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Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Last Updated: Jan 17, 2023

What is Cancer?

Cancer is a wide range of illnesses characterised by uncontrollable growth of cells that damages the healthy bodily tissues. Cancer can spread throughout your body. While certain cancers cause cells to grow and divide rapidly, others cause them to grow at a slower rate. Some types of cancer can lead to tumours.

Summary- Cancer is a usual division of cells that often results in tumors.

What are the types of Cancer?

Cancer comes in a variety of forms. The five main types of cancer are:

It is the most common type of cancer that affects the epithelial tissue. It appears in the form of tumours on the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas and kidneys.

Sarcoma is a group of cancers that affects the bones and connective tissues like muscles, blood vessels, tendons, nerves and fat.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that appears in the immune system's lymphocytes, that helps in warding off infections.

Leukemia is a blood cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues, lymphatic system and bone marrow. It prevents our body to fight against infections.

It is an acute skin cancer. It affects the melanocytes that helps in the production of melanin. It occurs due to abnormal growth of the melanoma.

Summary- The important types of cancer are: carcinoma, leukemia, melanoma, sarcoma and lymphoma.

What are the causes of Cancer?

Cancer is an inherited condition. It occurs when the genes controlling cell activity produce aberrant cells and disrupts the body's functions.

According to medical experts, genetic abnormalities passed down through inheritance account for 5% to 12% of all cancer cases. Typically, an acquired genetic mutation causes cancer.

Summary- Heredity is the main cause of cancer.

What are the risk factors of Cancer?

The following are cancer risk factors:

  • Smoking
  • Poor nutrition
  • Overweight
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Radiations
  • Hormone therapy

Summary- The important risk factors of cancer are: drinking, smoking, unhealthy diet, excess weight and radiation exposure.

How to Prevent from Cancer?

There are several strategies to lower your chance of developing cancer:

  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Avoid smoking
  • Use sunscreens to avoid radiation
  • Drink in moderation
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain healthy body weight

Summary- Cancer can be prevented by taking a healthy diet, avoiding smoking and drinking, maintaining a healthy body weight and doing exercises.

How to Diagnose Cancer?

Ways to diagnose cancer are:

Physical Examination:
During a physical examination, the doctor looks for various symptoms of cancer like lumps, unusual skin tone, enlarged organs and other similar abnormalities.

Imaging Tests:
It can be used to examine bones and internal organs. Various imaging tests used to detect cancer are X-ray, CT scan, MRI, PET, bone scan and ultrasounds.

Lab Tests:
Y In order to identify irregularities that could be caused by cancer, your doctor may conduct laboratory testing, such as blood and urine tests. For instance, a typical blood test called a complete blood count can be used to detect an unusually high or specific type of white blood cells in leukaemia patients.

During a biopsy, the physician removes a sample of cells for laboratory analysis. One can obtain a sample in a variety of ways. Your cancer's nature and location will determine which biopsy approach is best for you. A biopsy is the only reliable method for identifying cancer.

Summary- Cancer can be diagnosed by imaging tests, biopsy, physical examination and lab tests.

What are the treatments of Cancer?

Treatments for cancer include:

It uses medicines to kill cancer-causing cells. It may be administered orally or intravenously via injection.

Radiation Therapy:
It uses radiation to kill the cancer-causing cells and prevents them from spreading and multiplying.

In immunotherapy, the immune system is stimulated and made strong to fight against cancer. It helps to prevent the production of cancer-causing cells.

Bone marrow transplant:
The doctor implants healthy stem cells into the blood for replacing the infected blood cells and rebuilding the bone marrow. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used to do it.

It is used to remove the lymph nodes from the body and prevents the spread of cancer to other body parts.

Hormone Therapy:
In hormone therapy, several hormones are injected into your body to block the spread of cancer-causing hormones.

Summary- Cancer can be treated with the help of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, hormone therapy and bone marrow transplant.


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Written ByDr. Jagdish Shinde MD - Radiothrapy,MBBSOncology
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