The kidneys are a pair of organs that are in the shape of two beans. Kidneys can be found in the human body in the lower back area. Toxic wastes are eliminated from the body by the kidneys when you are urinating. A person is diagnosed with kidney failure when his/her kidneys cannot remove the toxic wastes from the body like it used to.
Over time various health issues keep damaging your kidneys to a point where they stop working. The reasons that harm the kidney slowly are acute infections or illnesses, extreme dehydration and long-standing exposure to environmental pollutants. Other factors responsible for kidney damage are urinary tract infections, nephrotic syndrome, genetic disorders, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, an infection such as sepsis, diabetes and hypertension or heartburn.
Symptoms of kidney failure do not show all of a sudden. It is a process much like slow poisoning where these organs are damaged a little every day. Therefore, you will only experience the symptoms when the kidneys are failing. The common signs of the body to indicate this will be itchy sensations, reduced appetite, shortness of breath, difficulty sleeping at night, muscle aches, and inflammation in the limbs. In very severe cases if your kidneys suffer acute failure then you will experience diarrhoea, bleeding, vomiting, back pain, fever and skin rash.
kidney transplantation is generally prescribed to patients who are in the last stage of their chronic kidney failure problem. Kidney transplantation is dependent on a donor. This can either be a dead or living person. When the kidney is gathered from a dead person it is called a deceased donor kidney and when it comes from a living person (usually it comes from a family member) it is called a living donor kidney. In case of the former, only healthy people are allowed to donate their kidneys and they need to be fully aware of the transplantation rules. In case of the latter, the kidney comes from a person who has passed away because of brain death.
Before the surgery begins, blood tests need to be run in order to match the blood type recipient and donor kidney. Next a tissue typing test is run to match the tissue type. Then tests are carried out on the donor to check if he/she has any viruses such as hepatitis, CMV or HIV.
After passing all these tests the patient undergoes surgery in the next stage. The surgery is performed under the administration of general anaesthesia and goes on for about 3 hours. The transplanted kidneys are placed in a location which is different to the location of the existing ones. This is called heterotopic transplantation. Usually the original kidneys will only be removed if they are extreme troubles such as infections or very blood pressure. The artery is surgically connected to the kidney.
People who are in the last stage of Chronic kidney damage are eligible for treatment.
People who do not pass in any one of the tests conducted prior to the surgery are not-eligible for this treatment.
During the course of your kidney transplantation you may be given certain immunosuppressant to stop the body from rejecting the donated organ. These immunosuppressants could cause long-term side effects such as higher chances of infections, diarrhoea, excessive hair growth or hair fall, bleeding, swelling, abdominal cramps, acne, mood swings, anemia, arthritis, seizures, susceptibility to diabetes, risk of cancers and weight gain.
As a follow up to the transplantation surgery the patient will be kept under strict monitoring to see if he/she is experiencing kidney rejection or any infection. For this reason the patients will be asked to take various anti-rejection medications in order to prohibit the body to reject the donated kidney and also ensure proper functioning of the transplanted kidneys.
After the transplantation surgery a person is usually held back in the hospital for about a week to notice any signs of infections or rejection on the part of the body.
After this the patient will be further asked to take rest for about 1-2 months during which time he cannot do any form of rigorous exercises or lift objects that are heavy in weight.
Kidney transplant surgeries in India cost around 2-3 lakhs approximately and the anti-rejection medications prescribed by the doctor will cost you around 300 to 3000 rupees.
Although the success rate of kidney transplantation surgeries are high, there are a few cases where a transplant can fail and not have permanent results. The reasons are formation of blood clots, the formation of an infection in the kidney, certain problems with the donated organ, rejection of the new kidney (this can be either acute or chronic). S, you can see that the results of the treatment are not always permanent.
The alternatives for kidney transplant surgery are haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis or conservative management treatment.
Rs. 300- Rs. 3, 00000
The kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood and removing waste from the body. They also regulate the fluid and electrolyte balance. If the kidneys stop functioning, a patient may need to undergo dialysis or have a renal transplant. Many patients prefer undergoing a transplant as it offers a better quality of life in the long run.
A kidney transplant can be described as a procedure to replace one’s own kidneys with a donor's kidney. In case of kidney transplant, there are two types of donors. The human body can function with one healthy kidney and hence family members and friends of the patient may choose to donate a kidney. Else, a kidney may be sourced from recently deceased donors who have chosen to donate their organs after death. In both cases, it is important that the donor kidney match the patient’s blood and tissue type.
A renal transplant surgery usually takes about 3 hours. The donor kidney is placed in the abdominal cavity and connected to the patient’s arteries, veins and bladder. Usually, the donor kidney begins functioning immediately. The patient’s own damaged or diseased kidneys may not be removed unless there is a severe infection, cancer or a diagnosis of large polycystic kidneys.
The patient will need to be hospitalized for a few days after the surgery. In some cases, dialysis may be needed if the kidneys are unable to produce urine. In addition diuretics and other medication may be needed to remove excess water and salt from the body. Medication will also be prescribed to suppress the immune system so that the patient’s body does not reject the donor kidney. These medications typically need to be taken for the rest of the patient’s life.
A renal transplant is considered a relatively safe procedure. Less than 20 out of 100 people reject a donor kidney. However, there are a few other risks involved. These include:
• Severe infection
• Failure of the donor kidney
• Reaction to anesthesia
• Increased risk of infections due to suppressed immune system
Kidney transplant is not advised for people suffering from diseases such as cancer or any significant lung or heart disease. If the patient is suffering from an infection, he or she may be advised to wait until the infection subsides before undergoing a renal transplant. A renal transplant may seem to be an expensive procedure but in the long run, this can work out to be more budget friendly than dialysis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
When function of both kidneys are lost, Renal transplantation is needed. Kidney transplantation is performed by making use of a donor kidney and replacing the diseased one with it. Kidney transplantations are not conducted on patients suffering from other severe infections or life threatening diseases such as cancer, major lungs or heart condition. Diabetic or obese people usually cannot donate their kidneys as they bear a risk of malfunctioning in future.
Procedure of Kidney Transplant
Risks of Kidney Transplantation
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Whenever we choose to undergo a surgery, there are a lot of questions that we try to seek answers for. Here's a list of things one must know before he or she opts for kidney donation!
What is the rate of recovery?
The recovery period of the donor is usually in the range of 5-7 days. However, it depends on how fast an individual recovers and what is the kind of procedure performed on the patient. It can greatly vary from person to person. The donor might feel an itching sensation and experience pain as the incision heals. Activities such as contact sports and heavy lifting are not advised, post 6 weeks of surgery.
How does the transplant affect the donor?
Living with one kidney is not unusual and it is possible to lead a normal life with some to no problem at all. The donor’s kidney has a tendency to increase in size after the transplant. This happens to make up for the lost kidney. While some physical exercise is healthy for the body, activities that require heavy body movement should be avoided. Donors are required to go through extensive medical check every six months to avoid any possible complications.
Does donating a kidney affect life expectancy?
Life expectancy does not decrease after kidney donation and the chance of the existing kidney failure is limited too. Studies have revealed that a donor has a tendency of developing a high level of blood pressure. Having said this, a thorough discussion with the transplant team should be done to discuss any possible complications that might occur post the surgery.
Mental state after kidney donation:
A donor can go through a mixed set of emotions after donating a kidney. Overwhelming joy, depression, relief and anxiety are some of the common emotions a donor goes through. Studies have shown that less than 1% of all donors show any signs of regret. On the contrary, more than 80% donors reveal that they would have done the donation anyways. The donation experience is generally positive. If, however, a donor is going through emotions he cannot handle, he should join a self-help group or report to a doctor.
Is there any side effect of kidney donation?
Apart from the scar a patient receives after the surgery, there aren’t too many complications. Having said this, there are tendencies to develop high blood pressure, proteinuria and a reduced functionality of the kidney, resulting in pain. Long-term diseases such as nerve damage, obstruction, and hernia can catch up as well.
Is there any dietary restriction?
It is entirely possible to go back to your old and regular diet. However, in the case of any complications, a patient might have to skip few things from the diet. It is a good idea to get a clear picture about the dietary requirements from the kidney transplant team.
Does donation hinder in getting pregnant?
The medical advice from a doctor is that it is not a good idea to become pregnant till at least six weeks post the surgery. However, it is entirely possible to get pregnant after kidney donation. But it should be ensured that a patient receives very good prenatal care to reduce any possible complications. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.
The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.
Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.
What is it?
It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be
Identifying the right donor and recipient:
What to expect during surgery?
Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysis. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.
Kidneys play an important metabolic role and are essential for balancing salt, minerals and water in the body. They also play a significant role in removing waste products from the body. They make urine, which contains all the waste materials that are eliminated from the body. They also play an important role in blood pressure regulation and in maintaining the balance of various minerals in the body. Any suspected kidney damage should be confirmed by a kidney biopsy, which will reveal the exact disease, thereby directing towards the appropriate treatment.
Why and when is it done?
A renal or kidney biopsy is done in the following situations:
Know about the procedure
A renal biopsy is mostly done as an outpatient procedure and is a type of biopsy known as percutaneous biopsy (biopsy where a needle is inserted through the skin into the renal tissue). Very rarely, it may be combined with the CT scan or ultrasound and be done in the radiology department. This may be done on inpatients. The patient is made to lie on his/her back and a local anesthetic is used on the area of the injection. A thin, long needle is directed towards the area of the kidney from where some kidney tissue is removed for sampling.
In some cases, the direction of the needle may be decided by a CT scan or ultrasound. While this is a closed biopsy procedure, in some cases, as a part of the surgery, open biopsies may also be obtained, where a sample of tissue is extracted for analysis.
Recovering from a biopsy
The person would need some time to recover from the procedure, as there would be some discomfort at the site of a needle insertion. Vital signs would be monitored for the next couple of hours during which the person would also be monitored for internal bleeding. A pain reliever can be used if required. Haematuria or blood-tinged urine can be seen disappearing within the next 12 hours. Very rarely the bleeding can be severe and require angiography and further procedures. The person should also avoid strenuous activities for the next few days. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.