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Dialysis - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A healthy kidney has the function of filtering around 1500 liters of blood every day. If the kidneys fail to work properly, waste can accumulate in the blood. This can lead to serious health issues, resulting in coma and even death.

When the kidneys cannot function properly, a person needs to undergo dialysis to keep his/her body in balance. Dialysis performs the of your kidneys until they are functional. The process of dialysis removes waste, salt as well as the extra water, thus preventing them from accumulating in your body. It also ensures to keep certain chemicals in the blood like sodium, bicarbonate, and potassium within optimal levels. Lastly, dialysis also helps in controlling the blood pressure.

Dialysis is mainly of two types; hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In hemodialysis, a hemodialyzer (artificial kidney) is used for removing the waste and extra chemicals from the blood. The peritoneal dialysis involves a surgery where a catheter is implanted in the stomach area, and a fluid named dialysate flows into the abdomen. This fluid draws out the waste from your abdomen after which it is drained out.

A dialysis can be done in the dialysis unit of the hospital or at your home. The doctor decides on the location based on your preferences and the status of your condition.

How is the treatment done?

There are mainly two types of dialysis treatment that a patient can undergo:

  • Hemodialysis – This is the most common form of dialysis. The doctor creates an incision so that the blood can flow to the artificial kidney or the hemodialyzer. The entrance point is made by creating a small incision in the arm or the leg. It can also be done by joining one of the arteries to a vein under the skin in order to make a bigger blood vessel known as a fistula. This surgical entrance point allows a large amount of blood to flow from your body during the treatment. As a result, more blood is purified and filtered. This treatment usually lasts for three to five hours. A patient is generally required to undergo a hemodialysis thrice every week. This option generally works for people who require long-term treatment.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis – This treatment involves implantation of a catheter in the area around the belly through which the fluid is administered to your body. The dialysate fluid draws out the waste from the blood, and then the waste is drained from your abdomen. Peritoneal dialysis can be further classified into two types. One is the Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, where the abdomen is filled and drained multiple times in a day. The other is the Continuous Cycler-Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis, where a machine is used for cycling the fluid in and out of the abdomen. It is generally done at night when the patient is sleeping.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

You may need to undergo dialysis in the following conditions:

  • If you are suffering from a chronic kidney disease, you may require dialysis treatment until the time you decide to go for a kidney transplant.
  • Some people opt for dialysis if they come across symptoms of kidney failure like swelling, fatigue, nausea or vomiting.
  • When the results of your lab tests show high levels of waste in your blood. The rise in the blood urea nitrogen level and the creatinine level are indicators of poor performance of the kidneys.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Dialysis is usually not recommended for the following people:

  • Those who have some major illness apart from a damaged kidney like a heart or a lung disease
  • Peripheral artery disease of the legs, where your arteries become narrower and decrease the blood flow to your legs

Are there any side effects?

Dialysis can have the following side effects:

  • Weakening of the abdominal muscles
  • Gaining weight
  • Muscle cramping
  • Difficulty in getting sleep
  • Itching
  • High blood sugar due to the presence of dextrose (sugar) in the fluid (dialysate)
  • Depression
  • Low blood pressure
  • Increase in the blood potassium levels
  • Pericarditis, a condition where the membrane around the heart gets inflamed
  • Amyloidosis, if you are undergoing a long-term dialysis treatment. In this condition, the amyloid proteins that are produced in the bone marrow builds up in the liver and the kidneys. It can cause swelling, joint pain, and stiffness.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Listed below are some of the post treatment guidelines of a dialysis patient:

  • You must be careful about what you are eating and drinking. Take the advice of your doctor regarding the amount of protein, salt, and fluid that you are supposed to consume.
  • Avoid smoking, drugs or the consumption of alcohol that can affect the condition of your kidneys
  • Check for redness, swelling or pus at the incision site that has been made. If you see any of these signs, consult the doctor.
  • Ensure that the bandage covering the catheter is dry and clean
  • The person who helps with your treatment must always wash their hands properly before helping

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery time after undergoing a dialysis varies from person to person. For some it can be 2 hours, for some it is 4 to 6 hours and for few, it takes almost 12 hours to recover completely after the treatment.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost of getting a hemodialysis can vary from Rs. 12,000 to Rs. 15,000 per month. A peritoneal dialysis can cost between Rs. 18,000 to Rs. 20,000 per month.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Dialysis can improve the condition of your kidneys and the quality of your life if the damage is in the initial stages. After a few sessions, you can stop the treatment. In the case of a chronic disorder, there is a possibility that you may need to undergo dialysis for the rest of your life.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are no alternatives to the treatment of dialysis.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: High Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 12,000 - Rs. 20,000

Popular Health Tips

Peritoneal Dialysis - How Is It Performed?

Dr. Prashant C Dheerendra 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Bangalore
Peritoneal Dialysis - How Is It Performed?
No Blood, No needle, No visit to hospital, you can do yourself at home with sterile fluid. A thin layer of transparent screen like structure hangs in front of the abdominal muscles known as peritoneum. This peritoneum protects the abdominal structures and the muscle. This can also be used for performing dialysis which is carried out when the functioning of kidney gets affected. In peritoneal dialysis a thin and soft catheter is placed in the person s belly one-two weeks before performing the procedure. The catheter has numerous holes in order to facilitate the infusion of fluids. Dialysis solution is prepared in a bag and the tubing is connected to the catheter placed in the abdomen thereby, the fluids absorb the waste materials from the body. The fluid is allowed to stay in your body for a particular period of time which is commonly referred as dwell time and later the fluid is drained out. There are two types of peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis. This is the simple form of dialysis which anybody can be performed after a short training period and this can be done anywhere in a clean private place like hotels, home and even in office. Procedure followed during Peritoneal Dialysis All you need to perform a peritoneal dialysis is catheter and transfer set, cycler, dialysis solution and safety precautions materials to stay away from getting infections. Step 1 - Perform a sterile aseptic technique. Wear a glove and surgical mask before connecting the catheter and transfer set. Clamp the tubing and remove the catheter once the dialysis solution enters your abdomen Step 2 - Allow the solution to remain in your abdomen for a particular period of dwell time Step 3 - Drain the fluid from the abdominal cavity into the drain bag. You may feel a mild tugging sensation when an adequate amount of fluid is drained. Step 4 - After drain close or clamp the transfer set and later flush a fresh solution directly to drain bag so as to remove the air from the tubing. Step 5 - Close your drain bag and open your transfer set and refill your belly with fresh solution. Make sure you perform without giving way for infection by following the procedure.
1 person found this helpful

Kidney Diseases - 10 FAQs You Must Know!

Dr. Ravi Bansal 90% (88 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, MD-Medicine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Diseases - 10 FAQs You Must Know!
Having a kidney disease can make it feel as if your life has spun out of control. But having some knowledge about your kidney disease can save you the stress and trauma that you might experience. Knowledge about the same can also help you take better control over your condition. Here are some frequently asked questions about kidney diseases: 1. How do you know if you are at the risk for kidney disease? Some basic things are to be monitored to keep away from the risk: Blood pressure levels to be monitored at least once a year Urine analysis to check protein levels Creatinine level in your blood 2. What can we do to take care of our kidneys? The most important thing is to ensure that your blood pressure and blood sugar are under control. Essential lifestyle changes can help keep your kidneys working longer. 3. How long can I live with Kidney disease? Many people think that if their kidneys fail, it is the end of their life. But with modern advances in health care, this is not the case. How long you live depends on age, your overall health and how involved you are in your care. Even if you reach kidney failure you can continue to live for a long time with dialysis or kidney transplants. 4. What can be done for fatigue when you have kidney disease? Fatigue is a common symptom of kidney disease, but there are medications to deal with it. Talk to your doctor to assess your condition and deal with it. 5. Is kidney disease hereditary? Genetical factors can contribute to kidney disease and around 10% of kidney failures are caused by hereditary factors. 6. Do I need dialysis? If your kidneys don t perform their function and the serum creatinine levels reach a certain point, dialysis can be done. The dialysis machine will take over the kidney function of filtering out the impurities from your blood. 7. How long can you stay on dialysis while waiting for a transplant? There is no set upper limit for the amount of time spent on dialysis. Some patients have gone over 25 years and it all depends on your health condition. 8. What questions should I ask my doctor? No two people are same. Asking questions is the best way to find where you stand. So, discuss with your doctor on what percent of kidney function you have and what can be done to improve. 9. Can Dialysis be done at home? Yes, discuss with your doctor to know how it can be done and whether it is good for you. 10. Do kidney stones lead to kidney disease? No, they don t lead to kidney failure. But long term obstruction of the kidney can cause kidney failure.
1 person found this helpful

3 Best Treatments for Renal Failure!

Dr. D.K. Agarwal 89% (162 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
3 Best Treatments for Renal Failure!
When your kidney function falls below a certain point, it is referred to as a kidney failure or renal failure. Fortunately, you can still continue to lead a normal life with the right treatment for renal failure. Here are the three best treatments that you can choose depending on your condition and lifestyle: 1. Dialysis: Dialysis is the process that takes over the function of your kidneys to filter out the waste from your blood and maintain the proper balance of chemicals in the blood. You may use dialysis for many years or as a short-term treatment while waiting for a kidney transplant. Dialysis is not a cure for kidney disease, rather it helps you deal with renal failure. It is life-saving and without it, the kidneys will no longer function. There are two types of dialysis treatments that you can choose from: Hemodialysis This type uses a machine to remove waste from the blood and sends it back to your body. It can be done at home or at a dialysis center. Peritoneal Dialysis This type uses the lining of your belly called the Peritoneum to do the work of your kidneys. A catheter and dialysis solution is used to carry out the function. There are benefits and complications for each type of dialysis. The treatment decision will largely depend on the patient s illness and their past medical history. Discuss with your doctor to decide the best option for you. 2. Kidney Transplant: Kidney transplants can provide a better quality of life than dialysis and can be seen as a potential cure for kidney failure. A healthy kidney from a live donor or deceased donor is surgically placed in your body as a replacement to the failed kidneys. Although this may be a better option for you, it has certain shortcomings. There is an element of rejection and you may have to wait for a long time to get a donor. Extensive testing and anti-rejection medications are prescribed with this treatment. 3. Palliative Care: Rather than cure, it is the care that people with serious illness need. With so much to deal with, the patients have an array of tough questions and challenges to deal with. Patients need to take into account all medical options and care options based on their condition and severity of the renal failure. Making the right treatment choice is difficult and that too when you are ill. It is normal to be fearful and worried about the risks involved. Get support from your family and doctor to help you make the right treatment choice. It may also be helpful to visit a dialysis or transplant center to talks to others who have been through these treatments.
13 people found this helpful

Renal Dialysis

Dr. Himanshu Verma 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Vascular Surgery, Ted Rogers Fellowship
Vascular Surgeon, Delhi
Play video
Hi, my name is Dr Hmanshu Verma. I am a Vascular and endovascular surgeon. Dialysis aaj kal bohot he common hai. Renal Failure aaj kal bohot he common hogya hai. Aur ek point pe kidneys certain damage ke beyond hojati hai to uske baad patient ko permanent dialysis ki zarurat hoti hai. Dialysis ke liye normally gale me line daal kar usse blood ko dialysis machine tak lejaya jata hai. Aur clean blood ko wapas body me daalte hai. Lekin unfortunately in lines ko bohot zada der tak body me nahi rehne dia ja sakta hai. Kyuki isse infection ka khatra rehta hai aur sath he yeh lines ander ki nerves ko block karne lagti hai. Iske liye AV Fistula surgery ki zarurat hoti hai. Ideally hume ek aisi khoon ki nass ki zarurat hoti hai jisse khoon ko body se nikal kar dialysis machine tak lejaya ja sake aur wahan se clena blood ko wapas body me daale. Aisi koi khoon ki nass actual me exist nahi karti hai jiske lie 2 khoon ki artery or vein ko surgery karke aapas me jod dete hai. ise AV Fistula surgery kehte hai. Ek baar AV Fistula surgery karne ke baad 5-6 hafte me vein badi hojati hai size em aur usme khoon ka flow badh jata hai, tab yeh fistula taiyar hoti hai. AV Fistula surgery baaki surgeries se isliye alag hoti hai kyuki yahan pe koi cheez bana ke dete hai apko jisk baar baar needle daal ke istemaal hota hai. Kisi bhi jagah hum bar bar needle daalte hai to wo 6 months ya saal bhar me damage hojati hai. Isliye we talk in terms of ki AV Fistula ki ek life hoti hai. Isliye agar AV Fistula agar fail hojati hai to doosri AV Fistula ki zarurat padti hai. Agar failed AV Fistula aap sahi samay pe pehchan jaae to fir usko bachaya bhi ja sakta hai. Ek chalti hui AV FSIstula me bhi kahi baar complications ho sakte hai. AV Fistula ki wajah se kuch patients ko haath me swelling aane lag jati hai. Adhiktar humne dekha hai ki in patients ki jo chaati k ander ki jo nerves hoti hai, unme narrowing hoti hai. Un narrow nerves ki wajah se haath me swelling ane lag jati hai. Aise mareezo ke liye typically Angioplasty ki zarurat padti hai. Angioplasty ke results bohot he acche hote hai aur within 6-8 hours hath ekdam normal hojata hai. Apne dekha hoga ki bohot baar patients ko yeh boldia jata hai ki apka Fistula nahi kia ja sakta. Hum is tarah ki expertise rakhte hai jin patients ko bata dia jata hai ki koi naya Fistula nahi kia ja sakta hai. So, har wo patients jinhe AV Fistula ke options mana kardia jata hai, unme bhi kuch na kuch AV Fistula ke options bache hue hote hai, ye thode un common hote hai, normal fistula se thodi badi surgery hoti hai. But since AV Fistula ek Dialysis patient ki lifeline hot hai, un patients ke liye in options ko explore karna bohot he important hota hai. Baisilic vein transposition and AV Graft, ye bohot he common procedure hai jinko in patients me kiya ja sakta hai. Agar aap in patients me se hai jisnke liye AV Fistula ke raste band ho chuke hai, aap hume contact kar sakte hai Lybrate ke through ya fir aap humare centre pe personal appointment ke liye bhi aa sakte hai.

Kidney Angiomyolipoma - How To Deal With It?

Dr. Mahendra Mulani 90% (147 ratings)
Mbbs, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Ahmedabad
Kidney Angiomyolipoma - How To Deal With It?
Kidney Angiomyolipoma is also known as AML of the kidney, renal angiomyolipoma or kidney AML. This is a benign tumor that can lead to hemorrhagic complications. A tumour can crop up in the medulla or the cortex of the kidney. A small proportion of this condition can happen in conjunction with tuberous sclerosis. The symptoms vary according to the size of a tumour. The treatment differs from case to case, for some patients, radical nephrectomy may work while for some, invasive wedge resection and partial nephrectomy may work better. The prognosis of this condition is excellent owing to its benign nature. How is kidney angiomyolipoma medically dealt with? The treatment option depends on the criticality of a tumour and the general health of the patient. A vast majority of the tumors that are asymptomatic in nature doesn t require a surgical intervention. After the diagnosis is made, a doctor might want to take the wait and watch approach. If the tumor size is small, only medications can cure the condition. On the other hand, surgical intervention can cure the disease and limit any chances of recurrence. Some of the preferred surgical methods include complete or partial nephrectomy, endoscopic surgery, nephron-sparing surgery and tumor embolization. A nephrectomy is only considered when the tumor size is quite large. In case the kidney function is severely impaired, dialysis is necessary. If the tumor results in abdominal bleeding, emergency surgery should be considered. Healthy lifestyle changes: If a person has been diagnosed with kidney angiomyolipoma, it is important to follow a healthy lifestyle. Refraining from salt, potassium is a must. A stressed kidney, in general, is better off without foods such as potato, salt, fast food, processed food, various kind of meat etc. The dietary restriction gets waived off by the doctor once the patient is cured. Lifting heavy weight is a strict no in these circumstances. Adequate rest and enough hydration are necessary to be in shape. Timely consumption of medicine is equally important to get cured. How can this disease be prevented? Medical research has not fetched any result over the possible prevention method of renal AML. This condition is often connected with a genetic disorder. The following prevention method is necessary to mitigate the risk of this disease. A genetic test of the expecting parents or molecular testing of the fetus can help a doctor understand whether there is a risk involving the baby. If the disease runs in the family, a genetic counselling can help parents to understand to assess the risk before planning a child. Frequent medical checkups are also necessary for a person who has a family history of this disease. Aggressive medical research is being done to get a possible cure for this problem.
1840 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My mom is undergoing dialysis. Completed 12 dialysis till now .AVF is done on 1 June 2017 from tomorrow we can start from that dialysis. Is sneezing is good for her health? Her bp is normal now.

Dr. Siddharth Lakhani 88% (44 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology), MBBS , MD - Medicine
Nephrologist, Mumbai
Fistula can be used after 4-6 weeks of making it To ask dialysis doctor to see for devloped veins over d arm Sneezing is ok Avoid bp, injection on tht arm.

Hi. My mom is undergoing dialysis .Is sneezing is good for her health? And say best diet for renal failure.

Dr. Siddharth Lakhani 88% (44 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology), MBBS , MD - Medicine
Nephrologist, Mumbai
U can give her Total protien 1.2 g / kg/ day Cal 35 kcal/ kg/ day Low salt diet Low phosphorus diet Total water 800 ml / day.

Hello! I'm Arjun and my father (age 59) is suffering from kidney disease, his current creatinine level is 6 mg/dl, he's having diabetes type 2, recently heart surgery also done to my father in which they kept a stunt in heart,! Now the problem is with kidney, does he needed dialysis now? And if yes what are the problems associated with it? Thank you.

Dr. Akanksha Aggarwal 87% (126 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Nephrologist, Noida
lybrate-user, Sometimes due to surgery and dye given creatinine level increases, have a watch on this level if it's decreases no need of dialysis and if it's increasing and he has symptoms like blanching breathlessness, bradycardia, hyperkalemia, etc he would be requiring dialysis. No such side effects of it, just make sure you get it done from good dialysis centre where infection rates are less and nephrologist is available all the time to look after.
6 people found this helpful

Hello Team, yes actually my uncle is suffer for kidney problem. Even yesterday he had dialysis and now today he suffer for fever or cold. Only 2 dialysis is done yesterday only 2 second dialysis and he has diabetes as well,

Dr. S.K. Tandon 93% (7405 ratings)
Diploma in Diabetology, Pregnancy & Diabetes, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Prevention in Diabetes ,Thyroid
Sexologist, Sri Ganganagar
The fever during dialysis is due to infection which may be due to poor resistantance. So under guidance give him antibiotic and dolo 650 sos.

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