history.
3 people found this helpful

I have diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS, in right breast (in biopsy report, triple negative (ER-negative, PR-NEGATIVE, HER 2-NEGATIVE). The tumor measures 4 cm* 3 cm mammographically. After giving 3 no. Of chemo My doctor suggest me for modified radical mastectomy. Please tell me if I go for complete breast removal & subsequent chemotherapy Radiotherapy is must or optional?

MD - Radiation Oncology, MBBS, DNB (Radiotherapy)
Oncologist, Howrah
Surgery is the definitive treatment for carcinoma breast. After surgery, remaining cycles of chemotherapy needs to be completed. Whether radiotherapy will be given or not depends on postoperative histopathology report.
3 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Lung Cancer
Causes of lung cancer include smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to certain toxins and family history.Treatments vary but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted drug therapy and immunotherapy.
Play video
Hair loss
Thyroid disease, anemia, protein deficiency, chemotherapy, and low vitamin levels may cause hair loss.Its a very common condition and affects most people at some time in their lives. However with timely treatment and precautions , one can easily get out of this.
Play video
Oocyte Freezing
Hi, this is Dr Leena Yadav. I am consultant IVF and reproduction with Bourn Hall Fertility Centre from the last 3 years now. I have given take home pregnancies and today what I am going to discuss with everyone here is about Egg Freezing or what we call as Oocyte Freezing. I want all the young females that they should opt Egg freezing or Oocyte freezing if they are planning to get married the late 30s or if they want a child bearing which is late after their marriage.

Why do I suggest you go for Egg Freezing?

Because the egg quality deteriorates gradually after the 30s and that is why the best time to preserve your oocytes is between 20-30 years. We would like to tell you that the egg quality deteriorates after the 30s. The females who are working and had their marriage but do not want a child right now, they can actually plan up Egg Freezing. If you plan up Egg Freezing at this point of time, that means you stop your biological clock. If you do your Oocyte freezing at 22-23 years, these oocytes can later be used to form embryos. The only thing we have to do is to de-freeze them and use these oocytes fertilise with your partner sperm and form embryos for you we can do this embryo transfer for you whenever you want to get pregnant. This can be done at the age of 35-42 years. But if you freeze your Oocytes between 20-30 years of age, you are actually stopping the biological clock there and actually focusing on having good Oocyte quality.

The other thing is you should also focus on Oocyte freezing if you have a family history of early menopause or you have a history of Pre mature Ovarian failure or if you people are diagnosed with some cancer or undergoing Chemotherapy. People who are diagnosed with cancer and are planning to have chemotherapy should prefer Oocyte or the egg freezing before taking the first cycle of Chemotherapy itself. Because if you take this decision after the cycle of Chemotherapy, then the Oocyte quality we get after the first shot of Chemotherapy will be really affected.

So, I would like that you should think about these things and get back to us. If you want to contact us for the same, you can connect with us through Lybrate and they will get you connected to us.

Thank you.

Play video
Treatment For Lung Cancer
Hi,

My name is Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal. Today, we will discuss treatments of lung cancer. Lung cancer, which was considered untreatable a decade ago, is now curable up to a large extent. The most important part of the treatment is to detect the cancer stage, for which we do the PET CT Scan. The treatment also depends on the subtypes of cancer. We are aware of ten different subtypes which are cured by different suitable drugs. To detect the subtypes, we need tissues for the biopsy, according to which we classify cancer into its subtypes. Under Stage 1, surgery is the preferred method of treatment. Stage 2 involves both surgery and chemotherapy, while the same is difficult to treat Stage 3.

Hence, Stage 3 is treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Stage 4 is treated with different types of chemotherapies, or targeted therapies or immunotherapies as per the detected subtype. The treatment has the success rate of 60%, 40%, 20% under Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3 respectively. However, Stage 4 is considered hard to cure but the survival rate has considerably increased by 25% in the last 5 years. Early detection is the key against lung cancer, but even in the case of detection in later stages, we are now able to achieve better survival rates for a longer period of time than before.
Play video
Role Of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)
Hello Everybody!

I am Dr. Kunal Das and I am the principal consultant, department of gastroenterology, endoscopy. I am an expert on endoscopic ultrasound and today will talk about endoscopic ultrasound and its role in various diseases. Endoscopic ultrasound is a new tool which is combining 2 powerful procedures endoscopy and ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound was discovered 20 years ago where it was mostly used as the research tool. Endoscopic ultrasound plays a very important role in GI interventions.

Endoscopic ultrasound is basically an endoscope which is of 2 types. Radial and linear scope. The radial scope is one which is more rounded in corrector. It helps to diagnose various diseases like stones, GI. The 2nd type of scope is linear scope in which the plain of endoscopic ultrasound towards the axis of the scope and the advantage of the linear endoscope is that it can be used to with fine needle aspiration and GI interventions. This is used in various diseases. Endoscopic ultrasound is of great utility in the diagnosis of bile duct stones, pancreatic, adenocarcinoma. With this kind of scope these are the most important causes utilizing the end staging of upper GI.

It is the most important scope and diagnostic ability for pancreatic diseases. With newer techniques we can do pancreatic fine needle aspiration, fine needle biopsy which helps us in diagnosis of pancreatic cancers and hence, we can start chemotherapy. Also, there are newer techniques in endoscopic guidance for GI interventions. In angiotherapy, we use endoscopic ultrasound as a guide. We can do fine needle injections of chemotherapy of radiofrequency ablation of pancreatic cancers. Also, newer techniques, US techniques gastroenterostomy, where US guidance use to make a cannal between the stomach and the GI. The gallbladder is accessed from the GI tract and we put in a metallic strength between the gallbladder.

So, in those cases it has been found that it is of great usage instead of gallbladder drainage has been coming out in a great way. So, we find that endoscopic ultrasound is only a research tool. It is important in all of the GI centres so because of its utility diagnostic and therapeutic usage at this time. We also find that in certain cases where there is the mismatch or ERCP which cannot be done. Endoscopic ultrasound is a very important tool in the management of upper GI, like pancreatic cancers, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, chemotherapy. And today it is the essential tool for the management of GI in our practice.

Thank You.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice