A Blood disorder is a cumulative condition of the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the plates in the blood. Each type of cells is responsible for different functions to carry out in the circulatory system. These blood cells are formed in the soft tissue found inside the bone which is known as bone marrow. The function of the red blood cells is to carry oxygen with the help of haemoglobin protein in the cells. So, oxygen is transported to several tissues and organs in the body. White blood cells are responsible for fighting infections in the body thereby maintaining its immunity. Platelets in the blood are small disc-shaped cells responsible for blood clotting. The disorder of blood cells affects their function and formation. The symptoms of blood cell disorder will vary depending upon the underlying cause of the disorder.
Some of the disorders of red blood cells that affect people of any age are anemia, thalassemia and polycythemia vera. Anemia is a condition wherein the RBC either lacks a particular mineral or doesn’t get produced or gets destroyed or gets a deformity. Thalassemia is also caused due to genetic mutation affecting the normal haemoglobin production. Thalassemia causes enlargement of spleen, deformities of the bones, cardiac problems and development problems in children. Polycythemia vera is cancer of blood caused due to gene mutation wherein excess number of RBCs are made in the bone marrow thereby making the blood more viscous and resulting in stroke or cardiac arrest. Disorders of white blood cells can cause life threatening diseases like lymphoma, leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome . Lymphoma and leukemia both are types of blood cancer due to uncontrolled multiplication of WBCs in the blood.
MDS on progressing will eventually cause leukemia. Platelet disorders are mainly genetic and inherited. Some of platelet disorders are haemophilia characterised by excessive and prolonged bleeding due to deficiency of blood clotting factor, primary thrombocythemia that causes excessive clotting of blood and thereby increasing the risk of cardiac arrest and stroke. Plasma cells in the blood plasma are important in making antibodies that maintain the immunity of the body. plasma cell myeloma is a blood cancer which occurs due to accumulation of cancerous plasma cells in the bone marrow forming tumours. Treatment for blood disorders may be through medication or surgery depending upon the underlying cause of the disorder. Medication normally involves dietary supplements and hormone injections. Surgery may also be required in order to replace or repair bone marrow and to transfuse blood in the system.
Blood disorder treatment can involve medication or surgery. Anaemia can be treated with the help of vitamin B 12 injections, oral iron and folic acid supplements or tablets. Prednisone medication is useful for treating autoimmune hemolytic anaemia thereby increasing the haemoglobin in the blood. In some patients IV immunoglobulin, cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide are used in case the relapse of the condition. Red blood cell transfusion is done to compensate for under the production of RBCs in the bone marrow. Pain in case of sickle cell anaemia can be managed with pain-relieving narcotics and transfusion if there is impairment of normal functioning of the heart and lungs. Sickle cell disease can also be treated with another medication called hydroxyurea.
Thrombocytopenia or low platelet count can be treated with steroids, anti-Rh antibody, rituximab and IV immunoglobulin. TTP or thrombocytopenic purpura is treated by exchanging the plasma in the body with new plasma as the platelets already present get accumulated and disrupts blood flow. Myeloproliferative diseases like polycythemia can be treated by removing blood from the body at a few intervals to maintain the RBC count in the circulatory system. Treatment of haemophilia involves the replacement of the blood clotting factor. If a blood clot has already formed, it can be treated with an anticoagulant injection.
Persons with blood disorder have signs and symptoms of palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, chronic infections, malaise, easy bruising of skin, bleeding of gums and from nose etc. are recommended to go for diagnostic tests. If tested positive, the person will be eligible for treatment.
If on diagnosis person is not tested positive, he/she will not be eligible for treatment.
Yes, there can be side effects for several blood disorder treatment like blood transfusion, IV immunoglobulin and rituxan can have reaction symptoms like dizziness, chills, dark urine, skin flushing, fever, nausea, hypotension, myalgia, urticarial, angioedema etc.
Regular check-ups are recommended for monitoring of conditions after the treatment is given. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, platelets and RBC and WBC count must be done after the treatment.
The time for recovery will depend upon the particular type of blood disorder. Recovery from anemia after taking iron or vitamin B12 supplement may take a month or two to have appropriate levels in the blood, recovery from blood cancer may take more than six month or may even require longer.
The price of blood disorder treatment in India may range from Rs. 1,500 to Rs. 20 lakh depending upon the type of disorder and the type of treatment required.
Yes, the results are permanent or may be required for life long.
There are no alternatives to the treatment.