What is Leukemia?
Blood cell cancer is also called leukemia. Blood cells have broad categories and include, WBCs (white blood cells), platelets and RBCs (red blood cells). Leukemia generally implies white blood cell cancer. WBCs are essential components of the immune system. They defend the body from invading viruses, fungi and bacteria in addition to foreign substances and abnormal cells. When affected with leukemia, the WBCs become abnormal in their functioning. They rapidly divide and over grow the normal cells. WBCs are generally formed in the marrow of the bones, but few WBC types are even produced in the spleen, thymus gland and lymph nodes. Once they have been created, WBCs travel throughout the body in the lymph and blood, having a greater concentration in the spleen and lymph nodes. The leukemia onset may be chronic or acute in nature. The cancerous cell rapidly multiply in acute type of leukemia. The disease gradually progresses in case of chronic leukemia and the initial symptoms might be quite mild. The cell’s type can also be the basis of classification for leukemia. Leukemia having myeloid cells or myelogenous leukemia is very severe. Monocytes or granulocytes are formed from immature cells or myeloid cells. Lymphocytic leukemia involves lymphocytes.
The four main kinds of leukemia are:
The causes for leukemia aren’t known. Several factors however are known to increase the risks for it.
Organs that are affected or infiltrated by cancerous cells, might also show symptoms due to leukemia. For instance, if the CNS gets affected by cancer, it may result in nausea, vomiting, confusion, headaches, seizures and muscle control loss.
Leukemia may spread to other body parts like:
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is characterized by an increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood.
Epidemiology, Incidence, Prevalence
In Western countries, CML accounts for 15–25% of all adult leukemias and 14% of leukemias overall (including the pediatric population, where CML is less common).
Why Does It Happen?
Neither you get it from your parents or infections, nor your smoking habits and diet seem to raise any chance of getting it. The only risk is if you've been in contact with high levels of radiation. Higher incidence of CML was seen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombing survivors. The rate of CML in these individuals seems to peak about 10 years after the exposure.
How would you know about it?
Blastic- The cells multiply and take over the healthy blood cells and platelets.
Complete blood count- To see how many white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets you have.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The diagnosis of leukemia in a child is followed by a discussion regarding the treatment and tenure required for complete recovery. The way in which the doctors go through the treatment after diagnosis of leukemia is based on various factors. Such factors that influence the outlook of the child are termed as prognosis.
These prognostic factors help in taking the decision regarding what sort of treatment should be offered to the child. Treatments may either be standard or intensive based on the prognostic factors. These factors, however, are vital in treating acute lymphocytic Leukemia than the other type called the acute myelogenous Leukemia. Above all these, survival rates are discussed and these rates play an important role. Parents of the child affected may at times insist that they get to know the survival rates.
The 5-year survival rates: The 5-year survival statistics are a common method used for discussing survival rates. This is the rate that denotes the percentage of children who live for a minimum of 5 years after the diagnosis of cancer. In the case of acute leukemia, it is rare for the cancer cells to come back after five years and so, you can come to a conclusion that the child has recovered.
Prognostic factors: The survival rates are based on a number of children who are diagnosed, but this is not conclusive. The type of Leukemia also plays a vital role. There are also various other prognostic factors that affect the child's outlook such as age, gender, weight, initial blood counts, and the way the child is responding to treatments. However, the survival rates are roughly the best estimates even after taking these factors into account.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia - 5-year survival rates
The survival rate for acute lymphocytic leukemia is greater than 85℅ and there is a vast improvement in this percentage over a period of time.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia -5-year survival rates
The cumulative survival rate for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia is about 60℅ - 70℅. There was a substantial increase is this percentage over time. There are a few subtypes which have a different percentage of survival rates.
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia - 5-year survival rates
50℅ is the survival rate for this type of Leukemia.
The stage where there is no sign of Leukemia after 6 weeks of treatment even after the performance of lab tests which are very sensitive, it is called as remission. The remission stage does not necessarily mean that
Leukemia has been cured completely.
In conclusion, there is a significant increase in the percentage of survival rates when it comes to cancer. It has increased from 10℅ to 90℅ in the past few years. Factually speaking, there are approximately 375000 adult survivors in the United States who were diagnosed with cancer in their childhood. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.
Allergic reactions are the body’s way of responding to foreign substances. The body recognizes these substances (be it food, pollens, insect bites, etc.) as antigens and produces antibodies. These antibodies can cause various reactions depending on the severity of the allergen, be it skin rash, hives, or angioedema. In severe cases, there could be swelling of the tongue and the respiratory tract, leading to choking of the airways.
Literally, angioedema means swelling of the blood vessels. These are located in the underlying layers of the skin and their swelling can lead to formation of giant hives, which can be extremely itchy, reddish, and oval or circular in shape. The affected area I usually warm and painful to touch.
Angioedema is caused due to the following:
Food allergies including eggs, peanuts, shellfish, milk, tree nuts, chocolates, etc.
Insect bites or stings
Pollen, latex, animal dander, poison ivy, and other common allergens
Medications like aspirin, penicillin, ibuprofen, and some blood pressure medicines
In response to blood transfusions
Auto-immune disorders like lupus
Conditions like leukemia and thyroid disorders
Infections like hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infections, Epstein-Barr infections, etc.
Weather conditions like extremes of cold, heat, or pressure
Extreme emotional stress
Genetic angioedema, passed on from parents to children, which could last forever
While hives usually develop without any warning, the following condition puts a person at risk of developing angioedema.
Predisposition to allergic reactions (highly active immune system)
Previous history of allergies
Genetic history of allergies or angioedema
Most angioedema cases are limited to the skin and hives, but there could be severe cases leading to respiratory distress.
If it is the first instance of hives, the doctor would ask detailed questions about similar occurrence in the past. They would also check if there are similar hives on other parts of the body like the back, which you may have missed. If required, this examination is followed by allergy testing and blood testing. The allergy testing will help identify if you are allergic to some of the common things which cause allergy. The blood test will look for your eosinophil count, which is usually high in people prone to allergies. C1 esterase inhibitor test and complement particles also can be checked, if there is suspicion of genetic angioedema.
This would depend on the severity of symptoms
Once you know what caused it, avoid exposure to these substances and further attacks can be prevented. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
Tongue is an important organ of your body. Without the tongue you would not have been able to enjoy one of the most pleasurable experiences of life: tasting food! Imagine how life would be without the sudden euphoria you experience when you taste something delicious. Not only do your taste buds help you to taste food, but it also rejects harmful substances like toxins and sends your brain a signal to avoid consuming it. The tongue also helps in digestion of food. It makes the food pass easily from your mouth and throat to your stomach. Apart from tasting and sending signals to your brain, the tongue helps you to talk. It facilitates speech. It alters the air in your mouth which is produced by the vocal cords. That is how you make a wide range of sounds.
Burning sensation on the tongue: This normally occurs in women who have recently attained menopause. Mood swings are also a characteristic feature of menopause. Burning sensation is rare but a symptom of post menopause. Burning sensations can also occur due to cigarette smoking.
Change in the tongue color: Many times having a pink tongue means deficiency in iron, folic acid and vitamin B-12. This can also be because of an allergy to gluten. A white tongue can occur due to smoking or drinking alcohol.
Remedies for tongue problem:
Don't consume spicy and hot food.
If you have a canker sore, try to drink only cold beverages and eat soft foods.
Rinse your mouth regularly with a mixture of warm water and salt or you can also make a mixture of warm water and baking soda.
Apply ice to soothe your tongue.
If the tongue pain persists then it is better to book an appointment with an ENT specialist or with an otolaryngologist.
What is Leukemia?
The four main kinds of leukemia are: