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Kidney Disease: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Nephritis is inflammatory kidney disease caused by infection but is mostly caused by autoimmune disorders and nephrosis is noninflammatory kidney disease. Treatment and management of nephritis depends on the cause provoking the inflammation of the kidney. In case of lupus nephritis, hydroxychloroquine can be used. Immunotherapy is most significant methods for patients to recover from lupus nephritis. Chronic kidney disease is loss of kidney function. It is a long term form of kidney disease. The main aim in case of chronic kidney disease is to slow down or stop the progression of chronic kidney disease. Control of blood pressure and treatment of original disease are the principles of management. At the last stage replacement therapy is done. Acute kidney injury is a sudden loss of kidney function that develops within seven days. Treatment depends on the cause. The main goal is to prevent cardiovascular collapse and death.

How is the treatment done?

Chronic kidney disease can be classified into five stages. Stage one is the mildest and stage five is the most severe condition. If the cause of CKD is vasculitis or obstructive nephropathy , it may be treated directly to delay the process of damage. In advanced stage treatments for anaemia, kidney bone disease or chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder may be needed. Treatment of blood pressure is also required. Usually, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor are used which slow the progression and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events like heart failure, stroke, etc. At stage five, renal replacement therapy is applied in the form of either dialysis or a transplant. In prerenal acute kidney injury without fluid overload, administration of intravenous fluids is the first step to improve kidney function. Myriad causes of intrinsic AKI require some specific therapies. Intrinsic AKI due to vasculitis or glomerulonephritis may respond to steroid medication, and in some cases plasma exchange. Renal replacement therapy such as with hemodialysis may be used in some cases of AKI. Dialysis is used in those who are suffering acute kidney injury or stage 5 chronic kidney failure. There are three types of dialysis- hemodialysis, peritonial dialysis, and hemofiltration.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

If a patient is detected with an increase in serum createnine or protein in the urine, then the patient must undergo treatment of chronic kidney failure. If there is accumulation of urea in the body which can lead to fatigue, loss of apetite, headache, nausea, vomiting and if there is increased potassium level leading to abnormal heart rhythms then the patient must consult a doctor. In order to get kidney transplantation patients must meet some standardized criterias which are based on lab tests and amount of waste product in a man’s blood. Age and health conditions are also considered.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

As there are some adverse effects of certain treatments like low pressure is the most common complication of haemodialysis, it is better to consult a doctor. Patients with serious medical histories should seek suggestion before any treatment. Like if a patient has high sugar, liver transplantation may not be suggested to him.

Are there any side effects?

There are some side effects of dialysis and kidney transplantation. Low blood pressure is the most common side effect of dialysis. Nausea and vomiting are also associated with this. Patients undergoing dialysis in winter can experience dry or itchy skin. Another common side effect is that a patient keeps on moving their leg because their leg nerves and muscles create a crawly or prickly sensation. It also leads to muscle cramping. Hernia is a potential side effect of peritoneal dialysis. Patients also had to deal with anxiety and depression. Kidney transplantation carries risk of significant complications like- blood clots, bleeding, infection, failure of donated kidney, rejection of the donated kidney etc. Anti-rejection medicines have side effects like diabetes, bone thinning, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, infection, etc. Angiostenin-converting-enzyme inhibitor shows some adverse effects like hypotension, cough, hyperkalemia, fatigue, dizziness, nausea.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Some post treatment guidelines are required especially after transplantation and dialysis. In case of transplantation, anti-rejection (immunosuppressant) medications are given to prevent the body from rejecting new kidney. Treating infections is the best way to keep transplanted kidney healthy. As there remains a risk of getting heart disease, so it is better to control high blood pressure. Maintain healthy weight, stop smoking. In case of dialysis, a patient will need to limit certain food intake, doctors may recommend certain vitamins. Smoking is prohibited and medicines like ibuprofen, naproxen should be avoided unless the doctor prescribes.

How long does it take to recover?

Medications will be given in accordance with the disease. Time of recovery will thus depend on the disease and its stage. Dialysis does not cure kidney disease but does the function of normal kidney in case of kidney failure. Hemodialysis is generally done 3 times a week for four hours each. In case of chronic kidney failure patient will have to take dialysis for the rest of their lives. Nephritis is curable and will recover after right medication. If the symptoms recur then recovery will take time. Nephritis resolves completely in 60% adults and 90% children.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Cost of treatment depends on the method chosen to treat the kidney disease and the health condition of the patient and the stage of the kidney disease. The cost of getting haemodialysis is around Rs.12000-15000 per month while in case of peritoneal dialysis it is around Rs.18000-20000 per month. Getting a transplant done costs around Rs.4 lakhs on an average.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

There are various methods of treatment of kidney disease. In case of dialysis, it is usually permanent but not always. Acute kidney failure can get better with treatment but in case of chronic kidney failure the kidneys are severely damaged and cannot get better even after dialysis. In case of kidney transplant patient’s own body can reject the new organ.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are some alternative treatments for chronic kidney diseases. Emphasis should be laid on dietary modifications. Foods rich in protein especially pulses, spinach should be taken in moderation. Use natural diuretics like Celery leaves, cucumber, tomatoes, grapes, watermelon when swelling is profound. There are certain herbal remedies used in treating kidney diseases. Punarnava is very useful herbal diuretic; varun is another excellent care for kidney failure; gokshur is used as a diuretic and a herbal tonic for genitor-urinary system. These herbal remedies are very useful for maintaining kidney health.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range: Rs.500-Rs.5 lakhs

Popular Health Tips

What Happens When Kidneys Fail & Signs That Indicate It

MD, MBBS, FRCP - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi
What Happens When Kidneys Fail & Signs That Indicate It

A lot of bad things can and do happen when the kidneys fail.  The kidneys are vital for proper bodily functioning because they filter liquid and solid waste products out of the blood and allow vital chemicals (which the body needs for functioning) to flow into the body through the bloodstream.  People can become very sick when the kidneys either fail to perform these functions or fail to perform them properly.  Many people will get chronic kidney disease, therefore, they need to know what the causes and symptoms are in order to treat, and even prevent these diseases from occurring.

People who suddenly experience the following symptoms should see a nephrologist as soon as possible for a medical examination:  blood or protein in the urine, kidney stones, acute kidney injury, kidney infections, and/or pain, and Hepatitis C and kidney disease.  

Blood in the urine can be a sign of kidney problems which can lead to kidney disease.  Additionally, people who urinate frothy or bubbly urine, or have swelling in the hands, face, and feet should see a doctor because this is a sign of protein in the urine.  Protein in the urine can be detected by a urine test.  Kidney stones can be very painful and are problematic.  They are caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys.  Men and white people tend to get kidney stones more, and they can cause blood in the urine, painful urination, sharp lower abdominal or back pain, and nausea and vomiting.

Acute kidney injury occurs when the kidneys stop functioning altogether in a short period of time.  Because this disease can be deadly, those with this disease should get immediate medical help.  Usually, the very sick patients in hospitals get this disease, but it can also be caused by certain medicines, injury, or infections.  This type of kidney disease is easily reversible. 

Symptoms include

  1. Not passing enough urine when urinating
  2. Leg, ankle, or feet swelling
  3. Fatigue
  4. Breathing problems
  5. Confusion
  6. Nausea, and chest pressure or pain

Kidney infections tend to be caused by bacteria that have spread from the urinary tract.  Women, because of their anatomy, tend to get kidney infections more than men. 

Symptoms include:

  1. Fever
  2. Vomiting
  3. Back, side or groin pain
  4. Chills
  5. Nausea
  6. Frequent urination
  7. Frequent urges to urinate
  8. Painful or burning urination
  9. Pus or blood in the urine
  10. Cloudy or foul-smelling urine

Kidney pain in the lower back or sides can signify more serious kidney problems.  They can be caused by urinary tract infections, polycystic kidney disease, kidney infections, blood clots, and/or bleeding in the kidneys.  
Hepatitis C is a disease that attacks the liver and can cause kidney disease.  

Symptoms include

  1. Loss of appetite
  2. Nausea
  3. Fever
  4. Fatigue
  5. Vomiting
  6. Dark colored urine
  7. Grey colored stool
  8. Joint pain
  9. Yellow skin and eyes

While kidney diseases are at best unpleasant, and at worst, life-threatening, they can be avoided by drinking lots of water, eating a healthy low salt diet, and watching for any changes in health and urine over time. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2839 people found this helpful

Kidney Damage - 6 Tips That Can Help Prevent It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Damage - 6 Tips That Can Help Prevent It!

The incidences of kidney ailments, be it an acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease or end stage renal disease (a severe kidney disorder that can trigger fatal consequences) are on a rise like never before. It is a wrong notion that only medicines can safeguard your kidneys from a diseased condition. Some simple tips and lifestyle modifications which, if practiced diligently, can go a long way to maintain the kidney health, keeping various kidney problems at bay.

  1. Regular health check-ups: It is a well-known fact that medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia often plays a catalytic role interfering with the proper functioning of the kidneys. Thus, individuals with any of the mentioned ailments should be extra careful about their health and carry out the necessary precautionary measures to keep the diseased condition under control. In fact, every person (healthy or not) should go for regular health checkups and screenings. When it comes to your health, it is better to be safe than to regret lifelong.
  2. Keep the body hydrated: In addition to a myriad of health benefits, drinking water throughout the day (preferably 8-10 glasses of water daily) contributes notably to shield the kidneys from damages. A well-hydrated body also enhances the filtering capacity of the kidneys to a notable extent.
  3. Quit smoking immediately: The deleterious consequences of smoking are known to all and sundry. Prolonged and uncontrolled smoking often leads to the hardening of the arteries which, in turn, plays a contributing role resulting in Nephrosclerosis. Quit smoking before it affects your health and kidneys beyond repair and treatment.
  4. Choose your diet wisely: When it comes to kidney health, some foods, especially those rich in phosphorus, sodium, dairy products and meat (source of animal protein), coffee and other caffeinated drinks, synthetic and artificial sweeteners (particularly Aspartame, Saccharine), to name a few, can affect the kidneys with inimical consequences. Instead, opt for the foods such as spices (onion, garlic), fruits (apples, peaches, watermelon, grapefruit, cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, cherries), cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, cabbage), olive oil, probiotics which are all known to boost the kidney health.
  5. Maintain your body weight: Various research suggests that obesity, especially morbid or severely obese people stand a higher risk of suffering from kidney disorders. Thus, one should make efforts to stay fit and keep their body weight within a healthy range. Avoid being a couch potato. Regular exercise and physical activities can work wonders to control the body weight.
  6. Stress and anxiety, a nemesis: Severe stress, left unattended for long, can give rise to many physical and mental complications including hypertension and kidney problems. Thus, effective measures should be implemented to reduce or manage stress. While meditation and yoga are known to have a soothing and refreshing effect on the mind and the body, following a healthy sleep cycle (sleep early and wake up early in the morning with at least 6-8 hours of daily sleep) can also help to lower the stress to a great extent.

Kidney Health - Foods That Are Good For You!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Health - Foods That Are Good For You!

Kidneys play a vital role in maintaining the healthy balance between the body fluids by filtering out the harmful chemicals and toxins out of the body and the blood which gets flushed out with the urine. Thus, proper functioning of the kidney is vital to ensure a sound health. At times, some diseased conditions or unhealthy lifestyle habits (such as uncontrolled alcohol consumption, not drinking sufficient water, suppressing the urge to urinate regularly) can have deleterious and threatening effects on the kidneys. In addition to the above-mentioned triggers, the diet can also have an impact on the kidney health.

Some foods are known to work wonders to keep the kidneys healthy and disease free. In this article, we will discuss some of the foods that are indeed a blessing for kidney health and should be a part of our diet. Healthy foods for the kidneys Zeroing upon the right type of foods (both solids and fluids) can go a long way to keep the various kidney ailments at bay, ensuring that the kidneys function optimally. 

  1. Red bell peppers: Low in potassium and laden with Vitamins (A, B6, C, folic acid), Fiber and Lycopene (an antioxidant that comes with many health benefits), red bell peppers can do the kidney a world of good. 
  2. Garlic: Garlic comes with anti-inflammatory, anti-clotting, and antioxidant properties, all of which are essential to keep the kidney healthy. 
  3. Onion: Onion, on the other hand, is rich in flavonoids, chromium, and quercetin and is the right and healthy choice for the kidney. 
  4. Cauliflower: Cauliflower is known for high fiber, Vitamin C, and folate content and contributes towards keeping the kidney healthy. 
  5. Berries: The berries, especially Strawberry, Blueberries, Raspberries, are all rich in Vitamin C, folate, manganese, antioxidants and fibers and are considered extremely beneficial for the kidney. Cranberries are equally healthy and keep a host of kidney and urinary tract infections at bay. 
  6. Omega-3: Fish that are a rich source of antioxidants and Omega-3 fatty acids are considered to be kidney-friendly and should be a part of your diet. It is also a healthy option to include cherries (high in antioxidants and phytochemicals), apples (high in fiber and comes with anti-inflammatory properties), and olive oil (rich in oleic acid and antioxidants) into the diet. 

A well-hydrated body enhances the functioning of the kidneys by several folds. Thus, one should sip water throughout the day. Limit your daily intake of sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams. Avoid processed foods as they contain preservatives and high amounts of salts. The intake of animal proteins, foods rich in phosphorus, dairy products, caffeinated drinks, and beverages should also be in moderation as these foods can trigger inflammation of the kidneys as well as the formation of kidney stones. Foods rich in LDL or the bad cholesterol are best left avoided. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Tubulo Interstitial Diseases Of The Kidney

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi
Tubulo Interstitial Diseases Of The Kidney

Tubulo-interstitial diseases of the kidney is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the kidney that share similar features of both tubular and interstitial injury. Primary categories of this disease includes, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis.

Acute interstitial nephritis is an acute form of kidney injury characterized by an inflammation reaction in the interstitial tissues of kidney and presence of edema, which usually spares the glomeruli. The hallmark of interstitial nephritis is the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment. Infiltrating cells are mainly T cells and monocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. An acute inflammatory reaction is most commonly caused by a hypersensitivity reaction of a drug.

Other causes include

  • Infections
  • Idiopathic or immune mediated
  • Medications that most commonly cause allergic reactions are antibiotics (Ampicillin, Oxacillin)
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • Bacteria implicated in causing this disease are Legionella, Brucella, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Leptospira and Chlamydia.
  • There is a presence of swelling in between the kidney tubules.

Kidneys function to filter the circulating blood and remove toxins. Water and certain organic materials are re-absorbed from the filtered blood and unwanted products are released from the body via urine. Swelling of the tubules disrupts the normal filtration function of the kidneys. 


  • Most common symptom of interstitial nephritis is decreased urine output. It may increase in some cases. People can be symptomless in some cases. Other symptoms of interstitial nephritis include fever, presence of blood in urine, fatigue, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, water retention and bloating sensation in the body.
  • This disease does not have racial, age or gender predilection. It can affect anyone, of any age group. However, kidney toxicity depends on cumulative effects of toxic substances which means more the kidney is damaged due to toxic substances, the higher the risk of the kidney suffering from subsequent damage. With advancing age, the general functioning of the kidney is affected. This makes advanced age a risk factor for acute interstitial nephritis.

Clinical features

  • Sudden decrement in the renal function is a typical presentation. It is most commonly seen in an asymptomatic patient or a patient who has been put on a new medication.
  • It may occasionally present as renal failure.
  • In the presence of an infection, a maculopapular rash, fever and eosinophilia are characteristically seen.
  • Occurrence of skin rash >50 % of patients, fever > 75 % of patients and eosinophilia > 80% of patients.
  • Pain in the lumbar and pelvic region.


  • Presence of mild to moderate proteinuria
  • Gross hematuria
  • Sedimentation of red and white blood cells
  • WBC casts, occasionally RBC casts are also present
  • Increased serum creatinine levels
  • Oliguria
  • Confirmation of the diagnosis can be done by renal biopsy.

Treatment: Removal of the offending agents, discontinuation of the etiologic drug is the most important treatment modality. Complete recovery is inversely proportional to the duration of renal failure.

Chronic interstitial nephritis
The tubule cells undergo atrophy and there is a flattening of the epithelium. Basement membrane of tubules are frequently thickened. Cellular infiltrate is composed of lymphocytes, with only occasional neutrophils, plasma cells and eosinophils. There is a relative preservation of glomerular function until late in the disease, but an impairment of tubular functions like urine concentration, dilution, acidification and potassium excretion is seen early.

5 Diet Tips To Manage Polycystic Kidney Disease!

DM - Nephrology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Nephrologist, Gurgaon
5 Diet Tips To Manage Polycystic Kidney Disease!

Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder where fluid-filled cysts or sacs develop within the kidneys. The disease is a genetic disorder and the development of multiple cysts is due to structural abnormalities of the renal tubules. Eventually, the cysts enlarge and replace the kidneys. Sometimes they can even spread to the liver and cause kidney as well as liver damage. Although the cysts are non-cancerous, their proliferation and enlargement cause severe functional abnormalities of the kidneys.

Polycystic kidney disease if unchecked causes kidney failure and other severe complications like high blood pressure, urinary tract infections, blood in urine and kidney stones. Other symptoms of enlarged cysts are increased abdominal size, feeling bloated in the abdomen, backache and headache.

Diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease is not easy because the symptoms may not be very apparent for years. But if your parent or siblings or child has the disease, there are chances of you getting it too. So, it is advisable to get a screening done by your doctor if you have an affected relative or observe signs and symptoms of the disease.

The disease once diagnosed can be treated using medications but lifestyle changes and adoption of a healthy balanced diet helps to manage the disease to a great extent. Here are 5 tips that you can consider to manage the disease:

1. Stay Hydrated
To help your kidneys function appropriately, be sure to keep yourself hydrated thoroughly. It is the function of the kidneys to filter and flush out toxins from the body. So, to make its job easier it is always recommended to drink a lot of water and vegetable juices. Drinking cranberry juice has been proven to benefit in getting rid of the cysts.

2. Eat More Fibre
A healthy diet includes a good supply of vitamins and minerals along with fibre-rich foods that make digestion and flushing toxins out of the body more convenient. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables have always helped in reducing stress on the kidneys. Include a lot of green leafy vegetables like lettuce, peas, lentils, broccoli and sprouts.

3. Balance Protein
It is important to have a considerable amount of protein in your diet but the consumption must also be monitored so that you do not consume it in excess. Excess protein puts stress on the kidneys and less protein can cause malnutrition. Protein-rich foods like pulses, beans, eggs, meat, fish, yoghurt, cheese and nuts can be consumed in proportion to your weight and age. Consult your doctor or dietician for the amount of protein that you need.

4. Check Salt Intake
Too much salt intake increases your blood pressure. So to manage polycystic kidney disease it is important that you limit your salt intake. Avoid using table salt and excess salt in cooked foods. Also consider the hidden salts present in foods like that in takeaways, ready to eat meals, processed bread etc.

5. Sip Herbal
Herbal tea with parsley, marshmallow, chamomile, basil or other such herbs can be consumed twice daily to maintain a good health. Avoid caffeinated drinks completely. Herbal teas generally contain antioxidants and other trace minerals which help to keep your body healthy.

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Popular Questions & Answers

I have chronic kidney disease of creatine of2. 3.I have BP and diabetes since 20 years. I am 65 years old. Suggest treatment.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, Genito Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Ludhiana
Please consult a nephrologist for further advice because you need regular creatinine monitoring and strict diet control otherwise it will start rising.
1 person found this helpful

Dr. Has prescribed me Tolvaptan 15 mg BID to continue life long. I have poly cystic kidney disease, my mom also have such cysts since long, she is now 62 years old. Please advise how long to continue. Is it safe. It is very expensive medication. I had done my sonography as well.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, DNB - Urology
Urologist, Gurgaon
Best shall be to consult a nephrologist. The research are yet to conclude. They say it slows the decline of kidney function in polycystic kidney disease.
1 person found this helpful

My father aged 70 neither BP nor sugar but recently got sick and admitted in hospital (platelets count also came down to 10000 now recovered. Reports said that he has 4.75 creatinine. Will creatinine come down by medicine? What are the things to eat? Requesting you please answer.

Endocrinologist, Delhi
Creatinine 4.75 indicates low kidney function. You should consult a Nephrologist who will try to find out its cause and whether it is acute or chronic to suggest you line of treatment.
1 person found this helpful

Which is better test for detecting early kidney damage -the spot albumin to creatinine ratio test or spot protein to creatinine urine test? My mother's routine urine test is normal. She has hypertension and prediabetes. Her creatinine and bun are also within normal range.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in EP
Cardiologist, Delhi
These two tests are similar. You can order the first one If you want good health, tests is not a good way. Correct diet is the secret to good health. It will reverse her diabetes, protect her kidneys and prevent any further diseases. Diabetes is caused by modern high-glucose diet. Even her thyroid problem probably due to same.
2 people found this helpful

Female 42, my kidney function report says Blood Urea-72 mg% (10-45) S.creatinine-2.7 mg% (0.6-1.4) S.uric acid-8.7 mg% (3.0-7.0) S.sodium-138mEq/l (135-155) S.potassium-5.9mEq/l (3.5-5.5) Ionised Calcium-1.19mmol/l (1.12-1.32) My feet are swelling and I am not feeling any itchiness during urination. Need to do GFR test tomorrow. Any suggestions or help.

DNB - Urology/Genito - Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Dehradun
You are suffering from chronic kidney disease. Do you have DM. I think it's better to consult Nephrologist. He can give better advice. Also you should do USg abd.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
kidney Diseases
Kidney diseases can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a condition in which the kidneys fail to work normally. The symptoms of kidney disease depend on the type of disease that a person has.Treatment of kidney disease depends on the type of disease, the underlying cause, and the duration of the disease.
Play video
Is It Dangerous For Kidney To Hold Your Pee?
Hello friends,

I am Doctor Anirudh Kaushik and senior consultant Urologist at Holy Family hospital and my clinic is complete family Clinic and program.

Today I will talk about stone disease especially the kidney stone disease. In Kidney Disease wants her very prevalent in North India and this part of Delhi Haryana and Rajasthan. The incidence of kidney stones is very high or simply because of hot weather kidney stones can be of many times it can be a renal stone which is a kidney stone and lying on one side not obstructing then it required only medical management system can be a kidney stone which is blocking the urinary passage most likely require surgery.

And many times when the patient comes with the stone is stuck in the ureters the urinary stones are the most troublesome because the cause severe policy the prevention of kidney stone why North India has so much prevalence of kidney stone is one should drink at least four to five litres of water in summer season or 3 to 4 litres of water in winters if you give yourself well hydrated anyone if you have a tendency to take excret certain salts in your urine those salts will remain hydrated has been detected and will not give rise to formation of Crystal and one thing very important to understand here is if you have been really very religiously taking care of your hydration but if even for 5 minutes if urine is concentrated then a crystal formation offering can precipitate formation of a stone because crystal forms that are the foundation stone laid of a stone in the future.

However stones can again be treated with swl which is extracorporeal shock wave Lithotripsy but the stone sem enable for this modality of treatment are the one which is not very obstru ctive in nature and now we don't treat big stones with this because this modality the advantage meaning that the shock wave is given from outside no surgery of any kind is performed but it only brake system and the passage of all those broken down fragments is on the person so bigger the stone more the fragments more fragments will have to fast way we are seeing all these treatments main give you problem so that is why is wl is not so popular as we thought it would be the most commonly used mortality for treatment of kidney stone is PCNL in which a punctured is down to the skin write into the kidney and a guide wire is passed into the kidney and all that died by v dilator track and have access to the kidney through a tube through that you will pass a telescope in break the stone with laser and all the broken down fragments are immediately removed through that tube which has access from the skin to the kidney and at the end a stand double standard space inside and this is about the kidney stones the other states which are very commonly found unitrix stone for that the modality is like you refer scopic Lithotripsy or RIRS same principal telescope is passed into the ureter stone is seen and broken down with the laser and Statistics it so it requires only one or two days of hospitalization and one is free of the disease

Thanks you.

Play video
How To Protect Your Kidneys And Keep Them Healthy?
Good Evening Folks!

I am Dr. Sunil Prakash, nephrology. I want to talk to my friends about how to save our kidneys. Kidney diseases are becoming incrementally explosive in India. It is possible due to bad lifestyle and bad food habits and due to pollution and our food change and water change being poisoned by excessive use of fertilizers, chemicals and pesticides. That is why more and more patients are now coming with advanced renal failure. Some important causes of kidney failure are diabetes, high blood pressure and pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis means inflammation of the kidneys. To prevent kidney disease, I would give you the small formula which I say avoid 5 S. First S is sugar. Avoid excess sugar because excess sugar causes diabetes.

And diabetes causes 50% of kidney diseases. 2nd S is extra salt to be avoided. Increased salt intake gives rise to high blood pressure which causes again lot of kidney failure. 3rd S is smoking. Smoking is bad for heart and kidney and causes damage of both. 4th S is stress. Modern lifestyle is full of stresses, but it is our ability to cope these stresses positively which will give us benefit in our life and inability to cope with stresses causes lot of damage to our organs. 5th is sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary lifestyle means couch potato. Such people will get high sugar. They will be obese, and they eventually get diabetes. Such patient also gets lot of kidney failure. So, if you can avoid these 5 S. Plus if you can avoid some Ds. What are these Ds? Ds are drugs. Like indigenous drug, homeopathic, ayurvedic and painkillers, allopathy should be avoided.

They damage the kidney. Even now some commonly used drugs like are also being implicated which causes kidney failure. Any drug which is taken without consideration or without consultation is competent to cause kidney damage. It is called interstitial nephritis. And sometimes it leads to irreversible damage. So, avoid drugs, avoid unnecessarily IV, angiography, CT scans. They should only be done when there is enough evidence that by doing this test and diagnosis, the patient will benefit. And the benefit is more than the risk of die. 3rd D is to avoid dehydration. Especially in summers, in India, especially north India, especially elderly people wo are diabetic, if anti-blood pressure medicines, they should avoid dehydration. Sometimes the dehydration will cause fall in blood pressure and will give rise to acute kidney failure.

So, if you can avoid all these things and live the good lifestyle or top of it I would recommend, people who are above 50 years of age, who are diabetic, hypertensive or whose family has the history of diabetes, kidney failure or any other hereditary failure, they should go for a routine check-up at least once in 6 months. And the check-ups are very simple. Like doing your blood pressure, measuring your blood sugar, doing your serum creatinine and ordinary urine examination. In fact, all healthy people, middle age people should also do it. So, at this point of time, I think I want to say that the treatment of chronic kidney disease by dialysis and transplantation is very expensive. In a country where average income is 15,000/- to 20,000/- of a family for four people.

For them, dialysis and transplant are not possible. The future of kidneys diseases and management in our country lies in prevention and that is what friends, let us lead a good healthy lifestyle. Let us avoid pollution. Let us eat normal foods and lead a good active life. Another important thing is to eat little bit less and walk more. Middle-aged people at least should walk 10,000 steps every day. If we can follow these simple rules, we can be safe from dialysis and transplant.

And thank you very much for your time.
Play video
Prevalence Of Chronic Kidney Disease

My name is Dr. Sudeep Singh Sachdev and I m currently working as a consultant in the department of nephrology in Narayana Super Speciality Hospital, sector 24, Gurugram. Now there are several methods by which we can reduce the frequency of kidney diseases. So why wait until our kidneys are diseased? Today I m going to discuss some very important and useful tips to keep your kidneys healthy. Now the first and foremost tip that I would like to say is to drink plenty of water. Drink at least 2.5 liters of water in a day.

This will help to clear the kidney of salt, urea, creatinine and other toxins which have accumulated in the body over the day. The second useful tip I would like to give you is to reduce the salt intake or reduce the sodium in your diet. Avoid taking any package or restaurant foods, avoid addition of any extra salt in the diet. Keep your salt intake over 24 hours to less than 5 to 6 grams in a day. Doing such a day would reduce the load of the kidney and decrease the development of hypertension, hypertension related disorders are also kidney diseases in the future.

The third important tip would be to maintain an appropriate body weight. Keep your cholesterol levels in check because deposition of cholesterol cannot only occur in the heart but can also occur in the renal arteries and is implicated in the pathogenesis of the kidney diseases. Avoid intake of any fatty food, fried foods, eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. The next important tip I would like to give you is to check blood sugar levels. Every year get a fasting and a postprandial blood sugar levels done. Maintain your hba1c under 6 in the body. Avoid taking any sugary items or items which are rich in sweets. This would help to maintain your sugar levels under limits.

If you have been diagnosed to have any impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus consult a physician, take oral hypoglycemic drugs and keep your sugar levels under control because diabetics develop kidney function very early which can be permanent and irreversible if not corrected. The next important tip would be to monitor your blood pressure regularly and keep it under control that is less than 120 by 80. You can do this by adopting a healthy lifestyle, exercising every day for at least 45minutes, playing granite games, going for swimming and so on. Reduction of salt intake would also help to maintain your blood pressure under control and decrease the chances of development of kidney diseases or delay progression if you are already having one.

Now get your kidney function tests and urine analysis done regularly. This is especially important for the at risk population for kidney diseases which includes diabetics, hypertensives. People above the age of 60 years, obese people, people who have known coronary artery disease or people who have a family history of the same or family history of chronic kidney disease. Get yourself evaluated by blood tests, urine analysis, kidney imaging like an ultrasound of the kidney or a renal artery doppler to rule out causes of kidney diseases. Another important tip which I would like to give you is to quit smoking.

Smoking not only harms the kidneys but also effects the heart and can even cause stroke. Smoking even one cigarette already weakens already harm kidney. So I would request all of you to avoid smoking and stop it if you are already doing so. The next important tip is to maintain an active lifestyle. As I have discussed, one exercise should go for in a day, avoid fatty, fried items. Take a low salt diet and keep oneself healthy by maintaining a BMI of less than 24, especially in the Indian scenario. The next important tip which is actually not followed by majority of us is to avoid unnecessary use of any painkillers or any other sort of alternative medication if it is not required.

Commonly used painkillers like indomethacin,brufen, combiflam can harm the kidney and have been implicated in the causation of chronic kidney disease. So I would request you to use painkillers which are safe from the renal standpoint like paracetamol, tramadol or hydrocet. Last but not the least I would request you all to balance your lifestyle by having a healthy night sleep. Sleep at least 8 hours in a day. This is going to provide adequate rest to the bodies and the kidney and provide time for the recovery and you to be up and about during the next day. Thank you. I hope this would have helped you to garner some information about how why one can keep once kidney and the human body healthy.
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Early Warning Signs of Kidney Disease

My name is Dr. Sudeep Singh Sachdev and I am currently working as a consultant nephrology in Narayana Super Specialty Hospital, Gurugram, Sec-24. Today I will be talking about the early warning signs of kidney diseases. Now millions of people on this earth are suffering from kidney diseases but most of them do not even have the idea about it. Why? Because most of the kidney diseases present with non-specific symptoms and are only prevalent when the patient prevents in advance stages of the disease. While the only way to confirm the presence of kidney diseases is to get confirmatory investigations done which include blood test, urine test and various form of image investigation.

However, the following are the few early signs of kidney diseases. One of the earliest sign is the appearance of swelling over the feet, ankle or legs. One will start to notice edema which pits on applying pressure and often termed as pitting edema. This is usually due to the fact, that when renal dysfunction advances, there is salt retention and accumulation of fluid in the extra vascular spaces of the body. Now another common and early sign is the presence of periorbital puffiness which is the appearance of edema on the upper and lower eyelid. It especially occurs in people who have protein leakage from their kidneys. And in often termed as nephrotic syndrome.

Another one of the early signs is the presence of early morning nausea. Now the patient would classically present to the bathroom at the time of brushing his teeth with the sensation of early morning nausea which leads to a separation of his appetite and decreases in taking of food during the day. This in turn can also be expedited if the patient also complaints during the later stages of disease with the sensation of metallic taste because of which he starts to deny even the most favourite products which he had loved to eat beforehand. Now another one of the early sign is anemia. By anemia I mean there is a fall in hemoglobin without any apparent blood loss from the body. There is no visible site of blood loss but the hemoglobin of the person starts to fall.

The reason for this is that kidney is a site where there is production of erythropoietin in the body. And erythropoietin is required for hemoglobin production. As renal dysfunction advances there is decrease in erythropoietin levels which present as low hemoglobin levels thus leading to anemia. Now another one of the early signs is the change in the frequency of urination of the person. One might start to urinate more often and it is often described as increase in the frequency of maturation during the night termed as notaria. This can also happen during prostate disorder in man and also urinary tract infection or could be the early sign of kidney disease.

Now one should also be very careful about any changes that occur in the nature, consistency or color of urination. As the filtering mechanism of the kidney fails, there is leakage of both protein or blood cells from the kidney. Thus the presence of blood could indicate the presence of prostate disorder, urinary tract infection or even presence of tumors of the kidney, presence of pus in the urine along with fever which indicates the serious infection of kidneys like pyelonephritis or excessive frothiness of the urine would indicate presence of great amount of protein leakage which needs to be evaluated in further detail. Another non-specific sign would be the presence of dry skin or psoriasis. As the renal dysfunction would advance there would be also associated itching and one can notice itch marks on the skin of the person. Now a non-specific early sign could also be either a backache which would present as pain along the side or below the rib or even lower abdominal pain which could be in pubic region.

This will either indicate the presence of stone, maybe in the kidney or in the bladder itself or the respective infections. Last but not the least, another presenting sign of kidney disease could be the high blood pressure. Often when high blood pressure detected it s not evaluated for kidney etiologies. Thus, it is very important for any person who presents with hypertension to get his kidney function test done along with imaging of the kidney to rule out renal etiology of hypertension. Lastly, I would like to mention that recognition and awareness along with timely intervention would lead to early detection and treatment of a kidney disorder which otherwise, could end up with dialysis, transplant or even an unfortunate circumstance as death.

Thank You!
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