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Overview

Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Cancer?

We often ignore certain symptoms which our body presents from time to time. Sometimes these disappear on their own, while at others, they may indicate something more serious -- the nesting of cancer cells in our body. Here are a few cancer symptoms which you cannot afford to ignore:
    Unexpected weight loss
  • Bloating
  • Skin Lumps
  • Unusual Bleeding
  • Skin changes like scaling, pigmentation
  • Discomfort during swallowing food
  • White spot on tongue
  • Persistent pain or ache in the body

Treatment :

Metastasis denotes distant spread of cancer from the primary organ. Treatment of any form of cancer is dependent on whether or not it has spread to distant organs. If the cancer spreads to other tissues and organs, it may decrease a patient's likelihood of survival. There are many effective treatments for metastatic cancer. These treatments fall into three main types:- Whole body treatment – this includes chemotherapy or anti-cancer medication that can reach all places of the body and radiation therapy.- Local treatment for secondary tumor alone – this includes localized surgery and removal of the tumor or localized radiation therapy on the secondary tumor alone. - Pain relief – this therapy is also called palliative therapy and is reserved for advanced cases of metastasis.

More about Cancer :

This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.

However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.

What Experts Say :

According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths.According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.

This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.

Cancer is generally treated by long term medications, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required
Symptoms
A new spot on the skin, which changes its shape, size and color, can be assigned of skin cancer. If you have a nagging cough and you don’t smoke it can be a sign of lung cancer. Constant bloating in women along with pain in the pelvic region can suggest an ovarian cancer. If there is pain during micturition (peeing) in men, it can be a sign of prostate cancer. If there is swollen lymph nodes in your body that do go heal, it can be a sign of leukemia (blood cancer). Bloody stool which continues for a long period of time can predict colon cancer. Prolonged bad breath and canker sores in the mouth can be a sign of oral cancer.

Popular Health Tips

The ABCs Of Cancer Prevention!

MBBS, M.S., MCh - Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Bangalore
The ABCs Of Cancer Prevention!

Cancer occurs when the controlled mechanism of the body is not able to function properly, leading to the development and rampant growth of the malignant cells in the body. These abnormally formed cells form a mass of tissues called tumor, which result in the growth of cancer. Symptoms and signs of cancer vary depending on which part of your body is affected. The early symptoms may include fatigue, loss of weight and appetite, dark patches on the skin, unexplained joint pain or bleeding.

In majority of the cases, people are diagnosed with the disease at an advanced stage where the body fails to react to any medical treatment due to low immunity and poor resistance power. There have been many contradictions regarding the prevention of cancer. Many a time, it so happens that a specific tip on how to prevent cancer recommended by one person or is advised against by another person. All these contradictions may leave you confused and baffled thinking what to do or how to steer away from cancer.

However, the notion that making healthy lifestyle choices helps prevent cancer is widely accepted these days, with the backing of science, of course. That’s why we’re here to help you out with certain ways-

  1. Avoid all forms of tobacco: It is probably one of the best health decisions you can make since consumption of tobacco can cause cancer in your oral cavity or pancreas. Smoking also has adverse effects on your health and most likely affects your lungs. If you’re having difficulty in quitting cigarettes, consult a doctor for strategies and anti-smoking medications that may help you. Also, limit consumption of alcohol to maybe once or twice a week because excessive alcohol consumption can cause cancer in the liver, esophagus or larynx.
  2. Maintain a balanced diet: Intake of red meat and saturated fat can increase the chances of prostate and colon cancer. So reduce intake of fried and charbroiled food. Include lots of fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish to your diet. Food that is rich in fiber can help reduce the risk of colon cancer.
  3. Control your body weight: One major risk factor that may lead to cancer is obesity; so, you need to maintain a balanced weight. High-calorie foods like fat from animal sources and sugary beverages increase your body weight. Exercise or any sort of physical activity can help you reduce weight and hence lower the risk of developing prostate and colon cancer. It also helps to reduce chances of breast cancer or cancer in any reproductive organ among women.
  4. Avoid exposure to radiation: Ultraviolet rays and unnecessary sun exposure can cause skin cancer and melanomas, so make sure you have taken necessary precautions before stepping out. You can go for a good sunscreen with effective SPF to keep yourself protected from the harmful UV rays.

Cancer treatments can be very strenuous and emotionally draining, so the best way to fight cancer is to prevent it from the very beginning. These tips on making lifestyle changes can be very useful in preventing cancer.

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Blood Cancer - 3 Most Common Types + Signs That Indicate It!

MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Blood Cancer - 3 Most Common Types + Signs That Indicate It!

Cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. Blood cancer affects three major components of the blood, namely white blood cells and marrow, the lymphocytes, and plasma. These are respectively known as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. The most commonly affected are the white blood cells.

Symptoms for each of these types differ; the same have been listed below:

Leukemia: Leukemia can be acute or chronic. In acute cases, the symptoms are more pronounced than the chronic ones. If the white blood cells are affected, then it causes the following:

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. Anemia
  3. Extreme tiredness and lack of energy
  4. Profuse sweating
  5. Increased susceptibility to infections
  6. Profuse bleeding during menstruation in women
  7. Swollen lymph nodes
  8. Headache and blurring of vision
  9. Bones and joint pain
  10. Chills and night sweats

The acronym TEST helps remember the symptoms of leukemia – tiredness, excessive sweating, sore joints, and terrible cases of bleeding. As white blood cells are involved in fighting infections, these individuals are also prone to easily develop infections.

Lymphoma: A type of white blood cells, lymphocytes help in fighting infections. Excessive growth of these leads to enlarged lymph nodes, which is often painless. However, other typical symptoms include:

  1. Severe coughing
  2. Swollen lymph nodes which are often generalized
  3. Severe weight loss, which is often unexplained
  4. Fever
  5. Sudden chills and night sweats
  6. Extreme/severe fatigue, even with minimal activity
  7. Abdominal fullness
  8. Itching of the skin (again unexplained)

Myeloma: This form of cancer affects the plasma, which are responsible for carrying the blood cells throughout the body. Multiple myeloma is the most common cancer in this group, and this is generally a chronic condition. Symptoms are atypical and include:

  1. Generalized weakness and fatigue
  2. Increased incidence of infections
  3. Shortness of breath
  4. Chest pain
  5. Pain in the back region
  6. Kidney issues, which can be indicative to look for myeloma

When a patient presents with a combination of the above symptoms, a detailed history is very helpful to come to a sort of conclusion. The clinical findings are then corroborated with blood screening and tests which will help pin down the diagnosis.

There are about 130+ varieties of blood cancer, but the above three are the most common ones. Once suspected, it is very easy to diagnose blood cancer with blood tests. If a person has a family history, then they should watch out for early symptoms of blood cancer, and should immediately seek medical attention when in doubt. The most common form of therapy is chemotherapy as it is a generalized condition, and radiotherapy is more suitable for localized cancers.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

887 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - Treatment Procedures At Different Stages!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Pune
Breast Cancer - Treatment Procedures At Different Stages!

Breast Cancer can be detected at various stages. Some women might feel a difference in their breast area, with a lump or kind of a skin rash around the nipple or they could see that their nipple has become inverted, so then the treatment procedures would be different. The different stages of cancer and their respective treatment procedures are discussed below:

Stage I Breast Cancer - Treatment
In this case, breast cancers are at their nascent stage, either they have not spread to the lymph nodes or might have spread to only a small area. Treatment options are as follows:

  • Surgery: The main treatment for breast cancer in stage I is surgery. These types of cancers get treatment with either breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. There are some cases when breast reconstruction can also be done along with the surgery to get rid of cancer.
  • Radiation therapy: When doctors feel the need to do a breast construction surgery, then radiation therapy is normally given after surgery. This helps in lowering the chance of cancer getting relapsed. Older women, aged close to 70 years, should go for breast reconstruction surgery without radiation therapy, provided the following conditions are true:
    • The lump was 2cm or less across and it has been completely removed.
    • None of the lymph nodes removed contained cancer.
    • The cancer is either ER or PR-positive and hormone therapy is conducted.
  • Chemotherapy and other drugs: Women who have either ER or PR-positive hormone receptor, doctors would recommend them to go for hormone therapy. The therapy is given for 5 years. In case the tumor is larger than 1cm across, adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended.

Stage II Breast Cancer-Treatment
This is the stage when cancer has spread to some nearby lymph nodes. The treatment methods followed are:

  • Surgery and radiation therapy: This second stage of cancer gets treated with breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. The lymph nodes nearby get checked either with a sentinel lymph node biopsy or an axillary lymph node dissection. Women, on whom BCS have been conducted, get treated with radiation therapy after surgery.
  • Neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy: This is another method followed for treating stage II cancer. It is a good option for women with large tumors as they shrink the tumor before conducting surgery. Chemotherapy, HER2 targeted drugs and Hormone therapy all form part of treatment in this stage II.

Stage III Breast Cancer – Treatment
In stage III breast cancer, the size of a tumor is more than 5 cm, with cancer spreading on to the nearby lymph nodes. The treatment procedures followed are:

  • Neoadjuvant therapy: Generally the stage III cancers are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is also given after surgery, followed by breast reconstruction surgery.
  • Starting off with surgery: Another treatment option for this stage is to get started off with surgery. The tumors are quite large and they even grow on to nearby tissues, which means women need to get a mastectomy. Women having large breasts can even go for Breast Reconstruction Surgery, in case cancer has not spread on to the nearby tissues.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2822 people found this helpful

Colon Cancer - Know About The Treatment Options For It!

MBBS, M.S., MCh - Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Bangalore
Colon Cancer - Know About The Treatment Options For It!

Colon cancer, also known as Colorectal cancer, occurs in the rectum or the colon. Colon is the last part of the large intestine that is connected to the anus. The food which is not absorbed and not digested in the small intestine enters the colon and finally gets flushed out through the anus. As you may know, cancer occurs when your body’s control mechanism stops functioning, leading to the formation and uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. These newly-formed cells form a mass of tissue known as tumor, which results in cancer.

Colon cancer initially develops as polyps. Polyps are abnormal growth found inside the rectum or colon, which may become cancerous if not treated at an early stage.

Early symptoms of colon cancer include- constipation, rectal bleeding, change in bowel habits, pain in the abdomen etc.

Cancer grows in stages- gradually spreading through the mucosa, lymph nodes, and eventually affecting your lungs or liver.

Treatment -

Treatment of colon cancer depends on its stage, and the three most effective treatment options recommended by the doctor are- radiation, chemotherapy and surgery.

1. Radiation: During a radiation therapy, powerful beams of X-ray are directed to destroy the cancerous cells and shrink large tumors before performing a surgery so that they can easily be removed from the body. It also helps in reducing the symptoms of colon cancer.

2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is recommended after a surgery in case the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. A standardized chemotherapy treatment uses a single or a combination of anti-cancer drugs to prevent the cancer from recurring. These are either inserted directly into your bloodstream or targeted to particular cancer sites.

3. Surgery: If you’ve been diagnosed with colon cancer in the early stage, your doctor will most likely recommend a minimally invasive approach to surgery such as-

  • Colonoscopy- during which the cancerous polyps are removed.
  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resurrection- during which the polyps are removed along with a small portion of the lining of the rectum or colon.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery- during which an instrument attached with cameras is inserted into your body to display and monitor the colon, and multiple small incisions are made in the abdominal wall.

If the cancer has spread through or into your colon, you may have to undergo the following treatment options-

  • Partial colectomy- The portion of the colon containing the cancer, along with the edge of the adjacent normal tissue is removed.
  • Ostomy- This surgery is performed to create an opening in the abdominal wall for the disposal of waste products.

In case the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it can take a toll on your health as a result of low immunity. In this case, you will be recommended a surgery to relieve a blockage of the colon or underlying conditions to refine your symptoms.

Apart from these, there are a few quick-tips that you should keep in mind- visit your doctor for frequent follow-ups, switch from a high-fat, high-protein diet to a balanced healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables. Cancer treatment can be very strenuous and emotionally draining, so the best way to fight cancer is to prevent it from the very beginning.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3303 people found this helpful

Bone Cancer - Know The Treatment Options!

MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Bone Cancer - Know The Treatment Options!

The treatment options for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer one is suffering from, the general health of the patient, the stage of cancer and the general preference of the patient. Different treatment options are designed for different types of cancer, based on the diagnosis. Each treatment responds in a different way. An oncologist decides the treatment options considering all the factors mentioned above. For instance, some cancer is best suited to surgery, while some cancer needs radiotherapy or chemotherapy to curb them. In many cases, all three modes of treatment might be required to tackle the growth of the cancer cells.

Surgery:
The goal of surgery is to eradicate the cancer cells in totality along with some surrounding healthy tissues. This involves special techniques to remove a tumor in one piece. Following are the types of surgeries that are available:

  1. Removing the cancer cells sparing the limb: At the very first sight, the surgeon tries to understand whether it is possible to separate cancer cells from the tissues and the nerves. If the same is possible, the surgeon tries to save the limb while getting rid of the cancer cells. For the sake of safety and to ensure that the surgery is effective, the surgeon removes some of the healthy bone from the body and may replace the same with tissue from other parts of the body. To achieve this, a doctor might seek the help from of a bone bank or use a special metal prosthesis.
  2. Surgery that does not involve the limbs: If the bone cancer does not involve the legs and the arm, surgeons can remove the affected bone along with some healthy bone from the surrounding areas. Cancer of the ribs and the spine are good examples of this type.
  3. Surgery that affects the limb: Bone cancer that has spread to a significant extent and is strategically located in such areas that it is very difficult to remove, requires amputation. While this form of treatment is being increasingly discouraged by the wider medical community, it still does exist. In such cases, patients are fitted with artificial limbs and trained to do their job without the use of natural limbs.

Chemotherapy:
This is a form of drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill cancer cells throughout the body. This medication is mostly given through an IV and the medication kills whatever cancer cells it comes across. 

Radiation therapy:
Radiation therapy involves the use of special X-ray beams that have high power and can kill cancer cells. The patients are required to lie on a table, while a machine moves around the affected area and treats it with high energy X-rays, thereby killing the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy to reduce the size of a tumor before operating on it. Also, Brachytherapy is another kind of radiotherapy in which plastic tubes for introducing radioactive sources are placed over tutor bed during surgery, later it is connected with brachytherapy machine to give extra high dose to tutor bed to improve cure rates.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3572 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My father age 77 has prostate cancer diagnosed recently.In the month of March his PSA was 9.74 and in May it has risen to 15.94. What does this mean? PL. Suggest whether he should go for any treatment he is slightly apprehensive about the side effects of cancer treatment. Biopsy results show he has adenocarcinoma Gleason scale 4+3=7. As such he has no problem with urine and other things are also normal. Thanks.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, Genito Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Ludhiana
His prostate cancer more staging investigations like bone scan and MRI of prostate. If is is localised to prostate then he can be watched carefully with regular psa or if he agrees radical prostatectomy. If it has spread to bones then we remove his testis and start on medication which will stop progression of disease. Kindly get these investigations and revert back.
1 person found this helpful

My dad s suffering my lung carcinoma stage 3b. His right vocal chord s palsy and not able to talk what is the remedy for it.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
What is the cause of the cord palsy? Is it an apical mass or a cervical lymph node, which is pressing on the right recurrent nerve? What treatment has been started for the lung cancer? What is the Tumor stage and Nodal stage? If the palsy is due to the tumor or node, then the hoarseness will decrease as the treatment works. Sometimes opposite vocal cord compensates for the palsy and voice improves. If you share his reports of imaging, Biopsy and the treatment started, I would be able to opine better. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
2 people found this helpful

Ayurvedic treatments for colon cancer/ blood passing through stool, weight loss, fatigue experience. Age- 65 years. No other complaints.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Better to show to a general surgeon or a gastroenterologist if you are having those symptoms. If bleeding, most commonly it is due to piles or fissure. If a local cause is found, they would treat the same. They would do a colonoscopy / upper GI Scopy if no local cause is found and Biopsy if a growth is seen. They may ask for CT scan and / or MRI if cancer detected. The cancer is curable in most of the cases if detected at an earlier stage. Many patients try alternative medicine and come to us when the stage has already advanced. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
1 person found this helpful

How long does Altraj take to stop the growth of cancer cells. I ‘ve taken it for one month but the growth of cells is same. Will it show its results after one month Thanks.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
It takes atleast 3-6 months for the hormonal therapy to show effect. If it is growing rapidly show it to your doctor. Why was altraz started and not surgery? Was the disease spread? Why is surgery not done upfront? We offer primary endocrine therapy only if Patient is unfit for surgery especially in 80-85 plus age group. If you want to share the reports and discuss this further, Feel free to contact me directly.
2 people found this helpful

My mother did test few days ago and results are as follow Stage of ovarian cancer %positivity of ca 125 Stage 1 50 Stage 2 50 Stage 3 4 >90 Test name (ca 125, ovarian cancer marker. Serum) RESULTS 16.50 Bio. Ref. Interval <35.00 Please sir explain is there any thing of worry and explain this issue in detail and future problems and what precautions to do?

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Result is less than 35 (16.50) hence normal. But why was the test done. It is not recommended as a screening test for ovarian cancer. If any symptoms then investigate accordingly. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
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Table of Content

What is Cancer?

Treatment :

More about Cancer :

What Experts Say :

Play video
Breast Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment
Namaskar,

Mai Dr. Arun Kumar Goel, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vaishali, Ghaziabad mein Cancer Surgery department ka head hoon, aur breast oncology unit ka director bhi hoon.

Mere main area of interest me breast cancer ka management ek pramukh area hai, breast cancer mahilaon ka sabse common cancer hai jo major cities hai metropolitan Delhi- NCR, Bombay aur aisi cities mein. Aur iska jo incidence hai woh badhta ja raha hai jiske kai karan hai, isme breast cancer ke ilaj mein pichle 30-40 saalon mein bahut tarakki hui hai aur aaj ke din hum dekhte hain ki breast cancer ke marijoo ka survival rate hai woh 90% se upar hai, lekin itna achha survival achieve karne ke liye hame jo hai uski diagnosis bahut jaldi karni padti hai. Toh yeh ek bahut sabse important baat hai, jo sabse common symptom hai breast cancer ka woh hai breast mein ek lump ya ganth ka hona. Ab breast ki ganthe kuch cancerous hoti hai kuch non-cancerous hoti hai, lekin jab bhi koi ganth ho toh yeh possibility zaroor sochna chahiye ki kahi cancer to nahi hai aur turant ek cancer specialist ya breast surgeon se opinion lena chahiye. Cancer ki diagnosis banane ke liye usme kuch janche hoti hai jisme mammography ya ultrasound hota hai, fine needle aspiration cytology ya biopsy hoti hai aur kabhi kabhi breast ka MRI bhi kiya jata hai. Toh agar cancer confirm hota hai toh phir uske baad kuch staging test karte hain yeh dekhne ke liye ki bimari sharir mein kahin faili toh nahi hai, jyadatar cases me bimari localised hoti hai aur uska ilaj jo hai sabse pehle operation ya surgery ke dwara kiya jata hai jo meri main feild hai. Jyadatar logo ko breast cancer surgery mein jo pareshani hoti hai ki pehle ilaj hota tha usme purye breast ko remove kiya jata tha jise hum log mastectomy kehte thye, lekin agar mareez early stage mein aata hai ganth bahut badi nahi hai to pura breast nikalna zaroori nahi hai, hum log breast conservation surgery ke dwara breast ko bchaa sakte hain. Isme aage aur kafi advances huye hai aur aaj kal hum log jo approach follow karte hain jis bolte hain oncoplastic breast conservation surgery, jisme jo cosmetic results pehle se bhi bheter hai. Agar kuch marijoo mein pura breast nikalna zaroori bhi hota hai toh reconstruction bhi kiya ja sakta hai. Aur ek nai approach jo surgery mein aaj kal hum log use kar rahe hai jise kehte hain Sentinel lymph Node Biopsy, yeh armpit ki jo ganthe hoti hain nodes unke management ke liye ek latest approach hai aur iss approach ka istemal karne se jo hathon mein sujan aane ka risk hai Lymphedema wo kafi kam ho jati hai. Toh surgery basically jo ho jati hai uske baad kuch marijoo mein additional treatment ki zaroorat ho sakti hai jaise chemotherapy hai, radiotherapy hai, ya kuch dawaiya hai jo hormonal intervention karti hain. Toh surgery ke baad kafi marijoo mein jo pehela ilaj hoga woh chemotherapy hota hai, jo 4 se 8 cycle tak diya ja sakta hai. Radiotherapy jin marijoo mein hoti hai woh bhi again aaj kal karib 3 hafte mein puri ho jati hai jo ki pehle usme 6 se 7 hafte lagte thye, aur nahi radiation technology ke through jo side effects hai radiation ke wo kafi kam ho gaye hain. Isi prakar hormonal therapy jo hai woh yeh radiation or chemo khatam hone ke baad di jati hai jis mein sirf ek tablet hoti hai jo marijoo ko ghar pe regular istemal karna padta hai aur wo 5 se 10 saal tak use ki ja sakti hai. Ek aur important cheez yeh hai ki jo bhi cancer ke marij hote hain unko ek regular follow up pe chalna padta hai, toh ilaj pura hone ke baad har 3 mahine baad unhe apne surgeon ke pass follow up ke liye jana chahiye, jisme examination jo hai woh ek bahut important part hai. Phir uske baad kuch testing ho sakti hai jaise chhati ka x-ray hai, ultrasound hai, mammography hai, aur agar koi aur takleef hoti hai tu Bol Scan, MRI, CT ya Pet Scan bhi kiya ja sakta hai. Iske alawa breast cancer ke marijoo mein jo ek aur cheez hoti hai hum log ek jo usko promote karte hain woh hai support group ka concept, jisme breast cancer ke survival aapas mein milte hain, ek doosre se cheeze discuss karte hain aur support bhi provide kar sakte hain aur isse unki jo future life hai wo kafi better rehti hai. Toh mein yahi kahunga ke cancer se aapko waise bhi nahi darna chahiye aur breast cancer ke jo aaj ke din success rate hai wo bahut hi acchi hai toh bina darre janch karaye aur apna ilaj pura kare.

Dhanyavad, Thank you.
Play video
Causes, Symptoms and Prevention of Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer is caused due to the abnormal growth of cells which can invade or spread to other parts of the body easily. The treatment of this cancer does vary worldwide.
Play video
Cancer Of Cervix (Cervical Cancer)
Hello friends,

I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.

So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.

If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.
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