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I am 17 years old and I am suffering from facial scars which is due to pimple problems so please can you suggest how to prevent pimple problems and facial scars.

Dr. Sandip Samanta 89% (76 ratings)
BHMS, MD - Homeopathy, M.A. - Clinical Psychology
Homeopath, Howrah
I am 17 years old and I am suffering from facial scars which is due to pimple problems so please can you suggest how ...
You can try individualised homoeopathic treatment. You can clean your face with aloe vera gel, but that should be pure aloe vera not mixtures, but that won't affect your scars. The acne tendency may slightly reduced.
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Infections - Most Common Reasons Behind Them!

Dr. Vishwanath B L 87% (84 ratings)
Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Internal Medicine Specialist, Bangalore
Infections - Most Common Reasons Behind Them!

There are many organisms that live in our bodies and on the surface of the skin. These are usually harmless and do not cause any damage. But there are many organisms like viruses, fungi and bacteria that can cause infectious disorders known as infections. There are many kinds of infections that can affect the various parts of the body. These are generally caused by various things starting from contaminated food, to transmission from an infected person and more. Read on to know more about the kind of infections and their causes.

Common Symptoms: The various kinds of infections usually have common symptoms including fever due the start of the immune system's fight against the infecting organism, as well as cough, cold, chills, fatigue, loss of appetite, loose motions and pain. All these symptoms point at the presence of an infection.

Types: As mentioned earlier, infections can be of various types. Starting from viral infections that come with the change of seasons with allergy like symptoms, to STDs or sexually transmitted disease that are contagious and can spread with sexual contact, or even throat, stomach and other kinds of infections that can occur due to ingestion of contaminated food, insect bites and much more; there are several types of infections that can afflict the various parts of the body.

Indirect Contact: There are many surfaces like sinks, faucets, keyboards, tables, door knobs and more, which can carry and pass on infections through contact. This is especially true for public places including public toilets which are the number one cause of UTI or urinary tract infection.

  • Insect Bites: Fleas, tick, lice and even mosquitoes are all carriers of germs because they fly from one contaminated place to another, feasting on dirty and contaminated elements. A bite from one such insect can cause infections. Also, if we ingest food on which house flies and mosquitoes have been sitting, then we are risk of contracting infections.
  • Food Contamination: Continuing from the point above, food and water contamination can lead to the travel of disease causing germs into your system which can spread infection. This can also happen when you eat old food that has not been stored under proper conditions, as there may be fungi or mould growing on it.

Direct Contact: One of the causes of infection includes direct causes like contact with an infected person or animal. Coughing or sneezing on someone, getting bitten by an animal, or even mother to unborn child - there are many infections that can be spread in this manner.

Getting vaccinated on time can help in preventing many infections. This is especially important if you are travelling to various countries.

Hair Fall - Rescue It With Ayourveda!

Dr. Prabhat Kumar Bal 87% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, 24 Parganas
Hair Fall - Rescue It With Ayourveda!

You would surely want your hair to be lustrous, voluminous and shiny. Healthy hair indicates healthy skin as well. A number of factors influence the health of your hair; from your diet to the amount of water you drink to the number of hours you sleep at night.

According to Ayurveda, hair loss is caused because of pitta dosha. Pitta governs our metabolism and digestion. A balanced pitta leads to a healthy body and mind. It controls our general well being. Once you identify the reasons of pitta dosha, it becomes easier to correct it. Typically, bad eating habits, anxiety, and stress cause pitta dosha, which in turn lead to hair loss. Excessive consumption of tea, coffee, alcohol, meat, fried and spicy food imbalances the pitta.

Ayurveda is an age old holistic system of medicine. The Ayurvedic remedies for healthy hair are entirely natural and do not cause any side effect. The various Ayurvedic tenets for healthy hair are:

  1. Diet: Following a healthy diet is important for healthy hair. Include plenty of vegetables and fruits in your diet. This provides the necessary vitamins and minerals for the hair to remain healthy and nourished. Include foods that are rich in vitamin B complex such as almonds and eggs.

  2. Water Intake: You need to keep yourself hydrated by drinking sufficient volume of water (about 2-3 liters) in a day. Drinking plenty of water helps keep your body free from all sorts of toxins.

  3. Salt Intake: Avoid unnecessary use of salt. If possible use less salt and sour (vinegar) at least in summers. 

  4. Exercise: Regular cardiovascular exercise can help improving circulation in the body, including the scalp. Improved blood circulation in the scalp means an improved supply of nutrients to the hair follicles. A steady supply of nutrients to the hair follicles helps in keeping the hair healthy.

  5. ‘NO’ to Smoke: Smoking causes the blood vessels in the body to constrict, thereby, hampering blood circulation. Impaired circulation of blood means insufficient supply of blood to the hair follicles, a factor that makes them weak and brittle.

  6. Herbal Oils: Application of herbal oils such as rosemary and Aloe Vera keeps your hair healthy. The oils penetrate your hair follicles and provide the hair with necessary nutrients.

  7. Good Sleep: Sleep is a very important part of good health. You need enough sleep to let your body relax. After a hectic routine, even your body needs rest. It is during sleep that most of the tissues are regenerated and rejuvenated. You need a minimum of 8 hours of sleep every day. This is important for staying healthy and fit. Hair growth is also promoted if you get enough sleep.

  8. Most importantly Hygiene: Maintain good hygiene at every point in time. You need to wash your hair regularly to prevent accumulation of dead cells. For this, use a mild herbal shampoo to keep your hair clean. Do not over shampoo as it can dry your hair and cause frizzy hair.

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My father has been diagnosed with tumor in left inner cheek. He is 60 years old and diabetic. Should we go for surgery, or radiotherapy with chemotherapy is sufficient for treatment of the tumor.

Dr. Premitha 89% (22 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in MEDICAL Radio Therapy, DNB
Oncologist, Bangalore
The tumor in the inner cheek need to be biopsied and histopathology examination has to be carried out to know whether it is a cancer or a benign tumor. If it is a cancerous tumor it based on staging work up further treatment can be suggested.
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Precautionary Measures To Be Taken During The Third Trimester Of Pregnancy!

Dr. Sumati Saxena 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Allahabad
Precautionary Measures To Be Taken During The Third Trimester Of Pregnancy!

With the third trimester (from the 7th month to the time of delivery) of pregnancy, you move a step closer to welcoming the happiness that you have long been waiting for, braving so many complications and pregnancy woes. While all the trimesters are crucial, stepping into the third trimester, a pregnant woman needs to be extra careful. Be it her diet, medications, or health check-ups, proper care and precautionary measures should be followed to ensure both the mother and baby stay healthy and disease-free.

Health check-ups: No matter how healthy you or the baby are, do not skip even a single health checkup or doctor's appointment. Incidences of Gestational Diabetes, Preeclampsia, Anemia, can be observed in many pregnant women during the later stages of pregnancy, which, if left unattended can complicate the pregnancy. Thus, any uneasiness or discomfort, no matter how small, should be brought to the notice of your attending physician. When it comes to the well being of the baby, taking chances is just not an option.

Rest, sleep and relax: With all the hormonal changes and the growth and development of the fetus, body aches, fatigue (physical as well as mental), and tiredness are inevitable, especially during the third trimester. Stay happy and relaxed as much as you can. While a sound sleep and proper rest are vital, listening to soft and soothing music or meditation can work wonders to keep you relaxed, thereby uplifting your mood.
Try and avoid climbing too many stairs during this stage. Avoid bending too much or doing strenuous and physically and mentally exhausting work (household chores or professional commitments).

Exercise: Many pregnant women in their third trimester have benefited immensely from exercise (specially designed for the third trimester) and physical activities. However, what works for one may not produce similar results for another. Exercise only when you are physically and mentally up for it and most importantly when you are advised by a physician.

Dietary Requirements: The nutritional requirements change with each trimester and so does the diet. Proteins, vitamins, calcium, iron, folic acid, DHA or omega-3 fatty acids are all essential for the overall development of the baby.

Enrich your diet with avocados, kiwi, melon, strawberry, nuts, seeds, wholemeal toast, bacon (lean), salmon, Brussels sprouts, lean beef, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, eggs, pork, milk and dairy products during the third trimester.

Processed and fast foods, raw papaya, uncooked or raw vegetables and meat, aloe vera, fenugreek, pineapple, unpasteurized milk, can, however, trigger complications and are best left avoided during the third trimester.

Overeating just because you are carrying a life within does not make any sense. Instead, it can trigger heartburn and acidity. Having small meals at regular time intervals will be more beneficial. To deal with heartburns, one should also avoid retiring to bed immediately after a meal. Increased intake of dietary fibres goes a long way to prevent constipation (common during the third trimester). In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Addiction - How Homeopathy Is Beneficial In Treating It?

Dr. Anuj Kumar 85% (50 ratings)
BHMS, ND, Reiki Level 2
Homeopath, Noida
Addiction - How Homeopathy Is Beneficial In Treating It?

Addiction not only includes physical things we consume, such as drugs or alcohol, but also includes virtually anything, such abstract things as gambling to seemingly harmless products, such as chocolate, etc. In other words, addiction may refer to a substance dependence (e.g. drug addiction) or behavioral addiction (e.g. gambling addiction).

Causes: There is a link between the repeated uses of an addictive substance and how the human brain experience pleasure, its use has a nice reward, leading to further and more frequent use. The addictive substance, be it nicotine, alcohol or some drug actually causes physical changes in some nerve cells in the brain. After a while, the user of the potentially addictive substance does not get the same pleasure and has to increase the dose, as his/her body's tolerance to it increases. Eventually, the user no longer experiences pleasure from the substance and takes it simply to prevent withdrawal symptoms taking the substance just makes them feel normal. When tolerance increases, the risk of addiction is much greater.

Signs and Symptoms: A person starts to show symptoms when a person takes the substance, such as nicotine , alcohol etc. and has given a serious attempt to stop, but is unable to do so because of the withdrawal symptoms. The body of an addict will go in withdrawal state when once the level of the substance abused is below a certain level. When a person goes in withdrawal state it will show signs, such as craving, bouts of moodiness, bad temper, poor focus, extreme temperament, poor focus, continuous feeling of depression, emptiness, frustration, anger, bitterness and resentment. Apart from these the addict will also display symptoms such as increased appetite, insomnia, constipation,and diarrhea. Withdrawal caused by some substances can also trigger signs like violence, seizures, hallucination, sweating and trembling, etc. However, the addiction continues despite health problem awareness. An addicted person commonly feels they need their drug in order to deal with their problems.

Investigation of Addiction: Blood test is advised to determine whether the substance is still in the blood (whether the substance has been taken recently). DSM criteria for substance dependence that is a patient diagnosed with substance dependence (an addiction) must meet criteria laid out in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association.

What you can do?: Acknowledge the problem and consult for help from an expert. Family members must be supportive in creating a congenial environment for the addicted person.

Role of Homeopathy in Management of Addiction: The first step for the addicted person is to acknowledge that there is a substance dependency problem (addiction problem). The next step is to get help. In most of the world there are several support groups and professional services available. Treatment options for addiction depend on several factors, including what type of substance it is and how it affects the patients. Typically, treatment includes a combination of inpatient and outpatient programs, counselling (psychotherapy), self-help groups, pairing with individual sponsors, and medication.

Talking of medication, Homoeopathy definitely has a major role to play in the de-addiction journey of a 'patient'. Over the years it has been seen that homeopathy has produced tremendous results in such cases. People have approached for quitting alcohol, smoking, drugs, etc. and majority of them have been wonderfully helped by Homoeopathy. Those who haven't achieved desirable results have either lacked willingness or conviction on their own part, or have had a non-congenial and non-co-operative environment at home and work place. For any de-addiction plan to be successful for a patient these 2 factors are the most important. A willing person with a co-operative and supportive environment is much more receptive and responsive to the medical treatment.

The commonest attacking area for any addictive substance is the Central Nervous System (CNS). The substance inhibits the release of neurotransmitters, which are responsible for carrying nerve impulses. Once these neurotransmitters are inhibited in their normal functioning, a person develops delayed nervous responses and irregular nerve impulses leading to addiction. It is a vicious circle. So, as the centre of attack is the CNS, a medical system that boosts and strengthens the CNS would automatically prove beneficial in such dreadful cases. Homoeopathy is that very medical science! The homoeopathic medicines are absorbed through the nerve root endings of the tongue and directly hit the CNS. There are some very powerful Homoeopathic medicines, which have the ability to shake up the CNS and work in a normal manner as it is used to be. These Homoeopathic medicines, thus have the ability to develop control and also the power to abstain from the substance in later stages of the treatment.

But the first and foremost attempt is made to manage the withdrawal symptoms. It is the fear of the withdrawal symptoms only that a patient may lose conviction and confidence in him and give in to the indulgence once again. This is where the role of family and friends also comes in. when the struggle of 1 man becomes fight for the whole team; chances are very high of coming out victorious. There are brilliant medicines in Homoeopathic science, which can help the person in managing and fighting with the withdrawal symptoms with ease. Medicines like Nux vomica, Kali phos., Arsenic Album, Coffea cruda, Aconite, Gelsemium, Argentum nitricum, Ipecac, Acid sulphurosum, Caladium, Daphna indica, Quercus, etc. have proved to be extremely effective in helping a person wean off completely of the addictive substances.

Mind the Mind: Over the past two issues, we took up the burning problem of addiction as a mental illness, explored its, nature and probable causes that go into the making of an addict. The current issue is aimed at spreading awareness about the available evidence based psychological treatments for de-addiction.

  1. Psychotherapy: Also called as 'talk therapy', is aimed at helping the patient to understand the link between their thoughts, feelings and behaviour so that the maladaptive ones can be replaced with more adaptive and productive processes. Interventions in terms of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), Motivation Enhancement Therapy (MET) and Behaviour Therapy are efficient in the treatment of addiction behaviour.
  2. Craving control: Use of certain medicines and behavioural techniques can help a person deal with the intense feelings of craving when it seems too much to bear. It gives a sense of greater control to the person over the substance, which in turn motivates him/her to stay away from using the substance. Many people report that they tend to continue the abuse the substance since they are unable to handle the period of intense craving, which can come all of a sudden.
  3. Relapse prevention: Arguably it is the most important component of de-addiction program. Leaving the substance is not that hard, but staying away from it is the most difficult part as reported by many patients with addiction. To ensure that the person stays clean and healthy without the substance, they are taught some techniques like asking for help whenever they feel the need to do the substance or staying away from potentially, dangerous situations, like going to party where alcohol is available. With therapy, the individual gains more confidence in his/her own abilities rather than depending on the substance for facing life situations. In addition to this, they also start enjoying their life without the substance. Both the patient and his/her family play an important part in this process hence they are educated about it and are advised regarding appropriate ways of ensuring sobriety for the patient.
  4. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): It is a self-hellp group in which ex-alcoholics come together and share their experiences, for instance how they got into drinking, how it affected their life and now how they are maintaining their sobriety. These are mostly weekly sessions and have been found to be very effective in supporting the recovery of alcoholics to stay motivated and be clean without the use of alcohol. Similar to AA, there is NA (Narcotics Anonymous for drug addicts) and Al-Anon (for the family members and friends of problem drinkers).
  5. Yoga and exercise: A healthy daily routine with yoga or regular exercise promotes feelings of general well-being and ensures healthy mind and body. It detoxifies the body faster and even helps in recovering from the damage caused due to excessive substance use.
  6. Social skill training: An important aspect for being away from drugs/alcohol is the ability to say NO to such offers from others. Assertive behaviour, healthy communication pattern and good problem solving ability are skills that are taught to assist the person to stay healthy without feeling the need to take the substance.

One of the simplest, yet very powerful principles of staying healthy is 'ONE DAY AT A TIME'! Instead of making any long-term plans for staying sober, which might seem over-whelming and extremely difficult, just plan for that very day and DECIDE to be clean without the substance. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Advantages And Disadvantages of Laparoscopic Surgeries!

Dr. Manju Aggarwal 93% (308 ratings)
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Advantages And Disadvantages of Laparoscopic Surgeries!

Laparoscopic surgeries are minimally invasive surgeries where a very small incision is made on the patient’s belly button. After making this incision, a camera called the laparoscope is inserted from the hole and then the condition of the organ is evaluated upon a television screen in order to perform the operation. An air pocket via carbon dioxide is then made for the surgeon to carry out the operation. This procedure, although used widely has a couple of advantages and disadvantages which should be kept in mind before undergoing the surgery.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Surgeries
In comparison to a traditional, large surgery, laparoscopy is much more comfortable and is less painful as well. The small incision takes less amount of time to heal, therefore the patient is allowed to get back to his/her regular activities much sooner. Patients who go through laparoscopic surgeries spend less time in the hospital and get discharged on the same or the next day as well.

Laparoscopic surgeries help in reducing the risk of bleeding during the surgery as the incision is relatively very small than the ones made during a traditional surgery. The amount of blood loss is minimal in such a case and therefore the need of blood transfusion is also decreased, significantly.

Another important factor which can be counted in is that, with the help of laparoscopic surgeries the risk of exposing the internal organs to contamination is also reduced. This allows the chance of post-operative infection risks to diminish as well.

Disadvantages of Laparoscopic Surgeries
Just like a coin which has two sides, laparoscopic surgeries also have its advantages and disadvantages which you need to consider before going through it. One of the most important factors is that laparoscopic surgeries are extremely expensive as the instruments required to carry out the operation is very costly. A number of less affluent hospitals can therefore not afford to have the intrument; this makes laparoscopic surgeries less accessible to a vast number of people.

Laparoscopic surgeries may not be suitable for complicated surgeries. The tools required to carry out a laparoscopic surgery may not be sufficient for an operation which needs a 3-dimensional field of vision. For surgeries where large chunks of tissues are to be removed, these minimally invasive surgeries are not preferred.

Laparoscopic surgeries may also need a second open surgery in case of any complication during the procedure. Thus, the risk of having two surgeries increases for patients who opt for laparoscopic surgeries. These surgeries also need a special skill set and every hospital is not equipped specialized personnel who know how to operate the unit. Therefore, you should consider every aspect before going through the procedure. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Penis Health Awareness - Essential Men's Checkups According to Age

Dr. Vinod Raina 93% (4662 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Penis Health Awareness - Essential Men's Checkups According to Age

Unfortunately, most men take better care of their cars than they do of their own bodies. Just as no man would skip an oil change or 50,000-mile tune-up, he shouldn't skip out on important annual physical exams and health screenings. Physical health is very closely tied to penis health, making these check-ups vital to a healthy sex life, as well. Learn what health screenings every man needs throughout each decade of his life in order to keep everything under the hood running smoothly.

In the 20s

Though men are hopefully at the pinnacle of health at this age, it's still important to make time for an annual visit with the doctor. Here's a list of everything the doc should check regularly during this decade:

  • Annual physical with blood pressure check
  • In-office screening for testicular cancer
  • Cholesterol testing every 5 years
  • Yearly skin cancer screening
  • Depending on family history, screening for other conditions such as thyroid, diabetes, heart conditions, liver conditions, or anemia
  • Screening for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, every 3-6 months for men who are not in monogamous relationships

At home:

Monthly testicular self-exams to monitor for changes
Monthly skin cancer self-exam to check for changes

In the 30s

Not much changes between these two decades; all of same in-office and at-home screenings from the 20s would be carried on in the 30s, with these add-ons:

More intensive visual health screenings
Screenings for coronary heart disease - particularly in men with a strong family history of heart problems

In the 40s

  • While the 40s used to be considered "over the hill," it is far from it these days. Still, make sure the doc is continuing all of the above health screenings as well as adding on a few more. Keep up on those monthly self-exams, too:
  • Screenings for prostate cancer
  • Possible screenings for colon cancer, depending on risk factors and family history
  • Diabetes screening every 3 years once a man has reached age 45

In the 50s

Whether a man is considering early retirement or still going strong in his career, his health is as important as ever. A doc will keep all the previous health screenings going, as well as the following:

  • Yearly blood draw screening for Type II diabetes
  • Yearly electrocardiogram
  • Vision and hearing screenings
  • Screening for lipid disorders
  • Colon cancer screening, including blood testing and colonoscopy starting at age 50
  • Evaluation for depression

In the 60s

  • Reaching the 60s is reason to celebrate, not to slow down; so maintain an active lifestyle and make sure the doc continues all the essential exams while adding the following. If those monthly self-exams are getting more difficult, feel free to enlist a partner for help:
  • Screenings for coronary heart disease, as well as preventative screenings or ultrasounds for carotid artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm, especially for men with other existing cardiovascular conditions
  • Osteoporosis screening
  • Lung cancer screening - depending on risk factors and family history
  • Screening for dementia and Alzheimer's disease in addition to depression or anxiety issues

In the 70s and beyond

By this time the doc has probably run about every preventative screening there is. Depending on previous results and personal health history, the doc may increase or decrease the frequency of certain studies and screenings. A thorough discussion with a doctor who is familiar with one's entire history is important to determine what health exams should be conducted both in-office and at home.

Maintaining Sexual Health

In order to stay sexually active - and healthy - into the 70's and beyond, men need to be taking care of their bodies their entire life. In addition to getting plenty of exercise, maintaining regular physicals and other health screenings, men should always use a condom to reduce their chance of transmitting sexual infections. Regular screenings of one's sexual health is imperative to keep the penis healthy.

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Low Libido In Men

Dr. Mohd Tahir 91% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Sexologist, Meerut
Low Libido In Men

Low sex drive

Low libido in men is a result of various factors such as low testosterone levels, reduce blood flow and other emotional issues such as stress, depression, anxiety etc.

Experiencing a loss of libido can have deep impacts upon a man's life, arriving at far past the pad. On the grounds that sexual execution is nearly identified with affections of certainty, trouble in sexual working can accelerate a general despondency, and also pressure in private relationships and even physical and emotional withdrawal from life partners. The point when men experience a loss of libido, they suffer alone in quiet. This is awful, since there is presently an extraordinary bargain that might be carried out therapeutically to help male sexual dysfunction. What's more, it is critical to follow each man that, the loss of libido can show huge health issues.

Causes for low libido:

  • Anxiety and stress cause low libido
  • Having sex by compulsions with a person whom you do not like.
  • Controlling sexual urges for longer duration leading to obstruction of semen which in turn results in low libido.
  • Overindulgence in sexual activities leading to low quantity of semen.

Ayurvedic treatment and tips to increase libido:

  • Include zinc in your eating methodology.
  • Include essential fats in your eating diet.
  • Mix triphala powder in water. Keep it away for 60 minutes. Include a table spoon of unadulterated nectar. Have this in unanticipated morning day by day.
  • Include a tea spoon of nectar in a glass of milk and drink. It expands safety against illnesses and give quality and feeling of wellness, important for general health incorporating libido.
  • Workout regularly. Exercise is an extraordinary stress buster.
  • Reduce stress. Anxiety is a major mental component that can influence male libido.

Radio Therapy - Is It Beneficial For Lung Cancer?

Dr. Harpreet 93% (149 ratings)
MD - Radiation Oncology, MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD)
Oncologist, Delhi
Radio Therapy - Is It Beneficial For Lung Cancer?

As much as you want to avoid, there are things you have no control over. Lung cancer (Bronchogenic Carcinomas) is one such nemesis that can throw life in shambles. The malignant tumor that originates in the lungs slowly spreads onto the other distinct and vital organs as well. Thought to be mostly affecting men who are chain smokers and into severe tobacco consumption, incidences of lung cancer in women are rising at an alarming rate over the past few years. Non-smokers may also be susceptible (to a lesser extent though) to lung cancer.

Lung cancer can be either

  • Non-small cell lung cancers: The NSCLC, accounting for ~85% of the lung cancer is one of the most common types of lung cancer affecting people, NSCLC may further be divided into
  • Adenocarcinoma: This type of NSCLC originates mostly in the peripheral regions of the lungs and may affect (spread) the lymph nodes. Non-smokers and women are mostly at the receiving end (other than the chain smokers).
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Also known as Epidermoid Carcinoma, often affects men, epidermoid carcinoma may originate in the tissues that line the bronchial tubes. The lymph nodes are often affected by Epidermoid Carcinoma.
  • Large-cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma: The point of origin of large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma is the surface of the lungs. They have a higher probability of spreading to the lymph nodes.
  • Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma: Though rare, bronchioalveolar carcinoma originates close to the air sacs.
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC, accounting for ~25% of the lung cancer): As the name suggests, SCLC is marked by the rapid proliferation of small cells into large malignant tumors. SCLC can move throughout the body (affecting vital organs).

Radiotherapy to treat Lung cancer:
Radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment of lung cancer. The radiation therapy is mainly of two types

  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT)
  • Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy)

In external beam radiation therapy, high-energy rays are focused on the cancer cells (thereby resulting in the apoptosis of the cancer cells) externally, from outside the body. EBRT is particularly helpful in case of Non-small cell lung cancers.

The EBRT may be of the following types

  • 3D-CRT (Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy): An advanced radiation therapy, 3D-CRT accurately marks the position of the cancer cells (using advanced computers). The treatment ensures minimum damage to the other healthy cells and tissues (energy rays are directed at the affected cells from different positions).
  • SBRT (Stereotactic body radiation therapy): This is a radiation therapy used in the treatment of NSCLC, when it is at a nascent stage.
  • IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy): As the name suggests, in IMRT, the intensity of the radiation reaching the normal tissues and cells can be modulated. Like 3D-CRT, the radiation in IMRT is directed from different angles (for maximum results).
  • Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy): This type of radiation therapy is generally used to deal with lung cancers that tend to block the airways. In this therapy, the radiation process is carried out through a narrow tube, thereby, shrinking and collapsing the tumor.

The effect, dosage, and duration of radiation therapy depend on the stage and severity of the condition. In some cases, radiation therapy may be given together with chemotherapy.

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