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Overview

Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Cancer is a class of disease which is characterized by out-of-control growth of cells in our body. There are approximately 100 different types of cancer, whereby each type of cancer is classified by the type of cells that it initially attack. This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.

However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.

According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths. According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.

This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.

Cancer is generally treated by long term medications, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required
Symptoms
A new spot on the skin, which changes its shape, size and color, can be assigned of skin cancer. If you have a nagging cough and you don’t smoke it can be a sign of lung cancer. Constant bloating in women along with pain in the pelvic region can suggest an ovarian cancer. If there is pain during micturition (peeing) in men, it can be a sign of prostate cancer. If there is swollen lymph nodes in your body that do go heal, it can be a sign of leukemia (blood cancer). Bloody stool which continues for a long period of time can predict colon cancer. Prolonged bad breath and canker sores in the mouth can be a sign of oral cancer.

Popular Health Tips

Prostate Biopsies - Ways You Can Avoid It!

Urologist
Urologist, Gurgaon
Prostate Biopsies - Ways You Can Avoid It!
One of the most common issues with old age in men is the enlarged prostate. Any difficulty with urination (no constant stream, difficulty initiating, or incomplete emptying of the bladder for instance), and the first suspect is an enlarged prostate. These symptoms are followed by a digital rectal exam to check for an enlarged prostate. Once confirmed, the next step is to check for levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If both the exam and the PSA are positive, it could mean prostate cancer. As with any cancer, it is believed that sooner it is diagnosed and the treatment is started, the better. Historically, the best way to rule out the prostate cancer had been to do a prostate biopsy. This is a minor invasive procedure, wherein biopsies are taken from various regions of the prostate which are known to develop cancer (about 12). A disadvantage of this procedure includes missing out on the front part of the prostate which can also develop cancer. Secondly, it is not a very pleasant experience and given a chance, most men would not want to have it done. There is good news for these men who would like to avoid prostate biopsies. The first is the multiparametric MRI which uses no x-rays and is considered very safe with extremely accurate results. This MRI exam requires about an hour, and once the images are obtained, the doctor will analyse these images and check for several parameters to assess for prostate cancer. The absence of cancer can be confirmed with up to 90% accuracy, which is far greater than with usual biopsies. If there is a possibility of cancer, then a biopsy can be done to confirm it. Also, these images indicate the exact region where cancer likely is, and this guides the doctor to biopsy only where absolutely essential. The chances of false positive and false negative results are reduced drastically. The one disadvantage here is that MRI detected biopsies usually tend to be of a higher grade which requires immediate treatment. Another way to reduce chances of the biopsy by 30% to 50% is by the 4K test. It helps detect a variety of prostate issues including cancer. It can be used once higher levels of PSA is identified and before going for a biopsy. It combined 4 prostate-specific biomarkers with clinical information to accurately provide men with a risk of developing prostate cancer. It can be used even after negative biopsies to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer. These two measures can drastically reduce the incidence of prostate biopsies, which is neither pleasant for the patient nor very effective for the doctor.
1 person found this helpful

Can Inverted Nipples be a Sign of Breast Cancer?

Dr. Rupak Banerjee 92% (116 ratings)
Doctor of Medicine, DGO
Gynaecologist,
Can Inverted Nipples be a Sign of Breast Cancer?
Common symptoms of breast cancer Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows. 1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues. 2. Blood discharges - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury. 3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor. 4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways. However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others.
5 people found this helpful

How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Kolkata
How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?
Physical therapy can help, ease the symptoms of treatment and aid in rehabilitation following reconstructive surgery. Easing pain Reducing fatigue Promoting bone density Stimulating the immune system Reducing stress and depression Ridding the body of toxins Decreasing swelling and inflammation Treating lymphedema One of the most beneficial treatments for cancer patients is exercise to prevent bone loss and maintain strength. A customized exercise program will be created that factor in the type of cancer treatments you re receiving, your overall health and physical condition. Breast cancer strikes fear into the hearts of men and women who have been diagnosed, along with family and loved ones. Physical therapists has treatments and therapies to help ease the effects of chemotherapy, radiation, mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. Breast cancer and associated treatments can be scary and have far reaching effects. Physical therapy can help you meet those challenges of the body, mind and quality of life.
1 person found this helpful

Surgical Treatments For Uterine Cancer

Dr. Sanjaya Mishra 91% (230 ratings)
MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Surgical Treatments For Uterine Cancer
The uterus is an organ situated in the pelvis of a female. It is hollow and is usually called the womb where child conception takes place. The uterus functions to help in developing the foetus until birth. Abnormal cell growth that consists of uterine tissues causes uterine cancer. Although the exact reason for uterine cancer is not known, the risk factors usually can be seen in women with hyperplasia, obese women, and women who have never had kids. Common signs and indications of uterine cancer are unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain while urinating and having sex, and pelvic pains. Bases upon the sort and phase of cancer, and also your concerns about fertility, there are a number of uterine cancer surgical methods, including the following: Hysterectomy: The primary focus is an operation to remove the uterus and cervix. At the point when the uterus is removed through a cut in the abdomen, it is known as a total abdominal hysterectomy. In case that the uterus is removed through the vagina, it is known as a vaginal hysterectomy. Radical Hysterectomy: A radical hysterectomy will be necessary for only a small percentage of women since several better surgical options exist already. This kind of uterine cancer surgery includes removing the uterus, cervix and ovaries and the majority of the encompassing tissue (the parametria) and the upper part of the vagina. Lymphadenectomy: The lymph nodes in the pelvis may likewise be removed. Your specialist may evacuate the lymph nodes as a component of a hysterectomy to deal with cancer and build up a more focused approach for the uterine cancer treatment plan. Pelvic Exenteration: For women with repetitive or advanced uterine cancer, pelvic exenteration might be an alternative. During this kind of cancer surgery, the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, bladder, rectum and surrounding lymph nodes are removed. Tissue from somewhere else in the body is used to recreate the vagina and urine and stools are passed into external packs. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping: Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLN) might be utilised as a part of early-stage cancer if your specialist can see from the X-ray results that there has been no undeniable spread of cancer to the lymph nodes in your pelvis. In this surgery, a blue dye is infused into the zone with cancer, which is usually close to the cervix. The lymph nodes that turn blue are removed during surgery. Omentectomy: The omentum is a layer of greasy tissue that covers the stomach contents like an apron. Cancer at times tends to spread to this tissue. At the point when this tissue is removed, it is called an omentectomy. This might be done during a hysterectomy if cancer has spread there or to check for possible cancer spread. After surgery if the stage comes beyond stage 1 then patients need Radiotherapy by an oncologist.
2 people found this helpful

Thoracic Ultrasound - What You Can Expect After Undergoing It?

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 89% (33278 ratings)
MD PULMONARY, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Thoracic Ultrasound - What You Can Expect After Undergoing It?
When your doctor suspects of the presence of extra fluid in your lungs, you might be advised for a thoracic ultrasound. What is a thoracic ultrasound and why do you need it? With a thoracic ultrasound, your doctor will be able to look at everything in the thoracic cavity and can know if your lungs, heart, and other structures in the chest are working fine. The pulmonologists can efficiently determine the lung condition even in critically ill patients using a non-invasive ultrasound technique. And, since the method is based on sound, there is no risk of exposure to potentially harmful ionizing radiation or nephron-toxic contrast dye in this case. Hence, a thoracic ultrasound has become the most preferred technique for conducting a preliminary examination or to further check and confirm a finding noted using other imaging techniques for thoracic diseases. Reasons to have a chest ultrasound The doctor usually refer an ultrasound when he or she can feel that there is some extra amount of fluid in your chest. The ultrasound can tell the physician the reason behind the deposition of excess liquid. The ultrasound would help detect the type of fluid that is present in the chest, whether it is exudate that is caused due to inflammation, an infection, or lung cancer, or whether it is transudate that is a leakage from the lymph nodes or the blood vessel. It determines the movement of the diaphragm. Chest ultrasound can be done in conjunction with other examinations like CT scan, MRI to evaluate the condition of the chest. It has to be noted that, in certain circumstances such as severe obesity and barium in your esophagus, the procedure can give an inaccurate result. Hence, it is always advisable to talk with the health care provider and share your complete medical history before undergoing this procedure to prevent such occurrences. After a Thoracic Ultrasound After the results of the ultrasound are received, the doctor can detect what the condition of your chest is at the moment. Your doctor will also confirm if the lungs have collapsed or if there is water in the lungs, or excess fluid has deposited into the lungs. Ultrasound can also reveal if you have pneumonia. A diagnosis like this does not take a long duration, and thus the ultrasound plays a significant role in expediting the treatment process. There are no hard and fast regulations to follow after the ultrasound. The physician may recommend few instructions depending on your situation. In typical cases, there is no special preparation like fasting is required and you need not be sedated during the ultrasound as well. A safe and painless method to detect the condition of the chest and the respiratory organs and the blood flow through the organs in your chest, a thoracic ultrasound is a preferred procedure that can help your doctor to diagnose your condition and decide upon the treatment method.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I am a badminton player and I recently got pain in my groin muscle during one of my session. I have done icing and also taken ibuprofen but pain is not decreasing. What should I do?

Dr. Julie Mercy J David Raja 90% (3321 ratings)
Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
You can do hotwater fermentation which will definitely help you to feel better. Stretch both your hips ie. You can sit on the floor and stretch both the legs which will help you to feel better after the self stretch.
1 person found this helpful

A hypoechoic SOL (2.88*2.75*2.95 CM)is seen in upper and inner quadrant of left breast. A small lymph node (0.79*0.53 cm) is seen in left axilla. We have done FNAC and report shows infiltrating Duct carcinoma. Is it cancer or tumor? How to proceed further. I am Female age 47.

Dr. Sandeep Jha 89% (256 ratings)
DNB (Surgical gastroenterology, MS( General Surgery), MBBS, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgery, Fellow of International College of Robotic Surgeons
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Yes, it is cancer. You should immediately visit a surgical oncologist or general surgeon as soon as possible. It requires treatment asap. What are you waiting for?**For complete evaluation and treatment, Kindly visit the doctor in person with all available reports. *This is just an preliminary opinion not to be used for medico-legal purpose.

How can we diagnose CANCER at an early stage. What type of tests you suggest. Kindly inform.

Dr. Vinod Dhakad 90% (43 ratings)
M.Ch - Oncology, MS - General Surgery, M.B.B.S., F.I.A.G.E.S.
Oncologist, Bhopal
Different kind of cancers have different screening tests. You can discuss what kind of screening test you should under go.
2 people found this helpful

My mother has 4th stage cancer ovarian cancer we had given 5 chemo but its not working and ovarian mass had spread till rectum so please guide me further what to do.

MBBS, MD, CCEPC, FISSP, OBS, NFPM
Oncologist, Delhi
All cancers can not be treated by chemo radiation. Chemo may not benefit in stage 4 cancer. Recent research tells that unnecessary chemo may reduce quality & life span too. Any cancer has only 4 treatments. Surgery, chemo, radiation and pain treatment (MIPI). Pain is the most common problem in stage 3 or 4. please remember Pain definitely can be controlled / treated at any stage of cancer. Pain relief needs dedicated pain management treatment usually offered by Pain specialist doctors. In addition to best cancer specialists, ACCN is proud to have one of the best pain specialist doctors of India. Pain management and cancer treatment goes side by side. Demand a pain free cancer treatment. It is to be remember always that first best and safe treatment for advanced cancers is pain relief treatment with MIPI. Only then one should take other treatments. Pain free journey of cancer ie pain free cancer treatment helps in prolongation of life. Contact on phone or over internet for further discussion.
1 person found this helpful

My father have a cancer in his food pipe nd doctor's advice to do chemo and radiation therapy so I want to ask that what is the total estimate of this therapy Becoz we r from medium family we r not from rich family so Plss give me the total estimate of these therapy.

Dr. Vinod Dhakad 90% (43 ratings)
M.Ch - Oncology, MS - General Surgery, M.B.B.S., F.I.A.G.E.S.
Oncologist, Bhopal
Different centers have different cost of the treatment ,if you want to know about its cost at our centre at bhopal it's approximately Rs70, 000 to 120,000 (depending upon type of Radiotherapy) for carcinomas esophagus.

Health Quizzes

Breast Cancer - How Can You Reduce Its Risk?

Dr. J P Mour 89% (21 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Guwahati
Diet has got no role in reducing the risk of breast cancer. True or false. Take this quiz to find out.
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Skin Cancer: Prevention and Causes

Dr. Nitin Jain 86% (243 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), DDV, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Pune
The more sunscreen you apply, the more you are close to developing skin cancer. True or False? Take this quiz to find out.
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Understanding Cervical Cancer

Dr. Mohan Krishna Raut 90% (81 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Cervical cancer starts developing right from when the cells in the cervix start changing. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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Breast Cancer- Signs you must not ignore!

Dr. Anuradha Khurana 91% (156 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Any changes in the appearance of the nipples could be a sign of breast cancer. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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Breast Cancer and Homoeopathy

Dr. Rashmi Shukla 88% (4346 ratings)
BHMS, MD - Alternate Medicine
Homeopath, Nagpur
Consuming peanuts is bad for your health as they increase your risk of breast cancer. True or false, take this quiz to know more.
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