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Overview

Lymphoma - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in infection fighting cells belonging to the immune system. These cancerous cells are present in a lot of body parts like the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and bone marrow. Lymphocytes modify themselves and grow rapidly when there is a lymphoma.

Two main kinds of lymphoma are there:

  • Hodgkin
  • Non Hodgkin

Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas both affect different types of lymphocytes. Each type grows at different speeds and has different responses to treatment. Despite being cancers, lymphomas are quite treatable. In many instances they get completely cured as well. Lymphomas differ from leukemia as both start in different kinds of cells. Lymphomas start in lymphocytes while leukemia start in bone marrow cells.

Causes :

In most cases scientists aren’t aware of the cause of lymphoma. You are more disposed to having it if:

  • You are above 60 years in age
  • You are male
  • You have weakened immunity due to an immune system disorder like Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease or lupus
  • You are infected by viruses like hepatitis C, human herpes virus 8 or Epstein-Barr
  • You are related to someone having lymphoma
  • You have had an exposure to chemicals like benzene
  • You have had treatment before for non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma
  • You have a high Body Mass Index
  • There has been radiation therapy done on you for cancer

A doctor can check for enlarged lymph nodes and will look for lymphoma symptoms. This doesn’t usually imply that there are cancer cells. A biopsy may be needed to detect cancer cells. To do this, a part or the entire lymph node may be removed. Another way to do this is to take small amounts of tissue from the node affected. The treatment depends on the kind lymphoma and the extent of its spread.

The main non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatments are:

  • Chemotherapy- Drugs are used to kill cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy- High energy rays are used to kill cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy – The body’s immune system starts attacking cancer cells

The main Hodgkin lymphoma treatments are radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Stem-cell transplant may be needed if the above treatments don’t have any effect. The cancer cells get killed by this treatment, but stem cells present in the bone marrow also get destroyed.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test not required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Symptoms
Swollen lymph nodes usually in the groin, neck and armpit Fatigue Itching Weight loss Night Sweats

Popular Health Tips

Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) - How To Diagnose It Correctly?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS (edinburgh), MD - R & D, FRCS Intercollegiate
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Bangalore
Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) - How To Diagnose It Correctly?

Post-Transplant Lymphoprolipherative Disorder (PTLD) is a condition or a reaction that happens post your liver transplantation or any kind of organ transplantation. There is a rapid increase in the immune cells or more precisely, the lymphoid cells in the body. These cells start increasing without any control. The seriousness of this growth can be harmless but sometimes, it can develop into lymph node cancer as well.

The major reason behind PTLD is the anti-rejection medicines that are taken by the patient to avoid rejection and attack by the immune system.

Types of Post-Transplant Lymphoprolipherative Disorder (PTLD)

  1. Early lesions: This will go away by itself, if the dose of anti-rejection medicine is reduced.
  2. Polymorphic PTLD: This is a mixture of different kinds of lymphoid cells.
  3. Monomorphic PTLD: This is the most common type of PTLD found in many people who have undergone a liver transplantation. This has just one type of lymphoid cell.
  4. Hodgkin Lymphoma: This is a very rare kind of PTLD.

Diagnosis of Post-Transplant Lymphoprolipherative Disorder (PTLD)

  1. Small and painless lump under the armpit, groin, or neck area
  2. Night sweats
  3. High fever
  4. Excessive weight loss
  5. Low appetite
  6. Unwell feeling

Usually, it is not at all easy to diagnose PTLD. The lump may grow so deep inside the body that it can be hard to see or feel it from outside. Apart from the lump, others are general symptoms and they can be a reason for any kind of infection in the body post transplantation. It can be a reaction to any new medicine taken by you or a reaction to rejection. Early diagnosis can help you in increasing the chances of a successful treatment. A biopsy is also a good way to detect PTLD, where a small piece of the liver is taken and tested under a microscope to detect PTLD.

Management of Post-Transplant Lymphoprolipherative Disorder (PTLD)
Your liver transplant surgeon is going to work closely with the lymphoma doctor in order to provide the best treatment for you. For early lesions or Polymorphic PTLD, reduction of the anti-rejection dose can give you better results. Your immune system will restore back and will destroy all the abnormal cells in the body. But it has to be done slowly so that it does not cause organ rejection again. If reduction of anti-rejection medicine is not possible or if reduction causes any kind of harm, then other treatment methods like antibody medicine such as Rituximab, or chemotherapy regimen or radiotherapy may be used.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2941 people found this helpful

APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?

MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?

There are more than hundred varieties of blood cancer, but the most common ones are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of leukemia, is when the white blood cells in the marrow begin to grow uncontrollably. This is an acute condition and both the onset and progress are very rapid. The cause is not known, and given the rapid progress, even treatment is often difficult. A more severe form of AML is the APML which is acute promyelocytic leukemia, which leads to reduced number of white and red blood cells and plasma.

This causes the following symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Increased incidence of infections
  • Excessive bleeding from even minor cuts
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Blood in the urine
  • Extreme paleness and tiredness

What is different about APML?

There is one distinguishing factor with APML, which is that they contain a protein which when released into the bloodstream can cause severe bleeding, which may be very difficult to control. Chemotherapy kills these cells and so releases the proteins into the bloodstream. These cells need to be managed without chemotherapy, as the patient can even die of uncontrolled bleeding. With medical advances, two non-chemotherapy agents have been identified – all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, vesanoid, or tretinoin) and arsenic trioxide (ATO or trisenox).

  1. ATRA: This is a type of vitamin A which is used either alone, in combination with chemo, in combination with arsenic trioxide, and also in combination with both chemo and arsenic trioxide. The effect is different in different people – helps control spread, helps prevent recurrence, and helps control symptoms. In many people, it has been successfully used instead of chemotherapy. ATRA is also used as a long-term maintenance agent. Side effects from ATRA include fever, dry skin, rashes, mouth sores, increased cholesterol, and swollen feet. These go away with stoppage of the drug.
  2. ATO: Arsenic is poisonous when given in large amounts. However, it was discovered that it could be used to treat APML with effects similar to ATRA. It is used alone, in combination with chemotherapy, with ATRA, or with both. It helps control the growth of cells and also helps in long-term maintenance therapy. ATO dosage needs to be monitored as it can cause heart rhythm issues.

With both these drugs, there is a significant side effect, known as differentiation syndrome. Often seen during the first cycle of treatment, this happens when the leukemia cells release a protein into the blood. Symptoms include fever, breathing, kidney damage, and severe fluid buildup. With these two drugs being widely used effectively, chemotherapy is not the only treatment option for APML. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3306 people found this helpful

Lymphoma - 10 Tips To Help You Deal With It!

FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Lymphoma - 10 Tips To Help You Deal With It!

Suffering from any degenerative or terminal disease like lymphoma can be really tough. It takes a huge toll on your mental health. Whether you are suffering from it or someone close to you, the impact is extremely painful and going through each day is a fight in itself. But, you must struggle. Just to minimize your anguish a little bit more, here are some ways to cope with the lymphoma:

  1. Be open about your disease: Try to talk about your disease with other people as much as possible. Talk about what you are going through. How it is making you feel, how painful it is. Share all of your feelings. Don’t be ashamed or feel bad about your disease.
  2. Deal with fear and scare: There is no point in minimizing the fact that you will be afraid and scared. But try to calm yourself down. Think about your options for treatment and consult your doctor about them. Learning about the possible treatments will make you feel safe.
  3. Try to engage in physical activities: As much as your body permits try to engage yourself in physical activities like walking, simple exercises, yoga, and other physical activities. It will help to keep your stress level in check.
  4. Get out: Don’t confine yourself to your home as it may lead to depression. Engage in daily activities like going to a grocery store, a shopping mall, a club or just for a stroll in the park. Calling your friends or your family and going out for a coffee can help a great deal.
  5. Think about financial matters: Dealing with a long-term disease can be really stressful not only emotionally but also financially. This makes it extremely important to plan your finances well. If you have health care insurance, try to go over with your agent on how much you will be covered and save money accordingly.
  6. Handle your work life: About work, talk with HRD at your office and tell him/her about your medical condition and how well you are prepared to deal with the work designated for you.
  7. Don’t push people away: In most cases, due to prolonged illness, the patients become hopeless and tries to push people close to them away. They find it extremely difficult to cope with the disease, so try to keep your loved ones as close to you as possible. If someone comes forward with a helping hand, accept it.
  8. Managing side effects: The side effects of the treatment can affect you as well. Try to go over them with your doctor before starting your treatment.
  9. Facing infertilityConceiving children can be a problem during this period. If you are planning to have children, consult a fertility doctor and check your options.
  10. Deal with relapse: If you have cancerous cells, you must be prepared for a relapse. However, it will be easier to deal with a relapse as you know what to expect and which way to go.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2064 people found this helpful

All About Multiple Myeloma

European Society For Medical Oncology certification, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS, Fellowship in Bone Marrow Transplant
Oncologist, Faridabad
All About Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer similar to lymphoma and leukemia. Normally, plasma cells make antibodies which are responsible for fighting off infectious diseases. With multiple myeloma, however, they release too much of a protein known as immunoglobulin. Due to the excess buildup of protein in the body, organ damage occurs. Multiple myeloma cannot be cured, it can only have its progression slowed down. Here is everything you need to know about multiple myeloma:

Causes:
Just like with other forms of cancer, the exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known. However, there are several risk factors which are responsible for increasing your chances of suffering from multiple myeloma.

Risk Factors:

  1. Age: Age poses as one of the most important risk factors. Being over 65 increases your chances of getting multiple myeloma, according to studies.
  2. Race: African-Americans are more likely to get multiple myeloma compared to other races.
  3. Genetics: Multiple myeloma is more likely to happen if a family member has it as well.
  4. Other Diseases: Solitary plasmacytoma, MGUS and other plasma related diseases make you more likely to develop multiple myeloma.

Symptoms: 

Diagnosis: 

Your doctor may test you for multiple myeloma if a blood test reveals:

  1. Too much calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia)
  2. Anemia 
  3. Kidney problems
  4. High protein levels in your blood combined with a low albumin level (globulin gap)

Treatment:

There is no cure for multiple myeloma; however with good treatment you can resume normal activities. Here are the treatment options-

  1. Biological therapy: These are medications given in pill form which enhance the body's immune system; so that it can fight off myeloma cells.
  2. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is when cancerous cells are killed by targeting the abnormalities within them. These are given through a vein in your arm.
  3. ChemotherapyChemotherapy kills all the cells which are growing at a rapid rate. These drugs can be given through injection or orally.
  4. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids are medicines which regulate the immune system by controlling the inflammation in the body. Corticosteroids can be taken in pill form or even through injections.
  5. Stem Cells Transplant: An autologous stem cell transplant is recommended for all eligible and suitable patients of multiple myeloma under 65 yrs of age, who show a good response to initial therapy, as it has been proven to improve survival. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
2124 people found this helpful

Dry Mouth and Eyes - Complications Associated With It!

Diploma In HIV Medicine, MBBS
HIV Specialist, Surat
Dry Mouth and Eyes - Complications Associated With It!

An immune system disorder distinguished by dry mouth and dry eyes is known as Sjogren’s Syndrome. It can also cause dryness in places that require moisture, such as throat, nose and skin. Sjogren’s syndrome is often linked to other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus (disease in which the immune system destroys its own tissues and causes inflammations). Sjogren’s syndrome normally affects people over the age of 40, and it mostly affects women.

Symptoms 
Sjogren’s syndrome has mainly two symptoms, and they include:

  1. Dry eyes: You feel like there is sand in your eyes as it burns and itches
  2. Dry mouth: You have difficulty speaking or swallowing

Sometimes, you might experience other symptoms as well, such as:

  1. Joint pain, stiffness and swelling
  2. Inflamed salivary glands
  3. Dry skin or skin rashes
  4. Vaginal dryness
  5. Continuous dry coughs
  6. Sustained fatigue

Causes
The exact cause of Sjogren’s syndrome is not known, but research strongly suggests that the autoimmune disease could be caused by genetic factors; especially if the illness has been found in more than one member of the family. Also, families with members suffering from type I diabetes, lupus and autoimmune thyroid disease can cause one or more members of the family to develop Sjogren’s syndrome.


Complications
The complications of Sjogren’s syndrome include:

  1. Dental cavities: Saliva protects the teeth from harmful bacteria that cause cavities. Since your mouth is dry, you become more susceptible to develop cavities.
  2. Yeast infections: Oral thrush, an oral yeast infection, is likely to develop if you have Sjogren’s syndrome.
  3. Vision problems: Dry eyes can cause corneal ulcers, sensitivity and blurred vision.
  4. Problems in the lungs, liver or kidneys: Inflammations can lead to bronchitis or pneumonia in your lungs; may cause cirrhosis or hepatitis C in your liver; and may lead to kidney malfunctions.
  5. Lymphoma: Some people with Sjogren’s syndrome might develop lymphoma, or lymph node cancer.

Peripheral neuropathy: Another complication of this illness is peripheral neuropathy, which is a tingling, burning and numbness sensation felt in your feet and hands.

Treatment
Sjogren’s syndrome is either treated with drugs, or with surgery. Doctors may prescribe drugs to increase the production of saliva and to treat inflammations. Alternatively, surgery is done to either seal the tear ducts or insert silicon or collagen plugs to close the ducts temporarily. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

2632 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi I am from Bangladesh, He is diagnosed as a suspected case of lymphoma. I am interested to get an appointment of an senior oncologist in kolkata on last week of this moth (october). What should I go now.

DM - Clinical Haematology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Hematologist, Durgapur
Hi, if your diagnosis is lymphoma you should get treatment from a hematologist for proper management. And you should not delay the treatment. In case you need the details you can contact me through online private consultation.
1 person found this helpful

Hi all, My mother is Non-Hodkins Lymphoma patient and she was treated for this in 2015. The treatment got completed in 2015 august. Pet-Ct is done regularly for every 6 months. A left level 1b and II cervical lymph nodes was observed with suv max of 4.8 and size of 2.4*1.3 since 1 year. Last year one left axillary node was also there with suv max of 5.8 so doctors asked us to get it biopsed and result is that its not cancerous. But now in the recent pet scan report left level 1b and II cervical lymph nodes was only present and the suv max of those nodes are less than the one that is taken in the past that is 4.4 and size of 1.7*9 mm. previously the doctors told that those nodes may no be cancerous and suggested that no biopsy is required for that node but now as there is no other nodes other than this there are threatening us to go for biopsy. As the same node is present since 1.5 years do we still go for biopsy. We are in dilemma whether to go for biopsy or not because its under neck and if something goes wrong situation will be worse. Please suggest some thing.

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
Dear user. I can understand. Please don't be panic. I suggest you to consult a oncologist in person. We are here to help you in every aspect of your mental and physical health. Any sexual or psychological problems can be cured with the help of various methods and therapies. I suggest you to post your query with every detail here. We will help you in overcoming your problems certainly. Take care.

My uncle age 49 years .his brain tumor byspi report shows- Sections examined show a tumour with features of diffuse large cell lymphoma, B-cell type. Immunohistochemestry for CD20 is strongly +ve & -ve for CD3. My question is it curable or not. Which hospital better for me treatment my uncle. please suggest me.

MD - Radiothrapy
Oncologist, Ahmedabad
Hi, primary cns lymphoma is a curable disease, Kindly do investigation mri brain, CSF cytology, MRI spine, ophthalmologist reference, bone marrow biopsy. After proper staging disease is localised, then go for induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy then consolidation chemotherapy.
3 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Lymphoma?

Two main kinds of lymphoma are there:

Causes :

The main non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatments are:

Play video
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Here are Symptoms, Transmission, and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hello, I am Dr. Ajay Kumar. I have done my diploma in medicine and also done my fellowship in HIV from CMC Vellore. So today I am going to talk about HIV.

What are the symptoms of HIV, how it is transmitted and also about the diagnosis of HIV? HIV is a retrovirus which is transmitted sexually. Apart from the sexual contact which is the most common mode of transmission, there are other modes of transmission for HIV like it can be transmitted through injections, through blood transfusions or by contaminated instruments or through mother to a child also it can be transmitted. And also it can be transmitted breast feeding. I will be just showing the short video how the virus affects the cells in the body. This is a virus, HIV virus immunodeficiency virus, which infects all the cells in our body. It especially affects the CD4 cells which are responsible for the immunity of a person. Once the virus enters the cell it will multiply. It will first replicate from RNA becomes DNA, and this DNA virus which then copies itself to our nucleus and then it starts multiplying. So over a period of time, these cells start multiplying and will be affecting so many cells, all the cells like Red blood cells, White blood cells, and other platelets. So the patient will have multiple immune deficiencies. So you can see here how the virus is replicating itself after every minute some thousands of viruses will be affecting these cells and within a short span of time new virus copies will be released. So these virus copies again will be affecting other cells and again they will be multiplying in those cells.

So here we can see the virus which has infected us come out, new more copies have produced. So once the virus infects the cells it starts killing the cells and the patient s immunity will be gradual will be decreasing so then the patient will complain of the symptoms. So what are the symptoms of HIV? In generally in initial stages, patients will not have any symptoms. Patients will be absolutely a symptomized. Later on, when the patient s immunity declines than the patients complain of some fatigue and they will complain of weakness. Then, later on, the patient might complain of fever, cough and the virus because it affects so many organs so the symptom will depend on the organ of infection. Suppose for instance when the patient is having a lung problem, like for instance the patient because of low immunity if he gets infected with some lung infection he will be presenting with a cough, shortness of breath or fever. Like for instance if the patient is getting any a headache or the patient is having some infections in the brain he can present like with a headache, it can present like with seizures like fits or it can present with loss of consciousness. Likewise, if the patient is having symptoms in the stomach like sometimes patient against of loose motions, vomiting then we might suspect that the patient is having some abdominal infection. So depending upon the organ of infection the patient might complain about various symptoms. So there is no symptom which is very specific to HIV but depending upon the organ of infection the symptoms might vary.

So WHO has given staging of HIV? Basically, there are four stages of HIV according to WHO-

In the first stage, the patients will be completely asymptomatic. They won t have any symptoms.
When they come to the second stage they will develop some minute skin infections like for instance proretipeplamatitions what we call. Patients complain of itching and sometimes the state develops skin reactions. This patient has come up with Herpes reaction. Likewise, some patients might develop skin reactions like if the patient is having herpes which is very common in HIV. So when the patients enter into stage two they will be developing all these kind of skin problems.
When the patient is not taking any treatment, adequate oral treatment then the patient enters into stage three. In stage three what happens a patient develops a lung infection, they can develop diarrhea, and they can develop loss of weight more than 10percent. They will be having a prolonged fever of more than one month, prolonged diarrhea of one month. Sometimes the patient can develop oral infections like oral candidiasis which is very common in HIV patients. You see this picture the patient is having a severe oral infection in the mouth.
Likewise, if the patient is not taking any treatment even at this stage the patient enters to stage four for what is we call as AIDS, AIDS stage that is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. In this syndrome the patient will be developing all late complications of HIV like patients can develop severe nemesis pneumonia where the patient will have severe breathlessness, won t be able to sit comfortably without taking oxygen, supplemental oxygen or the if the patient is developing some abdominal TB, the patient can present with severe abdominal distension and patient can develop severe diarrhea. Likewise, if the patient can develop multiple malignancies like cot skin lymphoma, Kaposi s sarcoma. These malignancies can affect any part of the body. They are especially a prediction for the brain. Once the patient develops malignancies it s almost in a very late stage. So by seeing the symptoms also, you can tell what the patient is in. So these are all the symptoms seen in HIV and complications.
So in the next video, we will be talking more about the complications of HIV, how to diagnose HIV and how to treat HIV and what are prevention steps that can be taken to prevent HIV. I am thankful to Lybrate for providing me this opportunity to reach patients all over India.

If you want to contact, you can contact me at Sriniwasa Hospital at Narayanguda. It is beside Deepak Theatre in Hyderabad. You can contact me through Lybrate or my website www.hivaidsclinic.in. Thank you.
Play video
Know More About HIV
What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV
What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV

HIV AIDS kaise spread hota hai, iske symptoms kya hai, iska treatment kaise karte hai, iske barey mein aaj hum baat karengey. HIV ek retrovirus hai jo usually sexual mode se transmit hota hai. Sexual mode ke ilawa yeh infected needles se bhi spread ho sakta hai yah infected blood transfusion se bhi spread ho sakta hai, aur lastly mother agar infected hai toh mother se child ko bhi aa sakta hai. Toh hum isko kaise diagnosis karte hai? Basically blood test se yeh pata chal jata hai, iske do tarah ke blood test available hai, ek se aap directly antigens ko detect kar sakte hai jaise p24 antigens yah aap directly antibodies ko detect kar sakte hai jaise ki ELISA aur western blot. Yeh test se malum ho jata hai ki patient HIV infected hai yah nahin. Agar HIV hai confirm honey ke baad patient ko hum stage kya hai pata karne ke liye further test karte hai jaise ki CD4 Count aur viral load keh ke do test rehte hai iske liye toh iske hisaab se patient ko hum 4 stage mein divide kar sakte hai stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4.

Agar stage 1 mein dekha jaye toh patient mein bilkul sympotoms nahin dikhte hai. 2nd stage mein patient ko khasi se chhotey motey bukhar aur skin infections jaise herpes infection jaise problems aa sakte hai. 3rd stage mein patient ko long term problems aatey hai jaise ki fever yah chronic lose motions jo ek mahine do mahine se zyada rehte hai aur jo dawa lene ke bawajud bhi kam nahin hota hai, yah patient ko agar tb ho jata hai, HIV patients mein 80% se zyada logo ko TB aa jata hai, toh yeh sab infections stage 3 mein aa sakte hai. Agar yeh stage mein bhi dawa nahin lete hai patient toh 4th stage yaani ki AIDS stage mein phuch jatey hai. Jismein ki patient ka CD4 count bohut kam hota hai, usually less than 100 rehta hai. Aur yeh stage mein patient ko opportunistic infections aa jaatey hai jaise ki TB, extrapulmonary TB, Lungs ke ilawa dusre jagah bhi aa sakta hai jo ki very common hai yeh stage mein.

Aur iske ilawa patient ko esophageal infections like fungal infections, oral candidiasis jaise problems aa sakte hai. Yah patient ko dusre malignancies aa sakte hai jaise lymphoma malignancies. Toh yeh stage pata karne ke baad humko kaunse treatment start karna hai iske liye hum anti retroviral treatment start karte hai jo ki HIV ko phailne se rok deta hai aur HIV ko khatam karne ke liye best treatment hai.

HIV treatment ko hum ART Treatment kehte hai. ART Treatment Government se bhi available hai aur private mein bhi available hai. ART treatment se kya hota hai, jo virus hai who kam ho jata hai. Iske wajah se hum cd4 ko badha sakte hai. CD4 count normal person mein 500 se le kar 1500 tak rehta hai, jo HIV infected rehte hai unka CD4 count kam ho jata hai. Patient ko dawa start karne se pehle counseling karte hai. Counseling mein hum patient ko iske dawa ka important effects kya hai batate hai.

Main important cheez hai dawa ko regular lena hai, isko rok nahin sakte, aise important cheez hum patient ko batate hai, aur patient ko motivate karte hai ki jo regular aap dawa logey toh apko koi bhi symptoms nahin ayengey, aur dawa lene se cd4 improve hoga aur immunity improve hoga, appetite badhega aur apka swasth thik rahega. Hum advice karte hai patient ko hamesha condom use karey aur agar aap ART treatment lete ho iske affect se HIV dusro mein phailne se rukk jata hai, to hiss tarah se humlog HIV ko prevent bhi kar sakte hai.
Aaj ke liye bus itna hi HIV ke barey mein. Agaar aap ko koi doubts hai yah apko treatment ke barey mein baat karna hai toh aap mujhe Lybrate se contact kar skte hai. Agar aap Hyderabad mein ho toh aap mujhe Srinivasa Hospital mein morning yah evening time mil sakte hai. Dhanyabaad.
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