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Overview

Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Cancer is a class of disease which is characterized by out-of-control growth of cells in our body. There are approximately 100 different types of cancer, whereby each type of cancer is classified by the type of cells that it initially attack. This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.

However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.

According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths. According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.

This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.

Cancer is generally treated by long term medications, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required
Symptoms
A new spot on the skin, which changes its shape, size and color, can be assigned of skin cancer. If you have a nagging cough and you don’t smoke it can be a sign of lung cancer. Constant bloating in women along with pain in the pelvic region can suggest an ovarian cancer. If there is pain during micturition (peeing) in men, it can be a sign of prostate cancer. If there is swollen lymph nodes in your body that do go heal, it can be a sign of leukemia (blood cancer). Bloody stool which continues for a long period of time can predict colon cancer. Prolonged bad breath and canker sores in the mouth can be a sign of oral cancer.

Popular Health Tips

Can Renal Cysts Develop Into Cancer?

Dr. Tanmay Pandya 87% (82 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, MD - General Medicine
Nephrologist, Delhi
Can Renal Cysts Develop Into Cancer?
Simple renal cysts are often found even in normal kidneys. In fact, they are so common that they are rarely considered as a disease. Certain lifestyle traits or genetics can be the cause of renal cysts occurring in adults as well as children, though no conclusive reasons have yet been confirmed for the occurrence of the same. Medical imaging technology such as ultrasound, X-ray, and CT scanning are being extensively used to discover these lesions. In various surveys of people undergoing ultrasound for evaluation of non-kidney-related problems, generally 15% men and 7% women over the age of 50 were detected with renal cysts. Once the radiologic imaging of the cyst is obtained, the doctor can determine what further examination will be required. There are basically two types of renal cysts, simple and complex. Simple cysts are usually round, have a thin outer wall, are filled with fluid and are rarely required to be treated. Complex cysts, however, can have thicker walls with solidified mass or can also be a collection of small cysts. These are definitely required to be examined further as they can be cancerous. With the latest radiological approach to renal cysts, i.e. the Bosniak classification, observation of lesions is preferred to biopsy. Even though biopsies nowadays are largely non-intrusive, they are still recommended under very specific circumstances. This classification uses a complicated algorithm of CT scan features like size, density and perfusion and places cystic renal masses into one of the five different categories. Categories I and II are generally simple cysts, not requiring further analysis. Still, an ultrasound is repeated at intervals of 6-12 months to ensure that the cyst is not growing. However, Bosniak category IIF cysts indicate complex cysts which are required to be observed. Lack of change with time indicates that the mass is benign, while any increase indicates the possibility of cancer. Through observation, one can prevent unnecessary surgeries. It is mostly recommended that lesions falling under Bosniak III category should be immediately surgically removed as 40-50% have the possibility of becoming cancerous. However, close follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging can be used to avoid unnecessary surgeries as it is useful for characterizing the internal content of a cyst which may be is indeterminate even after the ultrasound and CT scan. Category IV lesions necessarily require surgical removal of the kidney, as nearly 85-100% of these are cancerous. More than 90% of those diagnosed with renal cancer which is confined to the kidney can hope to become disease-free within five years after diagnosis. Thus, complex renal cysts have a higher possibility of developing into cancer if they are found to be malignant during the period of observation and steps should be taken for immediate removal.

4 Types Of Vaginal Cancer

Dr. Shivani Chaturvedi 89% (40 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Agra
4 Types Of Vaginal Cancer
Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina. Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types: Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment producing cells in your vagina Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms: Diluted, watery vaginal discharge Painful urination Constipation Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse Formation of lumps in your vagina Frequent and regular urination Pelvic pain Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations, subsequently leading to the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize. Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells: Increasing age Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia Exposure o miscarriage prevention drugs

Causes And Risk Factors Of Colon Cancer

Dr. Monish De 88% (62 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Medicine, Fellowship In Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Kolkata
Causes And Risk Factors Of Colon Cancer
Cancer in colon forms due to uncontrolled cell growth in the large intestine cells. Most colon cancers originate from the healthy cells in the lining of the colon that grow into tumors called adenomatous polyps. These polyps can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant and may spread to the other parts of the body by traveling through blood and lymph systems, this process is known as metastasis. Whereas a benign tumor can grow but don t necessarily spread to other parts of the body. It takes years for these changes to develop depending upon both genetic and environmental causes. Causes and risk factors: In a healthy body, the cells normally grow, divide and then die. Cancer is the result of uncontrollable cell growth where the cells do not die. Aging is one of the important risk factors for colon cancer; other risk factors include a family history of colon cancer. As per Johns LE and Houlston RS individuals with a family history of colon cancer have a high risk of developing this form of cancer as compared to those with no such history. A study conducted by Giovannucci and others in 1995, successfully established the relation between physical activity, obesity and colon cancer. As per the research lack of physical activities elevates the chance of getting colon cancer. Individuals who regularly smoke, are obese and use aspirin have a higher risk of developing this form of cancer. Diet is also an important factor, diets that are high in fat and low in fiber may elevate the risk. Symptoms: The symptoms of colon cancer are varied, depending upon the condition of the tumor. At the early stage, patients may experience no symptoms. However, as cancer grows, symptoms arise. Diarrhea or constipation are common; patients may see changes in stool consistency and narrower stool. Abdominal discomfort, bloating, fullness and cramps may also indicate colon cancer. Sudden weight loss and unexplained iron deficiency (anemia) are also associated with this form of cancer. If these symptoms last for several weeks, don t hesitate to consult your physician. Treatment: Colon cancer is highly treatable and depends on the type and the stage of cancer along with health and other characteristics of the patient. However, there is no single treatment; the most common options are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The surgery for colon cancer is known as colectomy and involves removing the affected part of the colon and the adjoining areas including nearby lymph nodes. Chemotherapy involves killing the cancer cells by utilizing certain chemicals that interfere the cell division process and damage the proteins or DNA. In the radiation therapy, high-energy gamma rays are used to target and destroy the cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be used both as a standalone treatment and also along with other treatments.
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How Robotic Cancer Surgery Can Benefit You?

Dr. Prashant Mehta 94% (31 ratings)
European Society For Medical Oncology certification, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS, Fellowship in Bone Marrow Transplant
Oncologist, Faridabad
How Robotic Cancer Surgery Can Benefit You?
With the dawn of modern technology, the sight of robots performing a surgery is fast turning into a reality. Robotic surgery is one of the latest and greatest advancements in surgical cancer care. It is mostly sought for its unmatched levels of precision and control. The da Vinci Robot, which is a widely used robotic surgery, employs the use of 3D modelling, touch screen controls, ultra-modern surgical attachments and other robotic tools. This surgical method is one of the greatest inventions in modern surgery that aims to provide greater control to the surgeon at all times. For patients, this means quicker recovery times, minimal scarring, lower complications and higher satisfaction. Robotic cancer surgery can be performed under the following conditions: Prostate cancer Bladder cancer Gynaecologic cancer Endocrine cancer Lung cancer Gastrointestinal cancer Benefits of robotic cancer surgery: Less scarring: The minimally invasive approach of robotic surgery contributes to minimal scarring. Instead of having a deeper incision of up to 5 or 6 on the skin, patients can have a series of small incisions or one relatively smaller incision, based on the nature of the surgery. Shorter hospitalization: With minimal incisions, postoperative care is speeded and pain is lessened. This surgery will not require the patients to stay for a prolonged period of time in the hospital. At the most, they tend to spend up to two nights in the hospital, if the situation demands so. As a result of this, within no time, you can get back to your normal life. Less drugs: With traditional surgery, typically a patient is administered a lot of painkillers to alleviate pain. However, with robotic surgeries, thanks to decreased postoperative pain after surgery, the patient will not need excessive painkillers to help them deal with pain. No blood loss: During traditional open surgery, patients tend to typically lose between 600cc to 1000cc of blood, depending on the area of treatment. As a result, postoperative transfusion of blood becomes a necessity. However, during robotic surgery, blood loss is usually 200cc or less and so there is no need for transfusions. Accuracy and precision: The 3D modelling techniques and other advanced tools employed by robotic surgery allows for better planning and accuracy, which is greatly needed in cancer surgeries. Especially in the case of prostate cancer, if the tumour is in a critical location, then a robotic surgery is handy to carry out the procedure, without damaging the important nerves of erections.

Oral Cancer: Understanding How It Can Be Diagnosed!

Dr. Gagan Saini 90% (25 ratings)
MD (Radiation Oncology), DNB (Radiotherapy)
Oncologist, Noida
Oral Cancer: Understanding How It Can Be Diagnosed!
Oral cancer is the name given to cancer that develops in the tissues of the mouth or oral cavity. If you interact with a specialist, you will know that oral cancers belong to a larger group of cancers called head and neck cancers. And more importantly, oral cancers are one of the most preventable cancers. You may already be aware that cancers develop when cells begin to divide indiscriminately forming malignant tumors. In oral cancers, the dividing cells are the squamous cells found in the lining of your mouth, tongue, and lips. India is the oral cancer capital of the world and almost half of the total nber of oral cancers in the world happen in our country. Also, oral cancers have a high local failure rate and are therefore beat treated by surgery and radiotherapy in most cases. An implausible fact about oral cancers is that these are most often discovered after they have spread to the lymph nodes of the neck- which means at the stages III and IV. All cancers including oral cancers become more difficult to cure at these later stages. This is why early detection is key to surviving oral cancer. Types of oral cancers Oral cancers, to be precise, including cancers of the: Lips Tongue Gums Cheek Floor of the mouth Roof of the mouth, including hard and soft palate Usually, it s your dentist who is the first to notice the first signs of oral cancer. Risk factors Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for oral cancer. Tobacco includes smoking cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, and pipes, as well as chewing tobacco. Alcohol is another big risk factor. So, if you are one of those heavy drinkers, be aware of the scourge of oral cancer and get yourself tested periodically to rule out this killer. The risk for oral cancer also increases exponentially when both alcohol and tobacco are used together. Other important risk factors are: HPV infection i.e. human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted virus that spreads through unprotected vaginal as well oral sex Chronic sun exposure on the face, especially the lips Family history of oral or other types of cancer Men are more susceptible to oral cancers Being older than 45 Radiation exposure Having any other form of head and neck cancer Symptoms of oral cancer Sore lip or mouth that is not healing Any growth inside your mouth Bleeding from the mouth, including jaws Loose teeth Difficulty or pain while swallowing Major trouble wearing dentures A lump in neck or cheek Chronic earache Serious weight loss Numbness in lower lip, face, neck, or chin Any colored patch in the mouth or lips Diagnosis of oral cancer Diagnosis starts with a physical exam of your mouth. The physician will examine the roof and floor of your mouth, the back of your throat, tongue, and cheeks, and the lymph nodes in your neck. If your doctor finds any tumor, growth, or suspicious lesions in your mouth, she/he will perform a biopsy to collect cells from a tumor. This tissue is then examined for cancerous cells. Other tests include X-rays to see if cancer cells have spread to your jaw, chest, or lungs; a CT scan to check for and reveal any tumors in your mouth; PET scan to see whether the cancer has traveled to the lymph nodes or other organs like the lungs. Prevention An excess of sun exposure on your face and lips increases the risk of oral cancer so you can start reducing the danger of getting this cancer by using a lip balm or cream with SPF regularly. Another way to reduce risk is alcohol and tobacco cessation. Eating a balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables Removing your dentures at night and using them the next day only after cleaning them Visiting your dentist on a regular basis so that she/he can warn you about any alarming change in your mouth. Treatment Oral cavity cancers are these days treated with Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IGRT with IMRT). In this form of radiation therapy, the dose of radiation is focused only to organs at risk with sparing of critical swallowing neural and speaking structures. It also saves important organs like salivary glands and eyes etc. This has a huge impact on quality of life outcomes of patients. At the very least it decreases immediate problems that occur during radiation therapy and leads to better long-term outcomes such as it decreases the risk of mouth and closure non - healing ulcers, etc.
361 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

When to go for ct pulmonary angiography? My Echo ecg are normal? What does pulmonary angiography looks for? Can it detect. Lesion and cancer of lungs?

Dr. Shravan Kumar 88% (94 ratings)
MBBS, AIIMS new delhi , RGUHS,bangalore
Oncologist, Bangalore
Angiography is special CT scan. So lung Lesions can be detected by changing reconstruction algorithm. Needs more information to help you.

I (male) am 75 years old ,i have along Cancer since 2011. Taken the kimiotherappy& after few months Dr. Checked CT scan & found more than 90% cure, At present I am using Inlyta 1 mg tablet twice a day (one at Mor.& one at Eve. I did not feel any weakness or loosing any weight but some times blood comes with cough in morning very rarely. So please can you advise me what's the reason & what to do in such situation. THANKS.

Dr. Nikhilesh Borkar 95% (237 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Axitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in advanced or metastatic kidney cancer. If the cancer has spread to the lungs, then the metastasis can cause erosion into blood vessels, which can lead to hemoptysis, which is bleeding in the cough. You better see your doctor for the same. If you have any further questions, feel free to contact me for the same.

Hi, What are the food to be take by breast cancer patient who is undergoing chemotherapy? Please answer my question.

Dr. Nikhilesh Borkar 95% (237 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Eat small frequent meals and plenty of water. Taking frequent sips is better than taking large quantities at a time. This would help you to remain hydrated and maintain nutrition despite the nausea of chemotherapy. While you are having chemotherapy your taste can change. Some food may taste different, for example more salty, bitter or metallic. You may no longer enjoy some foods you used to enjoy. You may want to experiment to find tastes and textures you find most appealing at this time. Your taste should return to normal once your treatment has finished, although for some people taste changes can last after treatment. You may be able to eat normally throughout chemotherapy or your eating habits may change because of the side effects of your treatment. Some people lose weight during treatment, while others gain weight. There are different types of foods we should include in a balanced diet during chemotherapy plenty of fruit and vegetables plenty of chapatis, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods choose wholegrain bread varieties whenever you can some milk and dairy foods some lean meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein. If vegetarian, eat pulses and dals. In addition to this, you should: avoid sugary food and drinks too often avoid eating fatty foods too often not drink too much alcohol. Eat five to six small meals or snacks each day instead of three big meals. Drink milkshakes, smoothies, juice or soup if you don't feel like eating solid food. Doing something active, if you feel able to, can help increase your appetite. For instance, you might have more of an appetite if you take a short walk before lunch. Be careful not to reduce your appetite by drinking too much liquid before or during meals. You may find you eat more because some of the drugs given during treatment stimulate your appetite. If you are worried about gaining weight: choose low-fat foods and drinks eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables watch out for the sugar content of some diet foods avoid sugary drinks. Chemotherapy can make your mouth sore or dry, making it uncomfortable to eat. You might find the following tips helpful if you have a sore mouth. Clean your teeth or dentures with a soft brush after eating, and gently floss. Choose soft or liquid foods such as soups, stews, smoothies and desserts. Soothe your mouth and gums with ice cubes and sugar-free lollies. Drink sugar-free fizzy drinks to freshen your mouth. Use a straw to drink. Avoid crunchy, salty, very spicy, acidic or hot food Eating and drinking less than usual, being less active and taking some medications can all lead to constipation. Consuming high-fibre foods can help if you’re constipated. These include: wholemeal bread high-fibre breakfast cereal beans and lentils fresh and dried fruit. You should also drink plenty of fluid and do some regular, gentle exercise such as walking. If you’re still having problems with constipation, ask your specialist or GP (local doctor) for a laxative. Occasionally, some chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhoea. If this is a problem, you can try: reducing the amount of fibre you eat eating only small amounts of fruit and vegetables drinking plenty of fluid. Your GP or specialist can prescribe medication for diarrhoea if necessary. I hope I was able to answer your query. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
1 person found this helpful

Please suggest Which type of alternative therapy is available for advanced forth stage non small cell lung cancer and how can I achieve them?

Dr. Nikhilesh Borkar 95% (237 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
There are many who claim that they can cure cancer with Ayurvedic, unani, homeopathic aswell as Tibetan medicine. If the patient was started on geftinib as per the EGFR report, then I would advise you to continue the same as it has a good chance of response and may be long lasting in a few patients. Alternative medicines may contain steroids, which can suppress cancer for a few days (steroid are a part of chemotherapy in lymphoma) and also give sense of well-being. However if it does not have a long lasting effect and the cancer may come back with a vengeance. If you want to share the details and discuss this further, feel free to contact me directly.

What you mean by deadly malignant cancer? Will it spreads from one person to another.

Dr. Nikhilesh Borkar 95% (237 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Cancer, however deadly does not spread from one person to another like infection. Deadly cancer is usually referred by people to cancer which has already spread throughout the body or which has a chance of rapid progression and spread. Some cancers have family history and the risks are genetically transmitted. For e.g. Breast and ovarian cancers via BRCA 1 and 2 genes. HPV, HIV, HCV and HBsAg virus infections can be transmitted from person to person via sexual contact. The last three can also be transmitted via blood. HIV can also be passed from mother to child during pregnancy. If you want to further discuss the topic further in details, feel free to contact me directly for the same.
1 person found this helpful

Health Quizzes

Brain Cancer - How It Affects Your Body?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS
Oncologist, Kolkata
A brain cancer does not affect the body directly by itself. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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421 people took this quiz

Causes of Cancer - What To Expect

Dr. Monish De 88% (62 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Medicine, Fellowship In Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Kolkata
Power lines cause cancer? True or False? Take this quiz to find out
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13 people took this quiz

Colon Cancer - What Should You Know

Dr. Monish De 88% (62 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Medicine, Fellowship In Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Kolkata
Only men are prone to colon cancer? True or False? Take this quiz to find out.
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64 people took this quiz

Ovarian Cancer - What Should You Know?

Dr. Mukul Gharote 87% (29 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
Ovarian cancer refers to any cancerous growth having its origin in the female organs called ovaries, which are capable of producing eggs. It may or may not spread to other parts of the body. Usually, ovarian cancer does not show any symptoms in the beginning, but it becomes noticeable once the disease progresses. Attempt the following simple quiz to test your knowledge about ovarian cancer.
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11 people took this quiz

Gall Bladder Removal - What To Expect?

Dr. Aasim Anees Hussain 86% (12 ratings)
M.S, General Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.), Medicine, Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, Fellowship In Laparoscopic & Robotic Onco-Surgery, FIAGES
General Surgeon, Chennai
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ located at the base of the liver. The function of this small organ is the production of bile, which helps in digestion of food. However, removal of the gallbladder may be required if a patient is suffering from gallstones and in case other symptoms are detected. Attempt the quiz below to find out more about gallbladder removal.
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101 people took this quiz

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