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Overview

Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Cancer is a class of disease which is characterized by out-of-control growth of cells in our body. There are approximately 100 different types of cancer, whereby each type of cancer is classified by the type of cells that it initially attack. This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.

However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.

According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths. According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.

This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.

Cancer is generally treated by long term medications, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required
Symptoms
A new spot on the skin, which changes its shape, size and color, can be assigned of skin cancer. If you have a nagging cough and you don’t smoke it can be a sign of lung cancer. Constant bloating in women along with pain in the pelvic region can suggest an ovarian cancer. If there is pain during micturition (peeing) in men, it can be a sign of prostate cancer. If there is swollen lymph nodes in your body that do go heal, it can be a sign of leukemia (blood cancer). Bloody stool which continues for a long period of time can predict colon cancer. Prolonged bad breath and canker sores in the mouth can be a sign of oral cancer.

Popular Health Tips

Cancer - 6 Ways To Help You Manage Your Condition!

Dr. Mangesh Mekha 89% (30 ratings)
MBBS, MD, DM - Oncology
Oncologist, Pune
Cancer - 6 Ways To Help You Manage Your Condition!
We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think. Abstain from tobacco Consuming raw tobacco or smoking tobacco can be equally detrimental to your health. Tobacco increases your chances of contracting the disease. As is known, passive smoking can also affect your health adversely. Tobacco can be the potential cause behind cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, oral cavity and even the pancreas. It might harm your kidneys and cervix. It is upon you to quit tobacco at the earliest possible. One should also try and persuade friends and relatives to give up smoking. Drink alcohol in moderation Complete abstinence from alcohol might not be possible if you have already been ushered into your work- life. The society might require you to be an occasional drinker. It is important to drink in moderation. Crossing the limit can propel consequences as serious as cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver and the heart. A balanced and nutritious diet Deciding on a plant- based diet or a Mediterranean diet can aid your fight against the risk of cancer. A Mediterranean diet will involve green leafy vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, whole grains, mixed nuts, legumes and also the use of extra- virgin olive oil. Fish can be a safe bet but red meat should be avoided. One must also try to avoid processed meat as they tend to make you prone to the risk of cancer. Immunization Hepatitis B and HPV or Human papilloma virus vaccines are extremely necessary to protect you against the sexually transmitted types of cancer. Sun protection Caring for your skin doesn’t arise from vanity. Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent kinds of cancer; the chances of this disease can be restricted by remaining in shade especially during midday, by wearing covered clothes and by using a good sunscreen lotion repeatedly while outside. Exercise diligently Did you think it was okay to have weaker muscles and bulging layers of fat? If yes, you probably have grown numb to the inadequacies you face in result. Unchecked fat can lead to obesity which further complicates health conditions. Metabolic activity differs from person to person. Regular exercising can help regulate metabolism according to the needs of your body. Physical exercise protects you against the risk of breast and colon cancer. Moderate or vigorous physical activity for 150 to 75 minutes a week respectively can reduce the risk of cancer.
3 people found this helpful

Beware! These 4 Foods Are Cancerous In Nature!

Dr. Kartik Kohli 89% (11 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Gurgaon
Beware! These 4 Foods Are Cancerous In Nature!
The food you eat is critical for your overall well-being as cancers that often affect the human body are of gastrointestinal origin. Stick to organic and chemical free foods to live a healthier life, since they reduce the risk of cancer substantially. Regular consumption of the food items mentioned below increase your risk of developing cancer, as well as many other conditions and should be avoided at all costs. Microwave Popcorn: Most microwave popcorn bags are lined with c8, also known as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), which increases the risk of certain cancers such as kidney, testicular, bladder, pancreas and liver cancer notably. Microwave popcorn also contains an artificial or synthetic butter flavoring called diacetyl, which is extremely toxic and obstructs breathing. Canned Tomatoes: While tomatoes are considered to be cancer fighting foods, their canned counterparts are extremely unhealthy and may cause cancer. This is mainly due to the lining of the cans they are put in, which contains a chemical known as Bisphenol A or BPA that has been proven to elevate the risk of infertility as well as prostate and breast cancer. Due to the high acidic level. BPA leaks from the lining of the cans and penetrates into the fruit. Tomatoes should be cooked fresh or stored in glass jars. Processed/Grilled Red Meat: Processed meats such as sausages, prosciutto, bacon, pimento loaf, bologna, hot dog, etc., contain various chemicals and preservatives such as sodium nitrate. This is added to make the meat look fresh and appealing, but are, in fact, carcinogenic in nature. Moreover, you should also avoid grilling meat, since it releases a carcinogen known as heterocyclic aromatic amines, which is another dangerous food item that smoked meat contains as it picks up tar from the smoking process. Farmed Salmon: It is imperative to avoid farmed salmon because they are fed unnatural diets that are contaminated with carcinogens, antibiotics, chemicals, pesticides and so on. They also harbor sea lice, 30 times greater in amount than wild salmon. High levels of PCBs, cancer causing dioxins, and mercury have been found in them. It is advisable to opt for wild sockeye salmon instead of farmed salmon.
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Early Warning Signs and Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer!

Dr. Subhash Chandra Chanana 89% (553 ratings)
FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Early Warning Signs and Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer!
Ovarian cancer is the cancer of an ovary. The ovaries are the two glands which are responsible for female reproduction. They produce ova or eggs and also produce the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer begins when abnormal cells in the ovary start to multiply rapidly and grow out of control to form a tumour. It is the 5th most common cancer among women. The exact cause of the cancer is unknown but the following factors increase the risk: Age: chances rise with increasing age. Infertility: Infertile women who cannot conceive are at a higher risk. Family history: I in 10 cancers are due to inherited genes like BRCA1/2. You are also at a higher risk if you have a family history of other gynaecological cancers like breast /cervical or ovarian. Hormone replacement therapy: Studies have shown a link of HRT WITH ovarian cancer. Symptoms of ovarian cancer are generally difficult to detect, but cancer may bring about early indications. The most widely recognized symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows: Irregular menstruation or bleeding post menopause Constant bloating or abdominal swelling Ache in your lower abdomen or pelvis Inconvenience eating/ loss of appetite Feeling full instantly/ constipation Urinary issues, for example, an urgent need to urinate or urinating more frequently than expected Generalized weakness /tiredness. In case that you have at least one of these side effects and it happens every day for more than two or three weeks, try to see a doctor or a specialist. These symptoms are basic for a few women. They may not imply that you have ovarian cancer. It is very important for women to understand that these symptoms do not necessarily imply that they have ovarian cancer. The same number of other common and harmless conditions can bring about the same indications. Additionally, different reasons for these symptoms are significantly more common than ovarian cancer. These may include irritable bowel syndrome and urinary tract infections (UTIs). In any case, the early indications of ovarian cancer tend to follow a pattern, which is as follows: They begin abruptly. They do not feel the same as your typical stomach-related or menstrual issues. They happen almost consistently and do not leave. However, these side effects are also common in a few women who do not have ovarian cancer. Most of the ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed at a later stage after the tumours have spread. Fortunately, around 20% of women are diagnosed early, where excellent prognosis can be achieved. Regular screening test for early ovarian cancer like General pelvic examinations now and then, followed by ultrasound examinations or blood tests for cancer-related markers, can help. If required Ct scan, MRI, PET, colonoscopy/laproscopy can be done to find the extent of the disease. In case some of these symptoms start to manifest in your body, one should go for a general check-up. Cancers detected at a later stage become difficult to treat. Hence, the sooner one knows, the better it is. So Stay healthy and informed.

APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?

Dr. Mukul Gharote 88% (25 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
APML - Is Chemotherapy The Only Way Out?
There are more than hundred varieties of blood cancer, but the most common ones are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of leukemia, is when the white blood cells in the marrow begin to grow uncontrollably. This is an acute condition and both the onset and progress are very rapid. The cause is not known, and given the rapid progress, even treatment is often difficult. A more severe form of AML is the APML which is acute promyelocytic leukemia, which leads to reduced number of white and red blood cells and plasma. This causes the following symptoms: Anemia Increased incidence of infections Excessive bleeding from even minor cuts Bleeding from nose and gums Easy bruising Blood in the urine Extreme paleness and tiredness What is different about APML? There is one distinguishing factor with APML, which is that they contain a protein which when released into the bloodstream can cause severe bleeding, which may be very difficult to control. Chemotherapy kills these cells and so releases the proteins into the bloodstream. These cells need to be managed without chemotherapy, as the patient can even die of uncontrolled bleeding. With medical advances, two non-chemotherapy agents have been identified all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, vesanoid, or tretinoin) and arsenic trioxide (ATO or trisenox). ATRA: This is a type of vitamin A which is used either alone, in combination with chemo, in combination with arsenic trioxide, and also in combination with both chemo and arsenic trioxide. The effect is different in different people helps control spread, helps prevent recurrence, and helps control symptoms. In many people, it has been successfully used instead of chemotherapy. ATRA is also used as a long-term maintenance agent. Side effects from ATRA include fever, dry skin, rashes, mouth sores, increased cholesterol, and swollen feet. These go away with stoppage of the drug. ATO: Arsenic is poisonous when given in large amounts. However, it was discovered that it could be used to treat APML with effects similar to ATRA. It is used alone, in combination with chemotherapy, with ATRA, or with both. It helps control the growth of cells and also helps in long-term maintenance therapy. ATO dosage needs to be monitored as it can cause heart rhythm issues. With both these drugs, there is a significant side effect, known as differentiation syndrome. Often seen during the first cycle of treatment, this happens when the leukemia cells release a protein into the blood. Symptoms include fever, breathing, kidney damage, and severe fluid buildup. With these two drugs being widely used effectively, chemotherapy is not the only treatment option for APML.
2 people found this helpful

Asymptomatic Neoplastic Pancreatic Cysts - How It Can Be Managed?

Dr. Aloy J Mukherjee 91% (34 ratings)
MS - Surgery, MAMS, Senior Residency , MBBS, Fellow IAGES
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Asymptomatic Neoplastic Pancreatic Cysts - How It Can Be Managed?
The diagnosis as well as management of pancreatic cystic lesions is a general problem. Nearly 1% of the patients in the chief medical centers have been observed to have pancreatic cystic lesions on cross sectional imaging. It has also been observed that a quarter of all pancreas scanned in an autopsy series contain pancreatic cysts. Earlier, these cystic lesions were regarded benign but with increasing evidence made available from the cystic lesions, they are regarded as origin of pancreatic malignancies. Information on Asymptomatic Neoplastic Pancreatic Cysts The most vital medical tools that are used in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cystic lesions include the endoscopic ultrasound and cross sectional imaging. These are used to distinguish non-mucinous cysts from mucinous cysts. The identification of pancreatic cysts creates a lot of anxiety for the clinicians as well as the patients related to the probable presence of a fatal tumor. The findings of a macro cystic lesion that enclose viscous fluid loaded in CEA are helpful in the analysis of a mucinous lesion. The most common pancreatic cysts are the non-neoplastic inflammatory pseudo cysts, and they can be detected easily by imaging. The identification of pancreatic irregularity with probable association with malignant cells is a vital source of referral for the specialist. The set of guidelines that have been proposed for the management and diagnosis of patients with asymptomatic neoplastic pancreatic cysts are based specifically on the analysis of the quality of the data. It is also designed to address the most important and frequent clinical scenarios. The diagnostic suggestions are provided based on the clinical problem as well as the risk of malignancy. Imperative Guidelines to Follow To achieve accurate diagnosis of asymptomatic neoplastic pancreatic cysts is indeed a great challenge. It is all the more important to find the reproducible methods that can be used to stratify threat of cancer for the patients. The main guidelines include a two year screening interval of cysts that can be of any size as well as stopping observation after 5 years, in case there is no change. The new guidelines, for the most part, recommend surgery if more than one concerning feature is confirmed on the MRI by use of endoscopic ultrasound. The new guidelines even suggest discontinuation of inspection after the surgery if no dysplasia or invasive cancer is identified. The guidelines have mainly been developed by use of Grading of Recomendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My father was diagnosed with bladder cancer T1G3.in april 2016 since then ned. But now on routine test of urine it showed rbc 0-1 hpf does it mean recurrence please help.

Dr. Saurabh Pandya 94% (34 ratings)
MS Surgery, M.Ch. Urology
Urologist, Vadodara
Hi, upto 5 rbcs per hpf is normal. However a sonography and yearly cystoscopy are must to diagnose any recurrence early.

Hi, Please suggest How to diagnose colon cancer without consulting a doctor and how to avoid constipation. Please Suggest me please doctors.

Dr. Guru Prasad Mohanty 90% (16 ratings)
MBBS,MD(Radiotherapy)
Oncologist, Vadodara
Colon cancer can be detected by colonoscopy or Contrast enhanced CT Scan of Abdomen and Pelvis for which you have to visit a doctor.
1 person found this helpful

Received 2 grey white soft tissue bits together 0.6*0.5*0.4 MICROSCOPY & IMPRESSION: Growth, lower lip, punch biopsy: Multiple tissue fragments showing moderately (G2) Squamous cell Carcinoma with dysplasia and acute inflammatory infiltrate.

Dr. Subhash Chandra Chanana 89% (553 ratings)
FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Yes dear it is malignancy with superimposed inflmmation must consult an oncosurgeon urgently for further management.

After being diagnosed with prostate cancer, I have undergone orchiectomy. It is been 10 days now but the surgery location has not healed up and clotting in the surgery wound is not yet occurred. Often blood is oozing from the area. Why is it taking so long to clot?

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 95% (6026 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
It is because your poor health condition... Start a Multivitamin tablet if not given. Take Homoeopathic Medicine Staphysagria 30 one dose... See if it helps.. it Consult for better treatment..

Does taking dexona weight gaining pills and ciplactin for 5 years can cause cancer.

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 95% (6026 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Yes it might... There are other healthier options like Homoeopathy... Better take that... You can consult me through lybrate.

Health Quizzes

Breast Cancer: Self-Diagnosis

Dr. Sunita Malhotra 87% (41 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Agra
Breast tissue can be lumpy yet normal and not be a cause for major concern. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
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Breast Health - Things You Must Know!

Speciality Birthing Care
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Breastfeeding lowers your risk of breast cancer. True or false? Take the quiz to find out.
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Bladder Leakage - Solutions For Incontinence!

Dr. Pushkar Shyam Chowdhury 90% (91 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCH- Urology
Urologist, Kolkata
Urinary incontinence is a recurrent problem. True or false? Take this quiz know more.
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Breast Cancer: Know The Risk Factors For It!

Dr. Ninad Katdare 91% (165 ratings)
Registrar in Surgical Oncology, Fellowship in Gynaecologic Oncology, Masters In Advanced Oncology, Fellowship in advanced laparoscopy and robotic surgery, Fellowship in Gastrointestinal Oncology, Fellowship in CRS and HIPEC, Fellowship in PIPAC
Oncologist, Mumbai
Sitting for long hours at a stretch increases your risk of breast cancer. True or False? Take this quiz to know more.
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Urinary Tract Infections - Facts You Must Know!

Urologist
Urologist, Gurgaon
Antibiotics are the best method to cure UTIs. True or false? Take this quiz now to find out.
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