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Overview

Kidney Transplant: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

The kidneys are a pair of organs that are in the shape of two beans. Kidneys can be found in the human body in the lower back area. Toxic wastes are eliminated from the body by the kidneys when you are urinating. A person is diagnosed with kidney failure when his/her kidneys cannot remove the toxic wastes from the body like it used to.

Over time various health issues keep damaging your kidneys to a point where they stop working. The reasons that harm the kidney slowly are acute infections or illnesses, extreme dehydration and long-standing exposure to environmental pollutants. Other factors responsible for kidney damage are urinary tract infections, nephrotic syndrome, genetic disorders, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, an infection such as sepsis, diabetes and hypertension or heartburn.

Symptoms of kidney failure do not show all of a sudden. It is a process much like slow poisoning where these organs are damaged a little every day. Therefore, you will only experience the symptoms when the kidneys are failing. The common signs of the body to indicate this will be itchy sensations, reduced appetite, shortness of breath, difficulty sleeping at night, muscle aches, and inflammation in the limbs. In very severe cases if your kidneys suffer acute failure then you will experience diarrhoea, bleeding, vomiting, back pain, fever and skin rash.

How is the treatment done?

kidney transplantation is generally prescribed to patients who are in the last stage of their chronic kidney failure problem. Kidney transplantation is dependent on a donor. This can either be a dead or living person. When the kidney is gathered from a dead person it is called a deceased donor kidney and when it comes from a living person (usually it comes from a family member) it is called a living donor kidney. In case of the former, only healthy people are allowed to donate their kidneys and they need to be fully aware of the transplantation rules. In case of the latter, the kidney comes from a person who has passed away because of brain death.

Before the surgery begins, blood tests need to be run in order to match the blood type recipient and donor kidney. Next a tissue typing test is run to match the tissue type. Then tests are carried out on the donor to check if he/she has any viruses such as hepatitis, CMV or HIV.

After passing all these tests the patient undergoes surgery in the next stage. The surgery is performed under the administration of general anaesthesia and goes on for about 3 hours. The transplanted kidneys are placed in a location which is different to the location of the existing ones. This is called heterotopic transplantation. Usually the original kidneys will only be removed if they are extreme troubles such as infections or very blood pressure. The artery is surgically connected to the kidney.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

People who are in the last stage of Chronic kidney damage are eligible for treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

People who do not pass in any one of the tests conducted prior to the surgery are not-eligible for this treatment.

Also, people who have had a recent case of cancer, cardiovascular disorders, liver disease or severe infections such as bone infection or hepatitis are should not opt for this surgery treatment.

Are there any side effects?

During the course of your kidney transplantation you may be given certain immunosuppressant to stop the body from rejecting the donated organ. These immunosuppressants could cause long-term side effects such as higher chances of infections, diarrhoea, excessive hair growth or hair fall, bleeding, swelling, abdominal cramps, acne, mood swings, anemia, arthritis, seizures, susceptibility to diabetes, risk of cancers and weight gain.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

As a follow up to the transplantation surgery the patient will be kept under strict monitoring to see if he/she is experiencing kidney rejection or any infection. For this reason the patients will be asked to take various anti-rejection medications in order to prohibit the body to reject the donated kidney and also ensure proper functioning of the transplanted kidneys.

How long does it take to recover?

After the transplantation surgery a person is usually held back in the hospital for about a week to notice any signs of infections or rejection on the part of the body.

After this the patient will be further asked to take rest for about 1-2 months during which time he cannot do any form of rigorous exercises or lift objects that are heavy in weight.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Kidney transplant surgeries in India cost around 2-3 lakhs approximately and the anti-rejection medications prescribed by the doctor will cost you around 300 to 3000 rupees.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Although the success rate of kidney transplantation surgeries are high, there are a few cases where a transplant can fail and not have permanent results. The reasons are formation of blood clots, the formation of an infection in the kidney, certain problems with the donated organ, rejection of the new kidney (this can be either acute or chronic). S, you can see that the results of the treatment are not always permanent.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The alternatives for kidney transplant surgery are haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis or conservative management treatment.

Safety: Low Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs. 300- Rs. 3, 00000

Popular Health Tips

Kidney Transplant - Things To Remember!

Dr. Jasneer Np 87% (142 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Malappuram
Kidney Transplant - Things To Remember!
A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure that patients of kidney disease go through in order to replace a non functioning kidney with a live one that is healthy and functions well. Other methods to treat this disease also include dialysis, which basically is an artificial way of doing what our kidneys are designed to do. When dialysis does not work, many doctors recommend a kidney transplant. A replacement or donated kidney can come from a living donor or a non-living donor. This new kidney will mostly work towards keeping the blood clean, which is a function that stops when the old and diseased kidneys fail. So, here's a list of five essential facts that you need to keep in mind if you are looking at a kidney transplant: Donors: While there are living and non-living donors, the doctor will have to ensure that your donor is someone who has no medical history of complications, kidney disease or any other medical condition like diabetes or hypertension. Also, the donor would have to have two proper functioning kidneys. Further, one of the most important factors is the blood group. The blood group of the donor and the patient must match for the transplant to be possible. Procedure: During the surgery, the patient will be under general anesthesia. The surgeon will make an incision in the lower abdomen area and the blood vessels of the new kidney will be connected surgically with the vein and iliac artery of the patient. Thereafter, any excess fluid will be drained before wrapping up the surgery. Rejection: The patient's body may also reject the kidney. The immune system of the patient may mistake the new kidney as an attacking body and its natural defenses may work against it, which will lead to complications. For this, doctors usually prescribe immunosuppressant medicines that will help in preventing such an eventuality. Longevity: While a living donor's kidney may last longer, a non-living donor's kidney will not enjoy such a long life. In such cases, a second transplant can be conducted. Diet: After the transplant, the patient will be required to go through a number of measures like coughing to show that the lungs are clear, as well as administration of fluids and some amount of examination and dialysis. Also, the patient will have to have a special diet that includes raw fruits and vegetables, and plenty of non-fat dairy ingredients. A kidney transplant is a major operation that can change your lifestyle in the long run.
3372 people found this helpful

Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!

Dr. D.K. Agarwal 87% (186 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!
When function of both kidneys are lost, Renal transplantation is needed. Kidney transplantation is performed by making use of a donor kidney and replacing the diseased one with it. Kidney transplantations are not conducted on patients suffering from other severe infections or life threatening diseases such as cancer, major lungs or heart condition. Diabetic or obese people usually cannot donate their kidneys as they bear a risk of malfunctioning in future. Procedure of Kidney Transplant Kidney transplant surgery takes about 3 hours time. Tests are conducted to make sure tissue typing match with the new kidney. This decreases the chance of the body rejecting the donor kidney and causing serious complications. Thorough evaluation of the medical history is made for both the receiver and the donor. This is to make sure that the donor kidney is healthy, functional and free of disorders. The procedure of the surgery includes placing the donor kidney in the lower abdomen. The blood vessels, important arteries are connected to the donor kidney. The bladder will also be connected to the ureter from the donor kidney. The new kidney generally begins to function immediately after the surgery is completed successfully. The blood begins to flow through the kidney, and it begins to function normally. It filters the blood, collects the waste that is then passed through the bladder as urine. A patient who has had a kidney transplantation surgery will need to remain in the hospital for a few days under intense care and observation. Medications to prevent the body from rejecting the new kidney will be prescribed. It is important that you continue with these medicines for the rest of your life. Risks of Kidney Transplantation Rejection of the new kidney by the body. Acute rejection in the initial days of surgery can be treated with medications and injections. However, chronic rejection is a serious condition that causes gradual loss of kidney function. There can be severe infections caused by the immunosuppression. It can also occur during the course of surgery, due to the inclusion of foreign tissues Reaction to the drugs or anaesthesia used for the purpose of transplantation surgery Excessive bleeding or haemorrhage caused due to injuries during surgery Any kind of leakage from the ureter or blocking of the ureter tubes, causing an obstruction in the smooth functioning of kidneys 6. The anti rejection drugs may lead to a decline in calcium, causing osteoporosis and other calcium deficiency infirmities Fluctuations in blood sugar, blood pressure levels Increased risk of cancer Infections in internal organs Obesity
3 people found this helpful

Post Kidney Transplant - 6 Diet Tips

Dt. Shwetaa Shahii 88% (58 ratings)
Diploma in Dietetics and Nutrition, Diploma in Diet and Nutrition, Diploma in Paediatric Nutrition, Diploma in Total Nutrition Therapy course, Diploma in Nutrition and Health Education, Role of Nutrition in Diabetes, ICU & Gastroenterology , Nutrition Counselor Course in Bariatric Surgery
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Post Kidney Transplant - 6 Diet Tips
The ideal diet after a kidney transplant A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure where your kidneys are cleansed and rebuild using the kidneys of a deceased person, in order to flush out the excessive waste fluids from the kidneys. It is of paramount importance and your dietary patterns and lifestyle should be altered after you go through a kidney transplant. Your dietician will help you out by preparing your diet chart to clearly list out the foods that you should consume and those which you should avoid after the surgery. The diet chart that would be prepared for you would be highly subjective and it would totally depend on your lifestyle, medical history, family health records, genetically transmitted conditions and such others. Apart from improving the condition of your kidney and assisting your transplant, the diet chart will also help you to lose weight, boost your metabolism and enhance your immune system. Some of the most common recommendations that your dietician may give you are as follows: -Eating at least 5 full servings of fresh fruits and vegetables each day as both are an important part of a healthy diet for a person who has just undergone a kidney transplant. The vegetables should mostly be eaten after cooking/boiling as per the suggestions of your dietician. -Having enough of fiber rich foods in your daily diet is essential as it speeds up the process of digestion and prevents constipation by promoting frequent and easy bowel movements. -If you are a non-vegetarian, then you should be going for lean meat alternatives which are low on fat and high on nutritional value. -Examples of such meat are fishes and poultry. Additionally, you should also avoid all kinds of red meat as it is high on fat. -Consume low-fat milk and dairy products as they help to prevent the fat accumulation inside the body and also maintain an acceptable level of calcium and phosphorus inside your body. -Maintain a low level of iodized salt in your meals, as it helps to keep your blood pressure under control. Over the counter health supplements like vitamins and proteins can also be taken, if recommended by your dietician. If you would like to consult with me privately, please click on 'Consult'
3579 people found this helpful

Renal Transplant Rejection: Types and Causes

Dr. Deepak Subramanian 88% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Chennai
Renal Transplant Rejection: Types and Causes
Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge. The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes: Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver. Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant. Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels.
3028 people found this helpful

Did You Know These Facts About Kidney Transplant?

Dr. Deepak Sharma 86% (752 ratings)
FIMSA, MD-Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD-Medcine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Did You Know These Facts About Kidney Transplant?
A kidney transplant is a procedure that employs an operation to transplant properly functioning kidney in the body. The main job of the kidneys is to remove the excess waste from a person s body with the help of a filtration process. When the kidneys stop filtering the toxins properly, they become diseased as harmful waste products and toxins begin to accumulate in the body. Following this, the patient has to go through treatment measures like dialysis or kidney transplant. Read on to know the five things you should keep in mind about a kidney transplant. Treatment: Transplant is one of the best ways to treat chronic kidney disease stage-V, until unless it is contraindicated. Life becomes near normal after transplant, though there is a possibility of rejection of transplant kidney. Patient has to take immunosuppressive medication life long. Medication: Medications are mainly for: To prevent rejection: Patient takes immunosuppressive medications life long. Prevention of infection: Patient has to take care all the measures to prevent infections as they are more prone to infections. Other medication: To control diabetes, HTN etc. Family Only: The donors are from family or emotionally related or cadavers (after brain death). HLA-matched donors are better because of less chances of rejections and first reduction of immunosuppressive. Doing Your Part: Once transplant is done - patient becomes normal and he/she lives a normal life. However, they have to take regular medications and to protect themselves from various infection. End Stage Renal Diseases: These diseases includes diabetes mellitus, HTN, polycystic kidney disease, chronic glomerulonephritis or interstitial nephritis etc. Consult your Nephrologist before going for renal transplant for detailed check up or line of action.
2576 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello sr my kidney transplant done 1 year ago now am all right my all test are ok, may I Sitting down the paces (पेरों भार बेठ)

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel Patel 95% (3353 ratings)
FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Dear Manjinder, hi Welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly . * Yes you can definitely sit without any problems . Thanks regards .

My kidney transplant done 1 year ago. Know am all right no problem. My urea 25/creatinine 1.0/hb16. 5/potassium 3.5 on 6.10.2017 can I eat pure home made khoa barfi.

Dr. Vijay Agrawal 87% (149 ratings)
MCh, MS - Urology
Urologist, Surat
Yes you can provided it it not very old to carry fungal infection. Fresh foods are better, you doing fine. Keep regular habits, medicines, stay away from infections &crowds. Keep regular check ups.

My kidney transplant done 1 year ago know am all right my latest test on 6-10-17is creatinine 1.03/urea 25/hb16. 5/potassium 3.7/ can I eat greens or spinach.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 95% (3353 ratings)
FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Respected lybrate-user, hi I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* The kidney transplant patient after 1 year can eat greens or spinach, preferably raw and washed thoroughly. Hope this will help you. Wishing you fine health & happy Diwali in advance. Regards dear take care.
1 person found this helpful

My dad is a 56 years chronic kidney failure patient with blood grp O+ve and is now on dialysis. We are looking for kidney transplant but don't have same group donor from our family. Should we wait for a cadaverist or go for an incompatible transplant.

Dr. Deepak Sharma 86% (752 ratings)
FIMSA, MD-Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD-Medcine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
I can appreciate your concern. Since you don't have same blood group donor in your family, you can resort to various options namely Paired donor exchange/swap donor/ABO incompatible/cadaver transplant/unrelated same blood group donor.
7 people found this helpful

I have take kidney transplant 1 year ago know am very well all reports are ok am take 5 letter water a day is this good for me.

Dr. Deepak Sharma 86% (752 ratings)
FIMSA, MD-Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD-Medcine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
I appreciate your concern. It is good to know that your Transplanted Kidney is functioning well. Intake of 5 litres water daily is excessive. You should reduce it to 3-3.5 liters daily.

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