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Arthritis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Arthritis ?

You may have arthritis if you experience stiffness and pain or moving around is difficult. Swelling of the joints and pain is there in most types of arthritis. The junction at which two bones connect is called a joint, like the knee or elbow. With time an inflamed joint can get badly damaged. The skin and eyes may also get affected in certain types of arthritis.

The different kinds of arthritis are.

  • Osteoarthritis- It is the most prevalent kind of arthritis. An injury or aging is usually the cause for osteoarthritis.
  • Autoimmune arthritis- It happens due to the immune system attacking functional cells in the body by accident. The commonest type of this arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Infectious arthritis- It spreads to the joint from a different body part.
  • Juvenile arthritis- It takes place in children.
  • Psoriatic arthritis- People with psoriasis are affected by this.
  • Gout- When there is an excess build-up of uric acid within the body, it leads to gout. It generally originates from the toes. Arthritis can’t be cured but several treatments are available that may successfully alleviate the pain.

Here are some non-surgical treatments:

  • Changes in lifestyle- Certain daily habits and changes in life can reduce the spread of the disease and help with the pain as well.
  • Reducing activities that make the condition worse.
  • Changing to activities that reduce impact on the ankles and feet, instead of the high impact ones.
  • Weight loss to decrease the impact on joints for increase in function and pain reduction.
  • Physical therapy- Certain exercises help increase the range of flexibility and motion. The ankle and feet muscles can be built up as well.

A physiotherapist or a doctor can create a customized exercise regime to meet your lifestyle and needs. Even though physiotherapy aims to alleviate pain, sometimes it may have the opposite effect due to friction build up on the joints. If this happens, then an alternative treatment needs to be sought and you should immediately consult your doctor.

Assistive devices- Walking with a cane or wearing braces might improve mobility. Custom made shoes for arthritis, reduce pain as well.

Medications- Painkillers like naproxen and ibuprofen reduce pain and swelling. Cortisone injections may relieve pain and help manage the inflammation. These however, aren’t permanent. Surgery helps with the pain and makes life functional again. It may however take up to 9 months for full recovery.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Increase in swelling and pain in mornings, or after resting and sitting Motion induced pain Vigorous activity induced pain Redness, warmth and swelling in the joints. Tenderness on applying pressure to the joint.

Popular Health Tips

Foot Problems - Can They Be Treated By Surgery?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship In Laparoscopic & Robotic Onco-Surgery, Fellowship In bariatric surgery, F.I.A.G.E.S
General Surgeon, Delhi
Foot Problems - Can They Be Treated By Surgery?

Foot problems can occur due to a number of causes that, in most cases, are easily diagnosed. An orthopedic is a specialized doctor whose advice you should seek if you have any kind of discomfort in one or both of your feet. Discomfort may include chronic or regular pain, difficulty in movement and/or disfigurement. These are generally a result of arthritis, physical injury or a genetic or hereditary condition. In some of the cases, the pain and discomfort can be treated without any surgery, by using medications. However, in extreme cases, where medication, physical therapy, and other such non-surgical methods fail to have any impact, surgery is the only way to go.

These surgeries are less invasive and require a limited recovery time. They are also one of the most successful types of surgery. The surgical procedure is successful in dealing with the main complaints of a foot problem. It successfully treats a foot by,

  1. Relieving pain: The pain in your feet interferes with your work, making it difficult to carry on with your daily life, affecting your personal and social relationships. Pain often indicates an underlying problem, and it is easier and effective to treat the problem with a surgery, as it relieves you from the chronic pain.
  2. Restoring function: If your feet do not function properly, it will be impossible for you to move, as they are necessary for mobility. When a simple stride becomes a problem, your whole lifestyle is affected. Accepting defeat is not an option. A good orthopedic can help you to get back to your normal daily life by surgically treating your feet thus ensuring they function properly.
  3. Improving appearances: Foot deformity, due to a number of reasons such as polio or bone spurs, can lead to a restricted lifestyle. Movement is hampered and so is freedom. Surgically it can be treated and the appearance of your feet can be improved.

Arthritis is also a cause of a number of foot problems. In more cases than not, surgery becomes a necessity to treat your foot. Here are some of the surgeries that cater to arthritis-related foot problems:

  1. Repairing Fracture: If the fracture is beyond repair by non-surgical methods, surgery is the last refuge for an orthopedic surgeon. Surgery will include repositioning of the bone and the use of supports to keep them in position.
  2. Arthroscopic debridement: This surgical procedure helps to remove inflamed tissues or spurs from the joint.
  3. Arthrodesis: Also known as joint fusion, it involves the removal of the ends of the bones at the joint and replacing them with metal pins or screws.
  4. Osteotomy: The surgical procedure involves realignment of a joint by cutting the bone.
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How Can You Get IVF Done If You Have Arthritis?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Delhi
How Can You Get IVF Done If You Have Arthritis?

Arthritis is a swelling of either of your muscles and joints or a number of joints. According to medical reports, there are more than a hundred different categories of arthritis. However, the two common ones affecting the majority of the population across the world are rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).

Arthritis has been seen to commonly occur in individuals who are more than 60 years of age. However, it can also occur in teens, children and young adults. Another important factor is that arthritis as a condition is more common in females than males. Also, people who are overweight are more susceptible to suffering from it.

Symptoms of Arthritis:

Aside from the already mentioned persistent sign of swelling or inflammation other common symptoms include stiffness and joint pain. People who suffer from the condition of arthritis experience painful swelling in the morning along with redness around the skin of the joint.

Those who suffer from RA specifically are prone to suffering from tiredness, reduced appetite, anaemia and fever.

Causes of Arthritis:

Arthritis can be caused by mere wear and tear of the joints. Sometimes infection or damage to the joint muscles can also trigger the condition. Also, arthritis is hereditary.

Living with Arthritis:

For those suffering from arthritis carrying out simple daily activities can be extremely painful. This includes walking, and climbing stairs and personal grooming activities such as shaving combing hair etc. Also, people have trouble gripping, kneeling and reaching out to grab objects. Other limitations posed by arthritis include difficulty in getting pregnant via In Vitro Fertilization or IVF.

IVF and Arthritis:

Women who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis have lowered the chances of getting pregnant with assisted reproductive technology such as IVF. This has been a rather recent finding in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases journal.

A few cases studies were carried out which have been reported within the journal. It has been discovered that women affected with RA were found 22 per cent less likely to get pregnant compared to other women. The chances of clinical pregnancy in women with RA were also less by 20 per cent.

According to doctors, it is recommended that patients take corticosteroid medication prior to opting for IVF. This increases the chance of conception.

3252 people found this helpful

Rheumatoid Arthritis - 6 Ways To Manage It Effectively!

Multi Speciality, Visakhapatnam
Rheumatoid Arthritis - 6 Ways To Manage It Effectively!

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a degenerative disease that progresses over time. It generally affects the fingers, feet, wrists, and ankles. It causes immobility due to inflammation and stiffness as well as severe pain. This is an autoimmune disease where the body mistakenly ends up attacking the joints instead of attacking bacteria and other substances as it normally should. Severe cartilage damage can be caused if this condition is not treated on time, which can make the spacing between the bones even smaller than usual.

Let us find out how one can tackle this condition.

  1. Rest: While there is still no cure for this condition, one can take a number of measures in order to tackle it. One of the foremost ways of managing this condition is with the help of rest and relaxation. It is important to get plenty of sleep so that you can keep the condition from getting worse. There are a number of relaxation exercises that will help you in sleeping better, especially if you have been having trouble sleeping due to the aches and pains. 
  2. Exercise: Depending on the doctor’s recommendations, you will need to exercise on a regular basis so as to keep the motion in your joints intact for as long as possible. Muscle and joint strengthening exercises include swimming, walking, and even gentle stretching that can help in reducing muscle fatigue. This can make your muscles stronger and increase the range of motions as well. 
  3. Ointments and Lotions: One can turn to gels and lotions which can be topically applied. These can be prescribed by the doctor as well so that the pain is soothed and temporary relief from pain and stiffness may be experienced. These are also available in the form of sprays. These ointments, gels or lotions usually contain camphor, menthol, capsaicin and salicylates. 
  4. Fish Oil Supplements: Pain and stiffness can be significantly reduced with the help of fish oil, as per many medical studies. Before adding fish oil supplements to your food, you will need to talk to your orthopedic specialist to find out if it may interfere with any medication that you may be taking for the condition or any other related disorder.
  5. Plant Oils: Plant oils are also known to contain fatty acids known as gamma linolenic acid, which can give much relief when it comes to pain and stiffness, especially in the morning. One must remember, though, that excessive use of this oil can lead to liver damage. So it is imperative to speak with your doctor or therapist before taking any plant oils. 
  6. Medications: Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can help in containing the pain and inflammation for severe cases.
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Ways To Treat Plantar Fasciitis!

MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Indore
Ways To Treat Plantar Fasciitis!

Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of pain on the bottom of the heel.

Plantar fasciitis occurs when the strong band of tissue that supports the arch of your foot becomes irritated and inflamed. The plantar fascia is a long, thin ligament that lies directly beneath the skin on the bottom of your foot. It connects the heel to the front of your foot and supports the arch of your foot. The plantar fascia is designed to absorb the high stresses and strains we place on our feet. But, sometimes, too much pressure damages or tears the tissues. The body's natural response to injury is inflammation, which results in the heel pain and stiffness of plantar fasciitis. In most cases, plantar fasciitis develops without a specific, identifiable reason.

There are, however, many factors that can make you more prone to the condition:

  • Tighter calf muscles that make it difficult to flex your foot and bring your toes up toward your shin 
  • Obesity 
  • Very high arch 
  • Repetitive impact activity (running/sports) 
  • New or increased activity

Although many people with plantar fasciitis have heel spurs, spurs are not the cause of plantar fasciitis pain. Because the spur is not the cause of plantar fasciitis, the pain can be treated without removing the spur.

The most common symptoms of plantar fasciitis include:

  • Pain on the bottom of the foot near the heel 
  • Pain with the first few steps after getting out of bed in the morning, or after a long period of rest, such as after a long car ride. The pain subsides after a few minutes of walking 
  • Greater pain after (not during) exercise or activity


X-rays provide clear images of bones. They are useful in ruling out other causes of heel pain, such as fractures or arthritis. Heel spurs can be seen on an x-ray.

Other imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, are not routinely used to diagnose plantar fasciitis. They are rarely ordered. An MRI scan may be used if the heel pain is not relieved by initial treatment methods.


  • More than 90% of patients with plantar fasciitis will improve within 10 months of starting simple treatment methods.
  • Rest. Decreasing or even stopping the activities that make the pain worse is the first step in reducing the pain. You may need to stop athletic activities where your feet pound on hard surfaces (for example, running or step aerobics).
  • Ice. Rolling your foot over a cold water bottle or ice for 20 minutes is effective. This can be done 3 to 4 times a day.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Exercise. Plantar fasciitis is aggravated by tight muscles in your feet and calves. Stretching your calves and plantar fascia is the most effective way to relieve the pain that comes with this condition.
  • Calf stretch
  • Plantar fascia stretch
  • Cortisone injections
  • Supportive shoes and orthotics
  • Night Splints
  • Physical therapy
  • Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)
  • Surgery is considered only after 12 months of aggressive nonsurgical treatment.
3630 people found this helpful

Arthritis Of The Shoulder- What Are The Symptoms and Causes?

MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Orthopedics & Orthopedic Surgery
Orthopedist, Hyderabad
Arthritis Of The Shoulder- What Are The Symptoms and Causes?

Arthritis is a common ailment that affects a majority of adults across the globe. It can affect any joint in the body and cause inflammation, pain, and swelling. When arthritis affects the shoulders, it causes stiffness, pain, and lack of movement.

Signs and symptoms of arthritis of the shoulder:
The only symptom caused by shoulder arthritis is a pain, which, in turn, causes a limited range of motion. It is worth discussing these symptoms in detail:

The Symptoms-

  1. Pain: Any kind of activity concerning the shoulder aggravates the pain and it usually worsens with the passage of time. When arthritis affects the glenohumeral shoulder joint, the pain is mostly felt at the back of the shoulder and tends to get more severe with weather changes. Many patients also complain of pain present deep in the joint. On the other hand, the pain of arthritis in the acromioclavicular joint is centred on the topmost part of the shoulder. In some people, rheumatoid arthritis affects the entire shoulder when both acromioclavicular and glenohumeral shoulder joints are affected.
  2. Lack of motion: The pain caused by arthritis of the shoulder leads to a limited range of motion and it may be difficult to take part in a common day to day activities as well. People affected with arthritis of the shoulder are not able to lift their arm or comb their hair or pick up something from the ground. There could also be a snapping sound when one tries to move his or her shoulder.

But not all individuals affected by shoulder arthritis have pain and loss of range of motion. Some people having severe joint problems have very few symptoms.

Causes of Arthritis of the Shoulder!
Age is one of the most compelling causes of shoulder arthritis as it generally affects people aged over 50 years. However, it may also occur in younger individuals after experiencing a trauma or injury such as an accident or fracture or dislocation or severe infection. Arthritis of the A-C joints affects younger people while that of the G-H joint affects older people though there can be exceptions as well. Also, arthritis is genetic as well which means in a family affected with arthritis, every individual possesses a risk of being affected by it. Other causes of arthritis include:

  1. Gout: Gout is arthritis that occurs when there is an accumulation of excess uric acid.
  2. Juvenile arthritis: This kind of arthritis leads to pain, swelling and stiffness in the shoulders.
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints which takes place when the immune system instead of shielding the body from foreign bodies, attacks the thin membrane lining of the joints.

Although there is no treatment that can absolutely cure arthritis of the shoulder, numerous pain management options are available. It is important to talk to an expert and decide which course of action can offer maximum relief.

4523 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Arthritis problem I'm taking saaz (medicine) and if pain than predmet (medicine) but its not working properly what should I do for this.

MBBS, MD - Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Orthopedist, Mumbai
Predmet is a steroid. Long term use of steroids may result in side effects and is not advisable at such a young age. Kindly investigate fully into the cause of arthritis and take appropriate treatment
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My mother suffers from ulcerative colitis and she takes sazo, mesacol, folic acid tab, and now she suffers from leg and hand pain, muscle pain, numbness in fingers, can any one suggest best medication for arthritis is there any good ayurvedic medicine or allopathic medicine other than steroids.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Thanks for query these diseases are autoimmune diseases. Steroids are good options in managing them. Now a days biologicals drugs are available but they are quite costly regards.

I'm 64 years old was hit by a car on left hip and fell on my knees in 2009, i'm using predisone and diclofenac but it does not heal, instead it's getting worse, went to the doctor who took xray and said its arthritis. What is the best medication I can use?

MBBS, MD - Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Orthopedist, Mumbai
1. Prednisone is not good for the bones. In the long run it will lead to osteoporosis and bone thinning 2 If the damage in the hip is severe better to of load the hip by using a walking aid or as you are 64 you can think of hip replace ment surgery if it is indicated, which can be determined only after seeing the X rays
1 person found this helpful

I am a patient of gout. First attack was in Jul 18 second in Dec 18. Then medication started. Colchicine bd and allopurinol 300 od now reduced to 200 and colchicine has been stopped. Right now very very mild attack observed. No non veg no alcohol. Uric acid 4.3. Why mild attack. Uric acid is within limits .medication on. No bad habits exercise daily?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Internal Medicine, Fellowship in Rhuematology, DNB (Internal Medicine)
Rheumatologist, Chennai
hi gout is a metabolic disease it has various ramifications pl consult me through lybrate for resolution.. u may have an attack even at normal serum uric acid levels

I am experiencing cervicocranial instability at occiput and c1 c2 levels due to rheumatoid attacks. Rheumatologist dismissing these as rheumatoid related. Stabbing pain at c1, c2 skull base, episodic attacks and persistent for past 40 days. Developed following symptoms over last month due to this. Severe headache (scalp), paresthesia (burning around lips / mouth area), tinnitus, vertigo, occiput pain, double vision, hearing loudly (hyperacusis ), dizziness, balance issues, heavy head, pressure inside skull, when I shake my head I feel like brain is colliding with skull wall. Mild hearing loss confirmed by audiology test. Does mri - brain test help to identify the problem could this be traumatic brain injury / concussion? Which brain mri test to be done? Please advise. Consulted 3 top neurologists, taking hcqs, mtx (3 months), vertin 24, gabapentin, neurobion, omnacortil 20. Mri spine is inconclusive. Disc bulge at c5, c6 reported. Rest is normal. No upright mri in hyderabad.

Fellow of Faculty of Pain Medicine (FFPMRCA), Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA), Post Gradate Certificate in Musculoskeletal Ultrasound, European Diploma in Regional Anaesthesia and Acute Pain Management, Diploma in Anesthesia, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Pain Management Specialist, Delhi
Dear lybrate-user, instability at c1-2 level can be concerning and give rise to pain at the back of head and headaches. The first which you need to look into is how bad is the instability and does it need to be surgically corrected. Consider visiting a neurosurgeon to have this assessed. If it it not bad then thereby be an option of injections with can be considered after an assessment by a pain specialist. Discs bulges at lower neck levels do not normally cause headaches but can lead to neck and shoulder pain. For certain neck conditions such as joint problems of often direct injections are the best way to figure out how much they are contributing to your pain symptoms. Hope this helps good luck.
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Table of Content

What is Arthritis ?

The different kinds of arthritis are.

Here are some non-surgical treatments:

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Knee Arthritis
The knee acts as hinge joint and allows flexion (bending) and extension (straightening). The knee is formed by the tibiofemoral joints, where end of the femur (thigh bone) glides over the top of the tibia (shin bone) and the patellofemoral joint where the kneecap glides over the end part of the femur. The gliding surfaces of the knee are covered with articular cartilage which helps the joint to glide smoothly.
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Knee Arthritis
The knee acts as hinge joint and allows flexion (bending) and extension (straightening). The knee is formed by the tibiofemoral joints, where the end of the femur (thigh bone) glides over the top of the tibia (shin bone) and the patellofemoral joint where the kneecap glides over the end part of the femur.
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Joint Pain

Aaj hum joint pain ke bare me baat krenge. Knee joint jisko ghutna bhi bolte hain. Ye bhut hi common problem hai. Hmare pas bhut sare patients aate hain or iska karran puchte hain. Young patients bhi puchte hain ki isko hum kaise prevent kar skte hain taki hume old age me problem na ho. Hmare body ka load sabse jyada knee joints pe hi pdta hai. Agar aap overweight hain to apko knee pain hone ke chances badh jate hain. Sabse common problem hai degenerative arthritis. Ye age-related hota hai or isme joint ka surface ghis jata hai. Joint ke andar cartilage hoti hai. Ye joint ko painless rkhne ke lia bhut jruri hota hai and agar ye ghis jaye to ye pain krna shuru kar deta hai.

Jab ye advance ho jata hai to iska regeneration nhi hota hai. To hum maximum patients ko surgical treatment ke lia advice krte hain. Is condition ke symptoms kya hain. Patients ko pain hota hai. Day to day activity me dikkat hoti hai. Kayi bar legs tede ho jate hain. Ek dusra arthritis hai jisko hum bolte hain gathiya or rheumatoid arthritis. Ye ek bimari hai. Isme joint puri trha se destroy ho jata hai. Early stage me ye dawaiyon se control ho jata hai.

Or jab ye advance stage me hota hai to hum knee replacement hi advice krte hain. Ye surgery bhut successful hai. Is surgery me jo layer khrab ho jati hai use replace kr dia jata hai. Ise knee surfacing bhi kha jata hai quki isme sirf surface ko hi change kia jata hai. Ek new name hai jisko hum fast track ya enhanced recovery pathway total knee replacement. Isme hum new technology ka use krte hain through gadgets jo pain relief krne ke lia hota hai or ye post-operative dia jata hai.

Iske through patient 2-4 hours me hi kuch steps lene lag jate hain. Bed ke around vo aram se chal skte hain. Is s complications kam ho jate hain or patient ki recovery fast ho jati hai. Aaj kal gyroscopic navigation, blood loss reduction strategies, reducing pain modalities use krte hain or ise fir hum fast track knee replacement ka name dete hain.
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Know More About Arthritis
Dear friends, I am Dr Shekhar Shrivastav. I am senior consultant orthopaedic at Sant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi. Today, we'll be discussing Arthritis and specifically arthritis of the knee joint.

Now people usually come and ask me what do you mean by arthritis. So arthritis is the inflammation of the joint. Joint is made up of two ends of the bone which are lined by an articular cartilage which helps in a smooth motion of the joint. So when that cartilage gets destroyed you get arthritis. Now it can get destroyed due to various reasons but the most common reasons are due to ageing process which we call osteoarthritis. So there is degenerative wear and tear of the joint which leads to osteoarthritis or there can be an inflammatory cause such as rheumatoid arthritis which involves the lining of the joint and damages the cartilage. Now then people ask or most of the people who come to us with arthritis involve arthritis of the knee joint. So knee joint is the joint which is common in which is most commonly involved in osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The patient usually comes with pain, swelling and stiffness. They have difficulty in walking, climbing stairs and sometimes in severe cases, they have pain even at rest.

How do we manage that?

Now in order to manage that first, we should know what is the cause of arthritis? So we do some x-rays. X-rays give us an idea about the cause of arthritis as well as the extent of the damage. Now we also go for some blood tests which will give us an information if it's because of an inflammation or any infection. So these are the various causes of arthritis.

Now how do you manage our practice?

Patient has a company with pain, swelling and such disability so initially, we start with conservative management which is nonoperative management. So in that we ask the patient to do some lifestyle modification like we asked them to avoid using stairs or if they are using stairs then they have to use a railing so that there is not much stress on the joints. If they are into sports then we ask them to shift from contact sports like jogging or Aerobic to low impact exercises like swimming or cycling. We send them for physiotherapy. Physiotherapy helps a lot in arthritis. It helps in gaining strength in the muscles which protects the joint and it also gives increased flexibility and moment of the joint. We can give some medications and form of painkillers and thin perimeter because they reduce the inflammation, reduces the pain and in acute cases we can also inject the region.

Now, in severe arthritis when all this treatment has failed in that case it requires surgery. Surgery can be in different form. If the patient is having any loose fragment which is causing locking, then, in that case, we can go for arthroscope which is a keyhole surgery, where we make just small incisions like the tip of this pen, we put our instruments inside and we take out that piece which is a simple thing. In severe cases, we go for replacements. So it can be either partial replacement or total knee replacement. Now in severe cases with patients of great disability who have difficulty in walking who have pain on each step, who have pain even at rest, knee replacement surgery is a boon for these patients. It increases their activity, it increases their social life and it also makes them more mobile.

So if you want to know more about arthritis, if you are suffering from this problem and you want treatment you can contact me through lybrate or you can contact me at Sant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi.

Thank you.
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Know More About Arthritis
The skin is the largest organ in the human body, which measures about 2 square metres approximately 22 square feet. Skin is not just the longest organ alone in our body, but also has numerous amazing roles which most of us don t realise actually. It not only protects our body from chemical, harmful radiations and sun. It also acts as a major storage area of energy, synthesizes vitamin D and the best indicator of any disorder in your digestive and immune system.
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