What is Cancer?
Metastasis denotes distant spread of cancer from the primary organ. Treatment of any form of cancer is dependent on whether or not it has spread to distant organs. If the cancer spreads to other tissues and organs, it may decrease a patient's likelihood of survival. There are many effective treatments for metastatic cancer. These treatments fall into three main types:- Whole body treatment – this includes chemotherapy or anti-cancer medication that can reach all places of the body and radiation therapy.- Local treatment for secondary tumor alone – this includes localized surgery and removal of the tumor or localized radiation therapy on the secondary tumor alone. - Pain relief – this therapy is also called palliative therapy and is reserved for advanced cases of metastasis.
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This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.
However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.
What Experts Say :
According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths.According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.
This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.
Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.
The last stretch of the digestive system is the large intestine. Cancer of the large intestine is called colonic cancer. Like all cancers, in its initial phase, colonic cancer show up as a small benign lump of cells called adenomatous polyps. Gradually these polyps become cancerous.
What are the symptoms of colonic cancer?
Some common symptoms include-
• A break in the usual bowel routine like constipation or diarrhea
• In some cases, the consistency of the stool may change. This change lasts for more than a month.
• Bleeding during defecation or the presence of blood in stool
• Unexplained weight loss
Sometimes, not all the symptoms manifest themselves in the early phase of colon cancer. That is why, as soon as you experience even one of the symptoms, consult your doctor. If benign polyps are detected, doctors advise patients to undergo regular screening to keep tabs on the polyps.
What are the causes of colonic cancer
The exact cause of colonic cancer has not yet been identified. Healthy cells multiply following a particular code. When a cell’s DNA mutates abnormally, it becomes cancerous. The new cells that develop from it are also cancerous. This is how colonic cancer spreads. Cancerous cells even destroy healthy cells and tissues.
Is colonic cancer hereditary?
Gene mutations responsible for colonic cancer can be passed down along the blood line. These gene mutations do not make cancer inescapable but do raise the risk of cancer. In fact, very few cases of colonic cancer are actually hereditary.
The two common types of hereditary colonic cancer are-
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)- It is also called the Lynch Syndrome. This type of cancer develops by the time a person reaches the 50s.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)- people with this condition develop innumerable polyps along the lining of the colon and rectum and if left untreated progress to cancer.
• If someone in the family has colonic cancer, then a person should consider cancer screening in her/his 30s.
• A diet comprising leafy vegetables, whole grains, fruits is ideal. Vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants can help prevent colonic cancer.
• Smoking and alcohol consumption should be limited.
• 30 minutes worth of exercise at least four days a week is recommended. At the same time, keep an eye on your weight.
Surgery for colonic cancer:
In the more advanced stages, a doctor may recommend surgery to remove the cancer affected segment of the large intestine. The type of surgery depends on the stage when the cancer is detected. Surgery could be either an open surgery or a laparoscopic surgery.
• Local resection: in the early stages of colonic cancer, the surgeon uses a colonoscope to scrape away the cancerous cell from the lining of the large intestine.
• Hemi Colectomy: removing a part of the colon is called hemi colectomy. Either the left side of the transverse colon and the descending colon are removed (left hemi-colectomy) or the right transverse colon and the ascending colon are removed (right hemi-colectomy).
• Total Abdominal Colectomy: the entire large intestine is removed from the lowest part of the small intestine. The rectum and the anus remain in their places. The ends of the small intestine are sewn together.
The symptoms of colonic cancer should not be overlooked. Worldwide, colonic cancer is the second largest killer among men and women combined.
Cervical Cancer Screening has been used to detect changes in the different cells of the cervix which can lead to a serious cancer. The cervix is a kind of open which leads to the uterus and is situated at the top of the vagina. Cervical screening includes the method of cervical cytology and some other women might also undergo human papillomavirus testing. Cervical screening is often carried out by those who are more sexually active.
How does Cervical Cancer occurs in women?
Cervical Cancer occurs in women when the cervical cells become infected, abnormal is grows out of control. The cancer cells usually penetrates deeper inside the cervical tissue but in some cases the cancer cells can also spread to other organs of the body as well.
What causes Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer is caused due to a lot of different reasons. In most of the cases this type of cancer is caused due to an infection which is a result of HPV. This is a kind of infectious virus which enters the cervical cells and leads them to change. HPVs are not only responsible for cervical cancer but also cancer in the vulva, vagina, penis, anus and mouth. The cancer which are caused because of HPVs are also known as “High
HPV viruses are mostly spread when people gets sexually engaged with each other. People who are sexually active in their lifetime are bound to get these HPV viruses but in most of the cases these are destroyed by the body's metabolism. However, exceptions are there are this the cervical gets affected by cancer.
How is Cervical Cancer screening done?
Cervical Cancer Screening is really important to carry out after 6-7 months to prevent any kind of risk of cancer. It includes different tests like PAP test or a HPV test. In both these tests, the cells are extracted from the cervix and the screening process is very simple. First, the patient is required to lie on a table and a speculum is put in to use to open the vagina. This way the doctor can get a clear view of the cervix and the upper
parts of the vagina.
Now, the cells are removed from the cervix with the help of a brush or different other equipment which the doctor may use. After, the cells have been extracted they are kept in a special liquid to preserve them. Now the cells will be tested and checked for any kind of negative signs.
So as you can see that there are different kinds of information that we have covered in this article and each of them are really important before you go through the process.
Peritoneal Cancer is a rare form of cancer. It forms a thin layer of tissue in the abdomen, which lines that region. It covers the parts like uterus, gallbladder, and rectum. The structure is called the peritoneum which is made of epithelial cells. For the organs to move freely inside the abdomen, the peritoneum produces fluid.
This cancer is different from intestinal cancer or the general type of cancer which tends to spread.
Symptoms of Peritoneal Cancer:
This cancer is difficult to diagnose in the early stages. There are a few clear symptoms which appear when the cancer comes to its advance level. These symptoms are as follows:
Difficulty in breathing
Sudden weight gain or loss
Bleeding from the abdominal area like vagina and rectum
Gut health problems
The Management of Peritoneal cancer is a step by step process. It starts with recognising the symptoms. After that, a patient should consult a doctor for diagnosis. And in the end, the treatment begins according to the diagnosis and other factors.
How to Diagnose Peritoneal Cancer?
Before advising any treatment, doctors must diagnose a patient. This will help determine the best suited treatment for a particular patient depending upon the condition of the cancer.
Ultrasound: In this process, it takes a picture of the abdominal area with the help of high-frequency sound waves. It helps in detecting the cancer.
Biopsy: In this process, a small tissue of the affected area is taken and is studied under a microscope. It helps in confirming the presence of cancer cells.
Paracentesis: In this process, the fluid produced by peritoneum is tested under a microscope, to detect the presence of a tumor in the fluid.
Treatment of Peritoneal Cancer:
Different treatments are suggested at different stages of cancer. There are a few other factors which are considered before treatment such as:
Stage of cancer
Location and size
Age and health of the patient
There are multiple treatment options available that can be opted further to treat cancer:
The treatment removes the tumor altogether. Sometimes organs which are affected by the cancer including ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus are also removed to prevent harm to cancer. The surgery is often performed by gynecologic oncologists as they are familiar with the process. And, they have a higher success rate.
In this process, the drug is given to the patient on the basis of how infected the patient is with cancer. According to the severity, it is given once a week or once every two to three weeks. The drug is directly injected into the affected area by a catheter. Catheter is placed inside the skin while the patient goes through surgery.
More than a treatment, it is a caring technique for patients with advanced cancer stage. In this process, patients' overall health is taken into consideration. Palliative care helps patients to fight symptoms of cancer which include abdominal pain, weight loss, and extra fluid formation.
Other Crucial Surgeries:
CRS (cytoreductive surgery) and HIPEC (hyperthermic intra peritoneal chemotherapy) are also very effective surgical options to cure peritoneal cancer. These methods are being used widely to get rid of this life threatening problem.
There are many treatments available for Peritoneal Cancer. However, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before opting for any treatment as it depends upon the stage and condition of cancer.
There are a number of reasons that lead to oesophagal cancer, and Barrett’s Eso is one of them. Recent medical studies have revealed that Barrett’s Eso increases the risk of oesophagal cancer by 10 times. Let’s have a look at the symptoms of Barrett’s Eso and its linkage with oesophagal cancer.
What is Barrett's Eso?
Barrett’s Eso is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is a condition where the inner lining of the oesophagus (the tube that carries food from your mouth to the stomach) resembles the lining of the intestine. This happens due to the backward flow of food from the stomach.
Treatment for Barrett's Eso:
• Cryotherapy, which uses endoscopy to freeze and thaw the abnormal cells simultaneously. This process destroys the damaged cells in the oesophagus.
• Photodynamic therapy that applies light to the sensitive cells
• Surgery to remove cancerous cells of the oesophagus
What is Esophageal Cancer?
Oesophagal cancer develops in the oesophagus – the tube connecting the throat with the stomach. It is extremely difficult to detect and is mostly detected at an advanced stage. Initial symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, heartburn, and malnutrition due to loss of appetite. Its symptoms are almost similar to that of Barrett's Eso.
How is Barrett's Eso linked to Esophageal Cancer?
If one is diagnosed with Barrett’s Eso there remains a high chance of development of fatal oesophagal cancer. The abnormal cells of Barrett’s Eso in most cases are identified as precancerous. However such cases are extremely rare, less than 1%. Still as a precautionary measure, one should undergo tests to identify pre-cancerous cells to avoid complications.
Since Barrett’s Eso is connected to oesophagal cancer, prevention of on leads to prevention of the other as well.
• Healthy Diet – To prevent Barrett’s Eso, one must control the influx of acid in the stomach. Avoid excess caffeine, chocolate. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables and avoid smoking.
• Medication – Medication to control stomach acids should be taken only under the supervision of the physician.
• Lifestyle – Maintain an active and healthy lifestyle and include exercise in your daily routine.
Apart from this, it is necessary to go for timely checkups to detect early signs of Esophagus cancer and Barrett’s Eso.
Circumcision means a surgical procedure for the removal of the foreskin (tissue that covers the head of the penis). The surgery should ideally be performed at a young age. If it is performed on an older child or on a man, chances of infection go up.
Sometimes circumcision becomes necessary for medicinal reasons like-
• Balanitis (foreskin swelling)
• Phimosis (inability to retract the foreskin)
• Paraphimosis (a person cannot return the retracted foreskin to its original place)
• Balanoposthitis ( swelling of the tip the penis)
• Lowering the risks of penis-related ailments
How is circumcision performed?
The surgery is performed under partial anaesthesia (administered through an injection or a cream that numbs the penis). There are three methods (Gomco clamp, Plactibell device and morgen clamp). Any of them may be followed to perform circumcision. Circulation is cut off to the foreskin so that it does not bleed during surgery. Then the surgeon snips off the foreskin using sanitized instruments. The surgery takes around 15-20 minutes.
The pain and swelling usually subside in 5 days.
Recovery after circumcision-
If you are an adult who has undergone a circumcision, your doctor will suggest medicines that will ease the discomfort and pain following. You can get back to work within a couple of days. Rigorous activities like jogging or weight lifting should be avoided. You should also refrain from sexual activities for at least six weeks after the surgery.
In the case of circumcision on children, your child may continue to be fussy and irritated for a few days post-surgery. Ensure that the diaper is loose enough to allow the penis to heal. However, if the pain does not subdue or if there is trouble urinating and there is blood in the urine, contact your doctor immediately.
Benefits of circumcision-
It is a widely prevalent myth that circumcision makes a man infertile. It has no effect at all on a man’s fertility. There are several advantages of circumcision but all of them take effect when the child reaches puberty. The medicinal benefits of circumcision are-
Circumcision is a safe and minor surgery that is performed mainly in adherence to religious diktats but also for health purposes.
What is Cancer?
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