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Spine Surgeries - 4 Things To Know About It!

Dr. Radhakrishnan Paulraj 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Chennai
Spine Surgeries - 4 Things To Know About It!

The thought of going under the knife to treat your spine problem may give rise to a range of emotions; make you ponder over a number of things such as the recovery period, procedure and techniques involved and so on. Nonetheless, before opting for the surgery, there are certain points that you should go over and these are:

  • Be well aware of the cause of your painIdentifying the cause that is behind your pain is vital in order to decide whether the surgery is going to prove beneficial in the long run or not. If the cause is not identified as the right one, the surgery may prove futile and you may not get the pain relief that you're looking for.
  • Gather detailed information about your spine surgeon - Before visiting the spine surgeon, you should collect detailed information about the specialist so as to be able to come up with appropriate questions concerning the surgery. From questions concerning about the surgeon's success and complication rates, numbers of surgeries performed to qualifications of the surgeon, these and much more should be part of your evaluation process.
  • Prepare yourself before a consultation - It's good to prepare yourself before a medical consultation. Whether it's researching about the surgery and your condition or being well aware of your family's medical history, or details about the pain that you experience, or your expectations from the surgery, every aspect should be covered so that you derive the maximum benefit from your meeting.
  • Carry out your own research - Carrying out your own research on the alternatives before opting for the surgery can put you on a better footing. It's imperative to compare the opinion put forward by the surgeon from genuine sources so that you're better able to understand the merits and demerits of the treatment.

Knee Replacement - Know Everything About It!!

Dr. Hardeek N Ghundiyal 90% (97 ratings)
Fellowship in Knee Replacement, D.N.B. (Orthopaedics) , MBBS
Orthopedist, Mumbai
Knee Replacement - Know Everything About It!!

Knee replacement is a procedure where the weight-carrying surfaces of knee joint are replaced surgically to ease the pain or any disability. People suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis undergo knee replacement. All these conditions revolve around stiffness and painful knee. This surgery is usually performed on people aged over 50.

Surgery Types-

Knee replacement is mainly of two main types:

  1. Total knee replacement where both the sides of knee joints are replaced
  2. Partial knee replacement where only single side of the joint is replaced

Procedure-

In case of partial knee replacement with minimal invasion, a smaller incision, which is 3 to 5 inches, is required. This leads to minimal tissue damage, and the surgeon can work between the fibres of the quadriceps muscles. Here, an incision through the tendon is not required. This may result in less pain, recovery time is reduced, and motion is better as scar tissue formation is less.

In total knee replacement, four steps are performed:

  1. Removal of damaged cartilage surfaces, which is at the ends of the femur and tibia, with a small quantity of underlying bone.
  2. Replacement with metal components, which help as a recreated surface of the joint
  3. Incision of knee cap with a resurface made of a plastic button, which is optional based on the case
  4. Insertion of a medical-grade plastic spacer amid the metal components. This creates an effortless gliding surface.

After general or spinal anaesthesia, an incision of 8-12inches is made in the front part of the knee. Joint part which is damaged is removed from the surface of the bones. The surfaces are then formed in a way to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint. The thigh bone shin as well as knee cap is attached to the artificial joint with either cement or a special material.

After Effects of the Procedure-

After the surgery, patients may stay in a hospital for three to five days. Post surgery, notable improvement can be seen after a month or later. The patient is gradually relieved from pain with the construction of new gliding surface during surgery.

There will be slow progress in the movement. In the beginning, one may walk with a support of parallel bars and then with the help of crutches, walker, or cane. After full recovery in about six weeks, people can enjoy normal activities except running or jumping.

Presently, over 90% of total knee replacements function well even after 15 years of surgery. Hence, knee problem is no problem at all!

Herniated Disc - Effects And Diagnosis!

Dr. Madu Sridhar 87% (32 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, M.Ch Trauma & Ortho, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), MBBS
Orthopedist, Chennai
Herniated Disc - Effects And Diagnosis!

A herniated disc also known as a slip disc or prolapsed disc refers to the problem where one of the discs located in between the bones of the vertebrae(backbone) gets damaged and stacks itself upon the nerves. The tender inner portion of the disc gets protruded over the outer ring. Herniated disc causes severe neck pain and back pain. It occurs when the outer ring gets weak and tears down. The most common symptoms include pain and numbness, especially on one side of the body. The pain extends down to the arms and legs. It worsens during nighttime. The muscles become weak. Overweight people are likely to have this disease, as the discs carry extra weight. Old people are vulnerable to a slip disc.

Effects of Herinated Disc:
- An untreated case of herniated disc may cause permanent damage to the nerves.
- In certain cases, a herniated disc is capable of cutting off nerve impulses to the "caudal equine"nerves, present in the lower back and legs. This leads to loss of bladder control or bowel control.
- Saddle anaesthesia is another long-term effect. Nerves are compressed by the slip disc, causing loss of sensation in the inner portions of your thighs, the back of your legs and surrounding the rectum region.
- Symptoms may improve or worsen.

Diagnosis of Herinated Disc:

Treatment or diagnosis of herniated disc or slip disc can be either conservative or surgical in nature. The nature of treatment is determined according to your discomfort level and the kind of pain you are experiencing, or how much the disc has slipped out.
- The pain caused by herniated disc can be relieved by undertaking an exercise schedule which includes stretching and strengthening the spine and its surrounding muscles.
- A physiotherapist should be appointed for recommending the types of exercises.
- Taking pain relievers also soothes the pain.
- Stronger medicines prescribed by doctors include-muscle relaxers, narcotics to deal with the pain, medicines for nerve pain such as "gabapentin"  or "duloxetine".
- In case of the symptoms not subsiding within a span of six weeks, a surgery may be recommended by your doctor. The surgeon may have to remove the damaged part of the disc. This surgery is called a microdiskectomy.

Piles - What Type Of Surgical Options Are Available?

Dr. Sandeep Agarwal 91% (25 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Pune
Piles - What Type Of Surgical Options Are Available?

For some people, lifestyle changes along with a healthy diet cannot do the needful when it comes to hemorrhoids, commonly referred to as piles. There are numerous options like the laser that can shrink the swelling and inflammation in non-invasive ways. But even though it takes lesser time and involves much lesser complications, surgical intervention can be the best way to achieve a long-term solution. It is particularly suitable for those who are suffering from intolerable pain and discomfort along with occasional bleeding.

What are the different surgical options for treating piles?
Surgery is the best way to treat piles in those who have failed to recover through other modes of treatment. In other words, you should consider getting piles surgery done in case you have hemorrhoids that cannot be treated through non-surgical means. There are numerous surgical options available for piles, and the primary types are mentioned below:

Hemorrhoidal artery ligation: This operation is used for reducing the flow of blood to the hemorrhoids. It is normally carried under general anesthesia while a tiny ultrasound probe is inserted into the anus. The probe then produces high-frequency sound waves which let the surgeon detect the vessels that are supplying blood to the affected area. Each of these vessels is stitched for blocking the supply of blood to the piles that eventually leads to shrinkage after a few days or a week. It is also suitable for treating hemorrhoids that prolapse and hang down from the anus.

According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, the hemorrhoidal artery ligation is an effective procedure which can be used for treating piles. It causes lesser pain than other surgical options, and a higher level of satisfaction has been reported as well. The recovery time is also shorter in the case of hemorrhoidal artery ligation. There is minimal risk of bleeding and pain while passing stools and there is little chance of hemorrhoid prolapsing after this procedure. It can thus be concluded that this process is best suited for most people suffering from hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoidectomy: This is yet another way of treating hemorrhoids through surgical intervention. It is typically carried out under general anesthesia which indicates that you will be unconscious during the entire procedure and won’t feel any pain or discomfort. A conventional process of hemorrhoidectomy involves opening up of the anus to scrape out the hemorrhoids. It takes about a week or two to recover from the process, and you are likely to experience a significant amount of pain after the process. Even though you will be given painkillers, it is important to consult an expert if the pain continues for a long span of time.

What You Need To Know About Gynecomastia?

Dr. Ashit Gupta 85% (73 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Gurgaon
What You Need To Know About Gynecomastia?

Do you know that enlarged breasts, which are observed in many men are caused because of a health condition? This is known as gynecomastia and involves enlargement of the breast tissues in men. The condition is commonly called man boobs. It is usually not something serious and is not always permanent.

Causes
During the puberty stage, gynecomastia is quite common and normal. It occurs because of natural changes in oestrogen and testosterone, the sex hormones. The condition is also likely in men of old and middle age because of ageing and hormonal shift. Certain medicines such as antibiotics, heart medicines, AIDS medicines, drugs for heartburn and anti-anxiety medicines may also be responsible for this condition. Drinking alcohol in excess and taking marijuana, and other recreational drugs also increase the chances of gynecomastia. Breast size may also get enhanced by the use of herbal products containing lavender oil and tea tree oil.

Symptoms
Men affected by gynecomastia are featured by having a rubbery mass underneath their nipple region. It is less in amount and is usually tender. Fluid discharge is also an indication in some cases.

Diagnosis
For the diagnosis of gynecomastia, you should visit a plastic surgeon, who deals with cases of hormone imbalances. Blood or hormone tests may be required if your physical examination shows that your breasts are larger than usual, the lymph nodes are swollen, or when the lump is sore.

Treatment
Commonly, gynecomastia can not be cured with medicines. Surgery is compulsory. In the case of teenagers, the breasts become of normal shape within two to three years. Surgery is the only option for restoring your chest shape and improving your self-image. In the surgery for treating gynecomastia, a small cut is made on your breasts and extra breast tissues are removed. This makes your breasts smaller and flatter. The nipple may also need to be repositioned. Liposuction is another procedure which is carried out for this purpose, in which extra fat is sucked out from under your skin. Among the different modes of treatment for gynecomastia, surgery is meant for long term results. However, you need to undertake a healthy lifestyle in order to maintain your new chest shape. Gaining weight and taking drugs may cause gynecomastia to reoccur.

7 Super Amazing Health Benefits of Aloe Vera!

Dr. T Venugopal Rao 86% (10 ratings)
MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Hyderabad
7 Super Amazing Health Benefits of Aloe Vera!

Aloe vera is one of the most popular medicinal plants that have been in use for thousands of years. It is particularly famous for the treatment of skin injuries although it offers a host of health benefits. This short stemmed shiny plant stores moisture in its leaves and is widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The gel within the aloe vera stem contains bioactive compounds found in plants such as vitamins, antioxidants and amino acids.

Some of the notable health benefits of Aloe Vera include the following,

  1. It contains antibacterial and antioxidant properties: Aloe Vera is known to contain the most beneficial antioxidants called as polyphenols. These polyphenols, as well as other similar compounds found on aloe vera, can prevent the growth of bacterial infections in human beings.
  2. Helps in healing cuts and burns: Aloe Vera can also be used as a topical medicine by applying the gel on the skin. It has been used since ancient times for the treatment of sores, cuts and burns which also includes sunburns. Aloe Vera is the first FDA approved ointment that got the status of an effective over-the-counter medication in the year 1959. It can, therefore, be used in first and even second degree burns.
  3. Prevents dental plaque: Tooth decay, as well as gum diseases, affect almost all individuals over the world. One of the best ways to steer clear of the oral infections is to prevent plaque buildup which is the bacterial biofilms on the teeth. The aloe vera mouthwash is as effective as chlorhexidine solutions in reducing the problems of dental plaque by killing the harmful yeast called Candida albicans and bacterium named Streptococcus mutans.
  4. Aids in the treatment of canker sores: Most people have experienced mouth ulcers or canker sores at least once in their lifetime. It mostly affects the area underneath the lip or inside the mouth and can be very painful at times. Several studies show that aloe vera gel helps in accelerating the healing process of canker sores.
  5. Reduces constipation: The latex of aloe vera has been found beneficial in the treatment of constipation. The latex is the sticky yellow residue underneath the leaf skin and contains aloin and barbaloin which offers effective latex effect.
  6. Prevent formation of wrinkles: Topical aloe vera gel assists in slowing down the ageing process with regular usage. Using aloe vera gel regularly helps in boosting the production of collagen and improves skin elasticity within three months of regular usage.
  7. Lowers down blood sugar levels: There was a time when aloe vera was used as a conventional remedy for diabetes. Aloe vera helps in enhancing insulin sensitivity as well as managing blood sugar levels. It has been used in numerous animals and humans affected with type 2 diabetes and the results are impressive enough to regard it as an alternative treatment option.

Along with these benefits, aloe vera juice is regarded as a sustainable way of weight management which has made it a well-favoured choice of overweight people all over the world.

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Bone & Joint Health - Ways You Can Keep Them Healthy!

Dr. Vikas Mehra 85% (10 ratings)
Fellowship in Joint Replacement, M S Ortho, DNB (Orthopaedics)
Orthopedist, Chandigarh
Bone & Joint Health - Ways You Can Keep Them Healthy!

The bones and joints in your body provide the basic framework on which all movement takes place. The joints are even more important as they act like hinge for the various types of movement that we require. However, these are the first to be affected due to muscle or bone disorders and thus limit your mobility. In most cases, these problems are caused by lifestyle disorders which can be easily corrected by making a few changes.

Some tips which will allow you to keep your joints healthy are mentioned as follows:

  1. Lose weight: Not just full-fledged obesity, but being overweight and also slightly chubby may not be in the best interest of your joints. The heavier you are, the more load your joints have to carry and thus, this may affect their health over time. Losing weight and being close to your ideal body weight will allow your joints to be under less stress thus keeping them healthy for longer.
  2. Start moving and stay in motion: One of the greatest evils of the modern lifestyle is its sedentary nature. While at work or at home, you probably spend far less time moving or walking than sitting or lying down. It is important to move and keep the joints functional. The more functional they are, the stronger they will be.
  3. Vitamin D for your bones: All joints in your body are made up of bones; and for healthy joints, you need healthy bones. Vitamin D and calcium are thus important ingredients required to make your bones strong. Dairy products such as milk or leafy green vegetables can easily satisfy your requirements. However if you can’t have dairy, then your doctor could prescribe calcium supplements to you.
  4. Don’t overwork or strain your joints: While it is necessary to stay in motion to ensure that your joints remain strong, overusing those joints could damage them. It is important to know your limits and also slowly push and improve on yourself rather than trying to make quick leaps. Start off with lower impact exercises such as cycling, walking or swimming and gradually go to more intense workouts when your joints are stronger.
  5. Always warm up: Before you do any kind of exercise, warm up slowly so that your joints are loose enough and lubricated to take the strain you put on them; no matter how light the exercises are. Stretching and warm up exercises are a must as they help you minimize long term damage to your joints.
  6. DietDiet is one of the most important aspects for overall health and hence it is very important in the case of joints as well. Certain types of foods rich in Omega-3 fatty acids are very good for your joints as they help reduce inflammation, such as some varieties of fish. On the other hand, certain types of food can cause inflammation and may even lead to long term problems.
2 people found this helpful

What Are The Symptoms and Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease?

Dr. Sunil Beniwal 89% (46 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Jaipur
What Are The Symptoms and Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease?

Your heart is the most important and vital organ of all and regulates the flow of heart to all parts of the body. Thus, the valves and the arteries which take the blood to your heart are also an important component in ensuring that the circulation is constant. Thus, any hindrance to this process will put a lot of pressure on your heart and lead to more serious problems in the long run. Coronary artery disease is one such problem and can seriously put the health of your heart at risk.

What is coronary heart disease?
Coronary arteries are very important blood vessels, which carry nutrients, blood and oxygen to your heart. If the level of bad cholesterol is high in your blood, it will start leaving deposits on the walls of the arteries which are commonly known as plaque. This plaque will start building up over time causing blockage of the arteries and disrupting proper blood flow. Excessive build up of the plaque may then rupture the lining of the plaque. This will then induce blood clotting and further prevent the normal flow of blood.

Symptoms
Primary symptoms may include

  1. Shortness of breathThis may occur while you are exercising or performing activities which are mildly exerting.
  2. Heart beats very hard and fast: Your heart may beat very hard and fast, especially when doing everyday activities such as climbing stairs or walking for a prolonged distance.
  3. Angina or chest painYou may experience pain in your chest as if someone was pressing against it with a lot of force. Angina is also triggered due to stressful activities or even emotional stress. It usually occurs on the left or the middle of the chest and may even be felt in the back, arms, and neck.
  4. Heart attackHeart attacks are the most common and the most serious complications of coronary heart disease. You would feel extreme pain, akin to crushing on your chest, shoulder, or arm. It may even be accompanied by jaw pain, and sweatiness.

Treatment
Non invasive forms of treatment are always preferable rather than invasive surgeries or procedures to treat coronary heart disease, especially where the risk of serious complications such as heart attack are still on the lower side. Some of the treatments used for coronary heart disease are as follows:

  1. Making lifestyle changes: Quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption along with consumption of regulated diet will automatically start cleaning plaque that has built up within the arteries. Losing weight also tends to help.
  2. Medications: Special medications can take care of cases wherein the deposits are still lesser and the plaque buildup can be removed without the requirement of extensive surgery. Anti-cholesterol medications are one example of this.
  3. Surgical procedures: These are usually employed when the blockage is severe and cannot be corrected by the conventional methods mentioned above. Some of the procedures are angioplasty, stent placement, as well as coronary artery bypass surgery.
9 people found this helpful

Dry & Itchy Skin - 9 Most Important Tips You Must Follow!

Dr. Aanchal Sehrawat 86% (42 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL), DNB dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
Dry & Itchy Skin - 9 Most Important Tips You Must Follow!

Are you suffering from dry, stretched, itchy or flaky skin? Remember dry skin look older than oily skin, as they show fine lines and wrinkles faster. They also flake, crack and bleed easily. Read on for 10 super easy steps recommended by dermatologists to soothe dry skin

Prevent hot baths and showers which dehydrate skin further. Do these instead for dry skin

  1. Use warm water
  2. Don’t shower for more than 5 minutes
  3. Wash with a gentle and fragrance-free soap
  4. Don’t apply too much soap so that it whips up a thick lather
  5. Don’t rub your skin dry with a towel

Post bath routine

  1. Slather on a rich moisturiser after drying your skin: Moisturisers trap extra moisture in your skin so the right time to use them is immediately after drying yourself with a towel. It’s better to use ointments and creams as these are more effective than lotions. Creams with olive and jojoba oil, Shea butter, lactic acid, urea, hyaluronic acid, dimethicone, glycerin, lanolin, mineral oil, and petrolatum jelly all are good. If the skin on your hand is extra dry and feels stretched then it’s a good idea to carry a non-greasy hand cream with you. Apply it to each washing hands immediately to relieve dry skin.
  2. Use only unscented skin care products: Shun harsh skin products which strip natural oils from skin like-
    • Deodorant soaps
    • Skin care products that contain fragrances, alcohol, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA)
  3. Wear gloves when washing utensils: This will prevent dry skin on hands. All you have to do is wear latex gloves before you start washing clothes and utensils.
  4. Choose laundry detergent with care: Laundry detergents should be chosen with care as they can irritate skin. Go for detergents labelled “hypoallergenic”.
  5. Avoid toasting yourself by the fireplace or other heat sources in winters: Remember heat is drying. So limit your time in front of a hot stove or fireplace.
  6. Use humidifiers to add moisture to indoor air: Use of humidifier will help prevent excessive drying of skin.
  7. Use milk on skin: Milk is packed with anti-inflammatory and soothing properties that can fight dry and itchy skin. The lactic acid in milk also exfoliates dead skin cells and increases the capacity of your skin to retain moisture.
  8. Honey: Honey is one of the best natural moisturisers. It comes loaded with antioxidants and antimicrobials.
  9. Yogurt: Yogurt is a skin-hydrating agent par excellence. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties also help soothe dry and itchy skin.


If these things don’t work in alleviating skin dryness, you may require a prescription cream, so see a dermatologist.

6 people found this helpful

How should I take aloevera juice and ashwagandha churn in the morning ?as I also take milk and akhrot.

Dr. Avni Kaul 94% (12 ratings)
Bsc Food & Nutrition, Msc Food & Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
How should I take aloevera juice and ashwagandha churn in the morning ?as I also take milk and akhrot.
Aloe Vera juice can be mixed with Amla juice if you like. Approx 20-30 ml can be taken in a glass of water. Ashwagandha is available in tablet and powder form. If you are taking powder form you can add it in warm milk with turmeric and consume this before bed. Walnuts can be taken as a snack in between in your main meals for healthy munching.
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