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Overview

H.I.V - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus attacks the immune system of a person and reduces his/her ability to fight against other infections and diseases. HIV mainly attacks the CD4 cells, also known as T cells. These cells play an instrumental role in strengthening one’s immune system. However, when under attack by the HIV, these cells get damaged. Thereby the person becomes susceptible to infections and diseases. If not treated on time, this virus can cause AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in a person.

This virus spreads rapidly inside the body by creating its copies. Therefore sooner the treatment starts, all the more beneficial it will be for the patient. With proper medication and treatment, a person can control the spread of the virus inside the body. As a result, he/she will be able to avoid the dire consequences. The medicines allow a person to live a normal and healthy life. If treated at the initial stages, a person with HIV can live a long and healthy life.

How is the treatment done?

Treatment is administered in the form of medicines (also known as HIV regimen) which can significantly reduce the symptoms. As of now, there is no permanent cure for HIV. However, with proper medication and treatment, a person can control the spread as well as the risk of transmitting the virus. It will thus allow him/her to live healthier and a longer time span.

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), which consists of a combination of HIV medicines, is used to tackle the virus. The HIV medicines are classified into six groups depending on their intensity. These are:

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) – This antiretroviral drugs contain an enzyme called Reverse Transcriptase (RT), which controls the duplication of the virus.
  • Protease inhibitors (PIs) – This class of antiviral drug also prevents the replication of the virus.
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) – This drug prevents RT from replicating.
  • Fusion inhibitors – This Antiretroviral drug prevents the virus from entering the T cells.
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) – This drug blocks one of the HIV enzyme Integrase from replicating.
  • CCR5 antagonists (CCR5s) – Also called entry inhibitors, this class of drugs prevent the virus from entering the T cells.

These six drug categories include 25 HIV medicines that can be used to treat HIV. The medicines to be included in the HIV regimen vary from person to person depending on one’s health and the effectiveness of the medicine on him/her.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Any person infected with HIV is eligible for the ART treatment. If HIV is diagnosed in pregnant ladies, breastfeeding women, children under the age of 5 years, they should avail the treatment immediately. As per World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations, one should start the treatment as early as possible post the diagnosis.

If you are suffering from high fever, sore throat, headaches, ulcers (in an esophagus, penis and/or anus), muscle and joint pain, nausea, and vomiting, lack of appetite, diarrhea, dry cough, weight loss for a considerable period of time, you should undergo an HIV test. The sooner you are diagnosed, the faster you can avail the treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Various combination of HIV medicines are available as a part of the regimen. However, people who also suffer from other diseases may not respond well to some of the treatments. Therefore, a doctor needs to conduct various tests to measure the efficacy of the medicines before recommending it.

Are there any side effects?

HIV treatment causes several side effects which vary from person to person. While some suffer from mild, short-term side effects, other may suffer from long term, life threatening side effects.

Short terms side effects can be easily managed with a change in lifestyle and/or certain habits. A person usually recovers from these side effects within a few weeks. These effects may include fatigue, diarrhea, headaches, insomnia, rashes, loss of weight, etc.

Long term side effects can have life-threatening consequences at times. However, with proper medical guidance, one can manage these effects too. The common long-term side effects include fat redistribution, the increase in a level of cholesterol and/or triglyceride level, low bone density, increase in blood sugar level, etc.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

There are several guidelines that a person should follow while undergoing the treatment. The most important guideline being consuming medicines (as prescribed) along with following a nutritious diet. The person should also maintain a hygienic lifestyle to prevent further infections. This includes practicing safe sex, quitting smoking and drug consumption. He/she should also indulge in moderate exercise after consulting with his/her doctor.

How long does it take to recover?

People suffering from HIV infection need to continue with the treatment lifelong. As there is no permanent cure, one has to consume the medicines for his/her entire life to keep the virus in check.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that is used to treat HIV costs around Rs.30000 per year.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. Since no permanent cure has been discovered, an HIV-infected person needs to continue with this treatment his/her entire life in order to control the spread of the virus and its consequences.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternative treatments do exist for HIV; however they also do not provide any permanent cure. Some of the alternatives include homeopathic medicines, Ayurveda as well as naturopathic medicine.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: High Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 500- Rs. 29000

Popular Health Tips

Debunking Myths About HIV/AIDS... Know The Facts!!

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
Debunking Myths About HIV/AIDS... Know The Facts!!

Belief: H.I.V. & AIDS are both same. Fact: Both are different.

HIV is basically one type of Virus which is responsible for the infection. It means “Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDS is the last stage after getting infected by HIV. This can be detected after 8 to 10 years of infection. It means Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.

Belief: HIV is transferred by working or being in contact with HIV infected people. Fact: HIV is not transferred by Social contacts. HIV is not transferred by the given points:

  • By breathing in the same room & atmosphere.
  • By using common toilets & bathrooms.
  • By eating or drinking from the same utensils.
  • By hands shake or normal kissing.
  • HIV is transferred only by infected blood, sperms, vaginal fluid & breast milk.

Belief: If both husband & wife are HIV infected, no need to use a condom while physical relations. Fact: HIV can be of two types, namely HIV-1 & HIV-2. Husband & wife can get the infection from any of these two types of HIV. If a couple is not using a condom, one or both of them can have the infection of another type of virus. It is possible that the type of virus which is drug resistant i.e. having very little effect of medicines may infect the other partner hence condom must be used.

Belief: HIV infection is mostly seen in sex workers & not found in common people. Fact: In the decade of 1980 & 1990, the HIV infection was found to have infected more sex workers & less common people. But by Public Awareness Programmes & other relevant schemes of the Government, infection of HIV is reduced by 80% in sex workers. While the infection of HIV is found to have increased in common people. HIV is not related to work or religion of the person. HIV can be found in any person who is related to the following activities -

  • Having unsafe physical relations
  • By transferring the infected blood
  • By injecting the infected needle
  • By feeding the baby from the infected mother

Belief: HIV infection means death. Fact: Not true. It is true that the HIV virus cannot be removed from the body of the infected person but the science has at least proved that HIV virus can easily be controlled by medicines. By proper medications, one can lead a normal life & early death can also be avoided. By recently invented 30 medicines, one can remain free of AIDS for the whole life.

Belief: HIV negative report proves a person to be HIV free. Fact: Not true. One can have HIV infection even though having negative blood report. For confirmation, one has to retest blood after three months & should be free of any risky activities during these months.

Belief: HIV is not transferred by the person under medication of HIV. Fact: Due to ART (Anti-retroviral Therapy) the virus is highly reduced but are never abolished from the body. Hence the chances of infection are low but are not at all zero.

Belief: Chances of HIV are zero by relations with a reliable & healthy partner. Fact: The infection of HIV can develop symptoms from 8 to 10 years. HIV can be transferred not only by physical relations but also by infected blood or infected needle.

Belief: The Oral Sex does not lead to transfer HIV. Fact: HIV can also be transferred by Oral Sex. HIV is mainly transferred through sperms, vaginal fluid, mothers’ milk & blood transfer. If one has a cut or ulcer or swelling of gums or oral or throat infection, the HIV in the sperm of the infected partner can infect the blood of the other partner through these oral infections which finally leads to HIV infection.

Belief: HIV can be cured by Ayurvedic or other conservative medicines. Fact: No person till today is cured of HIV. HIV infected patient or any patient of the chronic disease are frustrated & are tired mentally, physically & financially too. Some cheaters make dangerous plays with the life of frustrated patients by fake promises & false guarantee to fill their pockets. It is a very humble request that never let any Tom, Dick & Harry to play with your life under false promises. This will only lead to physical & financial loss only.

Belief: HIV infection is possible by kissing. Fact: This has both possibilities. The infection depends on the type of kissing. The French kiss or open mouth kiss may lead to infection but very rarely. If both are having cuts, ulcers in the mouth or both having throat or oral infection, that may lead to infection but chances are very less.

Belief: Contraceptive pills can prevent the infection hence one need not use the condom. Fact: This is wrong. The contraceptive pill works on the Ovary & restricts the new formations while HIV virus enters through the vagina. A condom prevents the contact of sperm & vagina. Thus condom works as contraception as well as HIV protection. While pills work only as contraception.

Belief: One cannot have more than one venereal disease. Fact: One can have more than one venereal disease. If one has not obtained treatment for venereal disease, the chances of HIV infection are 6 to 10 times more. If any ulcer has developed due to venereal disease, the chances are raised to 10 to 300 times.

Belief: If one has HIV & other has not, then safe sex is not possible & such couples should not have physical relations. Fact: A physical relation is the prime need of married life. It is required to make the physical relations safe & save one non-HIV partner from HIV infection. This can be achieved by use of condoms. The couple can have safe sex with a use of condoms.

Belief: The test for HIV should not be done. If it comes positive than what one shall do? Fact: By learning about HIV positivity one can have timely treatment & can lead a normal life with ART medicines. In the counseling for HIV test, one is explained about the HIV & other venereal diseases which will help you to live a healthy life.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by mosquito bites. Fact: HIV virus has very short life (less than one minute) outside the human body. As such mosquitoes suck the blood from our body & does not inject hence mosquito bite cannot be the cause of HIV.

Belief: An HIV-infected woman should not give birth to a child as the newly born shall have HIV. Fact: If HIV-infected woman is not under treatment, the newly born baby has 30% to 45% chances of HIV. If the woman is under ART medications, her delivery is done by caesarean section & infant is given medicines & by proper modifications in feeding, the chances of HIV are reduced to 2% from 45%. Thus by proper treatment 98 % chances are there for the infected woman to deliver HIV-free baby.

Belief: HIV can be cured by physical relations with virgin girls. Fact: This type of belief does not prevail in our country but this type of belief prevails in African Continent. This has no scientific logic & is impossible to be true. Instead of the abolition of HIV, the girl can have HIV infection.

Belief: HIV can be cured by physical relations with animals. Fact: This type of belief does not prevail in our country but this type of belief prevails in African Continent. This has no scientific logic & is impossible to be true.

Belief: HIV medicines are very costly & not affordable by the middle-class people. Fact: In the present market, various companies have launched the medicines for HIV. This has resulted in the reduction of cost of medicines. The medicine for a month can be purchased for Rs.1000.00 to 1500.00.

Belief: HIV medicines have side effects which can cause trouble to the patient. Fact: This is not true. But the fact is that HIV medicines do have side effects but every medicine does not have it & every patient may not suffer from it. Generally, some patients may suffer normal side effects for 5 to 30 days. But as time goes 98% of people will be free of the side effects. If the side effects prevail, then the medicines may be changed as per the advice of the doctor. In some rare cases in side effects are serious; the medicines can be altogether changed & other suitable medicines are prescribed. Thus whenever there is a side effect observed to a patient, one should not either change the medicines or stop using it. In such cases, the doctor may be consulted to get the suitable solutions by changing or altering the medicines. It is not advisable to change or stop the medicines without consulting doctor.

Belief: HIV is transferred by placing the infected needle on the seats of the theatre. Fact: These types of rumors go viral by media like the internet through email, WhatsApp etc. HIV cannot be transferred like this as the virus has a very short life outside the human body. People should not pay attention to these types of rumors & should not spread these types of rumors.

Belief: HIV is transferred through cold drinks. Fact: These types of rumors go viral by media like the internet through email, WhatsApp etc. HIV cannot be transferred like this as virus are very sensitive & can survive only in human body, blood & some of the fluids of human parts. It has a very short life outside the human body. Hence it is impossible to transfer them through eatable items. People should not pay attention to these types of rumors & should not spread these them.

Belief: HIV medicines are to be used at the precise timings. People avoid medicines as they are not able to maintain the timings. Fact: The fixed time for intake of the medicine has reasoned that the effect of the medicine shall prevail between two successive doses. To obtain the maximum output, medicines are prescribed for 2,8,12 or 24 hours’ interval. One should try to follow the timings but should not avoid due to the fear of alteration in timings.

Belief: Person suffering from both T.B. & HIV should start the treatment of HIV only after completion of T.B. treatment. Fact: Normally, ART for HIV starts after six to eight weeks of the treatment of T.B. The reason being that the body shall adjust to the medicine within six to eight weeks. Any side effects of the medicines shall also be seen during this time & can be taken care of. During this period, T.B. Bacteria shall also be reduced & chances of complications arising out of it shall also be reduced. But this does not mean that the ART shall be started after completion of T.B. treatment. On the contrary, if the ART is not started after six to eight weeks, the effect of T.B. medicines shall not be seen as the immunity shall go on decreasing which results into the little effect of medicines. Hence if both T.B. & HIV are detected, the medicines for T.B. shall be started first & it is necessary to start the HIV medicines after six to eight weeks.

Belief: If intake of medicine is skipped, it does not matter. Fact: HIV is a virus & to keep it in control, the suitable medicine should be present all the time in the body. The growth of the virus is controlled due to the presence of this medicine only. If a dose is skipped, the growth of the virus shall start & frequent skipping of the doses for a long time will result into non-effect of medicine on the virus & infection will be beyond control. This has to be rectified by the change of the medicine which may be costly & may cause some saviour side effects.

Belief: HIV positive person having no trouble may not require any medicine. Fact: The time period between the infection & symptoms is 8 to 10 years. HIV drastically reduces the C.D.4 cells of immunity. They are reduced from 400-1500 to less than 200 due to HIV within 8 to 10 years. When this reduction process goes on in the body, body parts are damaged by HIV virus. The HIV virus damages the body parts internally though there may not be any obvious symptoms. Hence ART medicines for HIV should be started immediately on detection of HIV.

Belief: If an HIV-infected person gets involved in unsafe physical relations, the possibility of HIV transfer every time is 100%. Fact: This is most commonly observed misunderstanding. If one has HIV out of two persons involved in physical relations, chances of HIV infection for a single relation are just 1%. If the frequency of the unsafe physical relations increases, the chances of HIV infection increase. For the ease of understanding we can say that if a couple goes for unsafe physical relations 100 times, the chance of HIV infection is just once. As every physical relation does not result in the conception, in the same way, the chance of HIV infection is just 1%.

Belief: HIV positive person should not marry. Fact: This is a misunderstanding prevailing in the society.  An HIV-positive person can live a happy married life irrespective of his profession. He has to be careful of certain matter. HIV positive person has the moral responsibility to take care not to spread HIV to others. Generally, HIV positive person prefers to marry HIV positive person but in some rare cases, HIV-positive person is found to have married HIV negative person. In such cases, HIV-positive is morally bound to inform the healthy partner about the HIV positivity. The partner should be aware of the risks involved; undergoing treatment & necessary cares to be taken. HIV positive person should never hide HIV positivity to his/her partner to avoid the risk of transfer of HIV to healthy partner. HIV positivity is a fact that cannot be hidden for a long time & once it comes out, the marriage shall end. Thus, the HIV-positive person should have a counseling of a doctor before the marriage.

Belief: Pharmaceutical companies have invented the medicines to cure HIV but are not launching them with the intention to earn more through present medicines. Fact: Some people believe in this type of rumors. Actually, companies can earn lot more by selling HIV abolishing medicines rather than controlling drugs. Hence this is a totally baseless rumor.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by shaving blade or toothbrush. Fact: Not a single case is recorded till date in which HIV is transferred through blade or toothbrush. HIV is not transferred through blade or toothbrush but it does not mean that one should use the blade & brush of HIV-positive person because HIV may not be transferred but some other diseases may be transferred through blade & brush.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by Fish pedicure. Fact: HIV virus cannot survive outside human body hence HIV cannot be transferred by Fish pedicure. People should not believe in this type of fake rumors.

Belief: If HIV is detected, the society shall be informed by laboratory staff & doctors which will ruin the social prestige. Fact: Many people are aware that they were involved in the activities which may lead to HIV. They are aware that they may have HIV but avoid the test for HIV with a fear of declaration to the society & thereby potential damage to their social prestige. This fear is not genuine as staff, doctor of laboratories are very sincere & are very careful. The result of the test is not disclosed to any other except the person himself. Details of the test are kept a secret & not disclosed to anyone without permission of the person. Those who avoid the HIV test due to the above fear should come forward & should go for HIV test at once.

Belief: Every HIV-infected person suffers AIDS. Fact: The HIV was found before 33 years. Initially, every HIV positive person used to suffer from AIDS. Presently, science has invented many medicines for HIV. Nearly 30 medicines are available in the world for HIV out of which 15 medicines are available in India. Presently, HIV positive person is given a single tablet comprising of three different drugs. Formerly, the patient was supposed to have 32 tablets per day but as scientific developments, the person has to have a single tablet per day. This ART drugs are not able to abolish HIV completely but restricts the growth of virus & thereby reduces the present virus to 99%. As HIV is not totally abolished, the patient is supposed to continue the medicine throughout the life. If HIV is detected in the early stage & medication is started immediately with a punctual consumption, the HIV does not lead to AIDS. Thus HIV shall lead to AIDS or not depends on the stage of detection, the stage of medication i.e. number of C.D.4 cells at the time of starting the medication, regular check-up & clinical inspection.

Belief: HIV is found only in poor & in some specified class only. Fact: This is a totally wrong belief. HIV can infect any person from any class, any gender or from any profession. HIV infection is caused by:

  1. Unsafe sexual relations
  2. By use of HIV infected needle
  3. By blood transfer from HIV-infected person
  4. Infants b an infected woman.

Thus, HIV infection can happen to any person from any class, any profession, and any religion. This depends on the activities in which a person is involved.

Belief: HIV is transferred through unsafe sexual relations only. Fact: Whenever a person is known to have HIV, people generally believes him to be characterless. They believe that he must have been involved in the unsafe sexual relations. But in every case this may not be true. Sometimes, HIV is transferred through infected needle, or infected blood transfusion & the person may be totally innocent. Out of total HIV infected women in India, 85% are innocent as they are infected by their husbands who are involved in unsafe relations outside. Thus every HIV person is not to be suspected as of bad character. The HIV patients highly need love, sympathy & trust from the society.

Belief: It is not required to change the syringe of an injection. Only needle is to be changed to prevent HIV infection. Fact: This belief prevails even among the doctors & hospital staff. Every time both syringe & needle are to be changed. There are chances of HIV infection if only needle is changed.

Belief: HIV infected people are always sick & have a very short life. Fact: This is not true. Normally symptoms of HIV are not seen till 8 to 10 years of infection. During these 8-10 years virus causes internal damage to various body organs. When the damage exceeds, the symptoms become visible. If the detection & medication are at the early time, person may lead his whole life healthily. One has to remember to continue the medicines for whole life & that too regularly.

Belief: HIV is found only in young people & old ones are safe from HIV. Fact: HIV infection can happen to anybody at any age. It depends on the activities done by individual. Generally people believe that olds do not need to have sexual relations but it is not true. Off course, such people may not be less in numbers.

Belief: HIV leads to death only & hence medicines are useless. Fact: Presently, there are 30 medicines available in the market for HIV. Person can lead healthy life with the help of these medicines. Person should have a positive attitude & should consult doctors for proper medications.

Belief: HIV is transferred by using the same swimming pool. Fact: HIV virus is very sensitive & cannot survive outside the human body. Virus cannot survive in water & hence they will not be able to infect others. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.

1920 people found this helpful

Sex Education - 5 Associated Benefits

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Lucknow
Sex Education - 5 Associated Benefits

Every year, thousands of people suffer from the burden of unwanted pregnancies; fatal sexually transmitted infections (STI) including H.I.V, all due to the lack of proper knowledge about the practice of protected sex. The only effective way to control the consequences which are attached with unsafe sex is by introducing sex education on a large scale. It is important to educate the masses, especially the youth, about safe sex to protect them from the dangers which arise from lack of knowledge about sex.

The following are the benefits of sex education:
1. Precaution against unwanted consequences: When people are provided with proper sex education, chances of them indulging in unsafe sexual practices decrease as they become more careful and aware.

2. Ability to tell facts from fiction: In the era of information overload, the youth tend to get carried away by the information they read or see online, most of which are not verified. One of the many benefits of sex education is that people can easily differentiate between facts from myths.

3. Positive attitude towards sex: Proper sex education enables the youth to develop a positive attitude towards sex and inculcates a better perception of their bodies. The ones who are extensively educated on the topic of sex tend to shun all sex related misconceptions.

4. Informs about the effectiveness and usage of contraception: An important feature of sex education is to impart information about the usage and effectiveness of various methods of contraception. The benefit of sex education ensures that an effective method of contraception is adopted to minimize the risks of transmission of sexual diseases and unwanted pregnancies.

5. Information about the risks of abortion: Young people often make a mistake by opting for abortion to deal with the problem of unwanted pregnancy. Due to lack of knowledge, they tend to underestimate the risks which are involved with abortion. Only people who have been informed adequately on the topic of abortion, as a part of sex education, can foretell the dangers associated with it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.

6168 people found this helpful

Sex Education And it's Benefit

MBBS, MCCEE, Fellowship in Sexual Medicine
Sexologist, Jaipur
Sex Education And it's Benefit

Educating yourself is very important, especially when it is about your health. Every year, thousands of people suffer from the burden of unwanted pregnancies; fatal sexually transmitted infections (STI) including H.I.V, all due to the lack of proper knowledge about the practice of protected sex. The only effective way to control the consequences, which are attached with unsafe sex is by introducing sex education on a large scale. It is important to educate the masses, especially the youth, about safe sex to protect them from the dangers, which arise from lack of knowledge about sex.

The following are the benefits of Sex education:

  1. Precaution against unwanted consequences: When people are provided with proper sex education, chances of them indulging in unsafe sexual practices decrease as they become more careful and aware.
  2. Ability to tell facts from fiction: In the era of information overload, the youth tend to get carried away by the information they read or see online, most of which are not verified. One of the many benefits of sex education is that people can easily differentiate between facts from myths.
  3. Positive attitude towards sex: Proper sex education enables the youth to develop a positive attitude towards sex and inculcates a better perception of their bodies. The ones who are extensively educated on the topic of sex tend to shun all sex related misconceptions.
  4. Informs about the effectiveness and usage of contraception: An important feature of sex education is to impart information about the usage and effectiveness of various methods of contraception. The benefit of sex education ensures that an effective method of contraception is adopted to minimize the risks of transmission of sexual diseases and unwanted pregnancies.
  5. Information about the risks of abortion: Young people often make a mistake by opting for abortion to deal with the problem of unwanted pregnancy. Due to lack of knowledge, they tend to underestimate the risks, which are involved with abortion. Only people who have been informed adequately on the topic of abortion, as a part of sex education, can foretell the dangers associated with it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.
8009 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

What is the HIV and how we care a HIV patient? What is the reason of HIV? What is the side effect of HIV?

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
HIV is an acronym for human immuno deficiency virus.This virus affects human being through UN protected sex with multiple partners,intravenous drug abuse by sharing needle,Transfusion of infected blood,from mother to unborn child.It can progress to AIDS(Acwiuired immunodeficiency syndrome)which can be fatal.

How to get to know if I have been affected with HIV? What are the symptoms of HIV?

MBBS
General Physician,
Hiv occurs via sexual contact, parenteral exposure to blood or vertical transmission mother to child. Hiv-1 via sexual contact. And hiv 2 is rare cause of infection in children. It most prevelant in western southern africa. Hiv affects gradually each and every organ of the body.

What are the causes of HIV. Do if we have more then two partners. HIV will cause.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Intercourse with HIV infected person. Use of infected syringes Blood transfusion from infected person..

How to be safe from HIV? Is there any other source which can spread HIV rather than sex? Is but hole safe for doing sex with a HIV positive?

MBBS, DIiploma in Yoga and Ayurveda, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL), PGDPC
Sexologist, Pune
HIV can spread through mouth, anus or vagina etc so please do not engage in sex of any thing without condoms.
1 person found this helpful

How can a hiv positive man pregnant his hiv negative wife with hiv negative child.

MD-Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Haldwani
Hello- Being HIV positive should not stop you having children. It is possible to have HIV negative children and to conceive naturally without infecting the mother of this child, if she is also negative. You would have to be stable on HIV treatment with an undetectable viral load.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
HIV
Here are the symptoms , diagnosis , prevention & treatment of HIV

This is Dr. Ajay. Last time I spoke to you about HIV the symptoms, the staging and how to identify the patient with HIV phase down symptoms. So today in this video I will be discussing more about how to diagnose the patient with HIV.

What are the tests available? What are the treatment options available? And how to prevent HIV?

So when we come across the patient with HIV the only way we can diagnose the patient with HIV is by doing blood test. There are different kinds of blood tests available. They can be from the tests that detect the antibodies for HIV. There are tests to detect the antigens on HIV like P-24. Then there are tests to detect the virus itself like PCR. So when a patient is exposed the HIV positive patient either sexually or through injections. Then the patient develops antibodies in his body. So these antibodies take at least three to six months time to develop. So in this duration which is called as window period. In this period we won t be able to detect antibodies. So all the tests like Elisa, Tridot, and Western blot. These tests won t be able to pick up the patient s window period when the antibodies are not there. So if you want to detect the antibodies you need to wait for three months or three to six months after exposure.

So if you can t wait for three to six months you can do the other tests which can pick up the virus directly. So once we diagnose the patient with HIV then the next step would be to monitor the disease I mean how to stage the patient. So because HIV damages the immune system. So there are the tests which can assess the immune system of the patient so these tests are called cd4 count and viral load. CD-4 is nothing but it is a sub site of T-cell. So the normal CD count for a patient would range from 500-1500 which is a normal range. The other test which is available is viral load. The viral load is nothing but it detects how many viral copies are present in the body. After diagnosing the patient with HIV. The next step would be to start the treatment. So the treatment what we give for HIV is what we call is antiretroviral treatment or ART. ART is the most popular treatment available for treatment and in this ART there are different medicines available.

The most important thing which determines is the CD-count and the viral load. So before we start the antiretroviral treatment we assess the patient. First we counsel the patient whether the patient is prepared to start the treatment or not. Then we also rule out the other opportunistic infections. Because patients who have HIV already have other opportunistic infections. So before you start the antiretroviral treatment you need to assess whether the patient is having any opportunistic infection. You have to rule out those then you also have to assess the baseline function of the patient like whether the patient is having any liver abnormalities or if the patient is having normal liver function, normal kidney function and we also have to do the complete blood picture.

So if the patient is having all the parameters normal and if the patient is not having any opportunistic infection. Then we do preparedness counselling for the patient that is when we start the treatment. So before we start the treatment we see the CD-4 count. Now previously the guideline was to depend on the CD-4 count. They use to start the treatment when the CD-4 count is low but now the guidelines say that HIV treatment can be started irrespective of the CD-4 count.

So this is all about HIV treatment and in the subsequent video I will be talking more about the HIV treatment and I would like to thank lybrate and if you want to consult me you can consult me through lybrate or you can directly walk in or take an appointment and meet me at my clinic at Narayanguda.
Play video
Know More About HIV
What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV
What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV

HIV AIDS kaise spread hota hai, iske symptoms kya hai, iska treatment kaise karte hai, iske barey mein aaj hum baat karengey. HIV ek retrovirus hai jo usually sexual mode se transmit hota hai. Sexual mode ke ilawa yeh infected needles se bhi spread ho sakta hai yah infected blood transfusion se bhi spread ho sakta hai, aur lastly mother agar infected hai toh mother se child ko bhi aa sakta hai. Toh hum isko kaise diagnosis karte hai? Basically blood test se yeh pata chal jata hai, iske do tarah ke blood test available hai, ek se aap directly antigens ko detect kar sakte hai jaise p24 antigens yah aap directly antibodies ko detect kar sakte hai jaise ki ELISA aur western blot. Yeh test se malum ho jata hai ki patient HIV infected hai yah nahin. Agar HIV hai confirm honey ke baad patient ko hum stage kya hai pata karne ke liye further test karte hai jaise ki CD4 Count aur viral load keh ke do test rehte hai iske liye toh iske hisaab se patient ko hum 4 stage mein divide kar sakte hai stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4.

Agar stage 1 mein dekha jaye toh patient mein bilkul sympotoms nahin dikhte hai. 2nd stage mein patient ko khasi se chhotey motey bukhar aur skin infections jaise herpes infection jaise problems aa sakte hai. 3rd stage mein patient ko long term problems aatey hai jaise ki fever yah chronic lose motions jo ek mahine do mahine se zyada rehte hai aur jo dawa lene ke bawajud bhi kam nahin hota hai, yah patient ko agar tb ho jata hai, HIV patients mein 80% se zyada logo ko TB aa jata hai, toh yeh sab infections stage 3 mein aa sakte hai. Agar yeh stage mein bhi dawa nahin lete hai patient toh 4th stage yaani ki AIDS stage mein phuch jatey hai. Jismein ki patient ka CD4 count bohut kam hota hai, usually less than 100 rehta hai. Aur yeh stage mein patient ko opportunistic infections aa jaatey hai jaise ki TB, extrapulmonary TB, Lungs ke ilawa dusre jagah bhi aa sakta hai jo ki very common hai yeh stage mein.

Aur iske ilawa patient ko esophageal infections like fungal infections, oral candidiasis jaise problems aa sakte hai. Yah patient ko dusre malignancies aa sakte hai jaise lymphoma malignancies. Toh yeh stage pata karne ke baad humko kaunse treatment start karna hai iske liye hum anti retroviral treatment start karte hai jo ki HIV ko phailne se rok deta hai aur HIV ko khatam karne ke liye best treatment hai.

HIV treatment ko hum ART Treatment kehte hai. ART Treatment Government se bhi available hai aur private mein bhi available hai. ART treatment se kya hota hai, jo virus hai who kam ho jata hai. Iske wajah se hum cd4 ko badha sakte hai. CD4 count normal person mein 500 se le kar 1500 tak rehta hai, jo HIV infected rehte hai unka CD4 count kam ho jata hai. Patient ko dawa start karne se pehle counseling karte hai. Counseling mein hum patient ko iske dawa ka important effects kya hai batate hai.

Main important cheez hai dawa ko regular lena hai, isko rok nahin sakte, aise important cheez hum patient ko batate hai, aur patient ko motivate karte hai ki jo regular aap dawa logey toh apko koi bhi symptoms nahin ayengey, aur dawa lene se cd4 improve hoga aur immunity improve hoga, appetite badhega aur apka swasth thik rahega. Hum advice karte hai patient ko hamesha condom use karey aur agar aap ART treatment lete ho iske affect se HIV dusro mein phailne se rukk jata hai, to hiss tarah se humlog HIV ko prevent bhi kar sakte hai.
Aaj ke liye bus itna hi HIV ke barey mein. Agaar aap ko koi doubts hai yah apko treatment ke barey mein baat karna hai toh aap mujhe Lybrate se contact kar skte hai. Agar aap Hyderabad mein ho toh aap mujhe Srinivasa Hospital mein morning yah evening time mil sakte hai. Dhanyabaad.
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HIV Treatment
Here are side effects and follow-ups of HIV treatment

Hi, this is Dr, Ajay. In the previous video, I talked to you about diagnosis of HIV and the various tests that are done. I also spoke briefly about HIV. In this video, I would be talking more about HIV treatment, its side effects and the follow up of the patient.

So once the patient is diagnosed with HIV, we subject the patient for further screening of CD4 viral load. The latest guidelines of DHHS and WHO state that you do nt have t wait for the CD4 count to drop. That means, if the patient is HIV+ , you can straight away start HIV treatment without waiting for the CD4 counts. So, after the patient is prepared for the treatment, the counseling is done where we have to assess the patient whether he is ready to start the treatment. You have to do preparedness counseling. We usually start the 3 Drug Regimen which is very popularly known as Combined Antiretroviral Treatment. Once we start the treatment we also monitor the patient for the side effects of the treatment because not all ART medicines are free of side effects. We choose the regimen which has the least side effect.

So for examples, if the patient is on Ziloudine, we monitor the patient for any signs of anemia, weakness, fatigue or nausea. Some patients develop loss of fat which we call lypotrophy and lypodystrophy. Then there are other side effects like Skinofovea causes renal kidney dysfunction, retardation of kidney function. Like this, we monitor the patient. Some people taking Adesanovith can develop yellowish discoloration of eyes. So, we tailor make the medicine to suit the patient. When we start the patient on antiretroviral treatment, on every follow up we insist the patient to take the medicines regularly because adherence is the most important step in the success of antiretroviral medicine. The tests that we do in the follow up are again the baseline function like the liver function, kidney function and we also assess the CD4 viral load at the end of 6 months.

So, by doing these tests, we will know whether the patient is responding to treatment or not. We will also know whether the patient is developing any side-effects to the treatment or not. By this monitoring at every step, we also counsel the patient for adherence. Taking ART treatment also helps in preventing the HIV transmission. For example, if a patient in a couple in HIV positive that is only husband is positive and wife is negative or vice versa, what we call discarded couple, in them if one of the patients is taking antiretroviral treatment, by decreasing the viral load to undetectable levels, we can also prevent the transmission of HIV from one partner to the other but we also recommend the patient to use condom.

There is an option of taking HIV medicine for preventing HIV, what we call as pre-exposure profile axis and post-exposure of profile axis. Here, if a patient accidentally has a needle exposure through an HIV positive patient or if the patient has any sexual exposure, then immediately after the exposure he can take medicines within 72 hours. By taking these medicines for 28 days, he can prevent HIV transmission. This is what we call as post-exposure profile axis. Then there is another entity called pre-exposure profile axis wherein if the patient is getting involved in high-risk activity like for instance, most of the sexual workers unknowingly meet many partners. So to avoid getting HIV infection, they can take preventive treatment which is again taken for 28 days to prevent HIV transmission.

You can always consult me through lybrate or directly in my clinic at Hyderabad, Narayanguda. Thank you.
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Here are Symptoms, Transmission, and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hello, I am Dr. Ajay Kumar. I have done my diploma in medicine and also done my fellowship in HIV from CMC Vellore. So today I am going to talk about HIV.

What are the symptoms of HIV, how it is transmitted and also about the diagnosis of HIV? HIV is a retrovirus which is transmitted sexually. Apart from the sexual contact which is the most common mode of transmission, there are other modes of transmission for HIV like it can be transmitted through injections, through blood transfusions or by contaminated instruments or through mother to a child also it can be transmitted. And also it can be transmitted breast feeding. I will be just showing the short video how the virus affects the cells in the body. This is a virus, HIV virus immunodeficiency virus, which infects all the cells in our body. It especially affects the CD4 cells which are responsible for the immunity of a person. Once the virus enters the cell it will multiply. It will first replicate from RNA becomes DNA, and this DNA virus which then copies itself to our nucleus and then it starts multiplying. So over a period of time, these cells start multiplying and will be affecting so many cells, all the cells like Red blood cells, White blood cells, and other platelets. So the patient will have multiple immune deficiencies. So you can see here how the virus is replicating itself after every minute some thousands of viruses will be affecting these cells and within a short span of time new virus copies will be released. So these virus copies again will be affecting other cells and again they will be multiplying in those cells.

So here we can see the virus which has infected us come out, new more copies have produced. So once the virus infects the cells it starts killing the cells and the patient s immunity will be gradual will be decreasing so then the patient will complain of the symptoms. So what are the symptoms of HIV? In generally in initial stages, patients will not have any symptoms. Patients will be absolutely a symptomized. Later on, when the patient s immunity declines than the patients complain of some fatigue and they will complain of weakness. Then, later on, the patient might complain of fever, cough and the virus because it affects so many organs so the symptom will depend on the organ of infection. Suppose for instance when the patient is having a lung problem, like for instance the patient because of low immunity if he gets infected with some lung infection he will be presenting with a cough, shortness of breath or fever. Like for instance if the patient is getting any a headache or the patient is having some infections in the brain he can present like with a headache, it can present like with seizures like fits or it can present with loss of consciousness. Likewise, if the patient is having symptoms in the stomach like sometimes patient against of loose motions, vomiting then we might suspect that the patient is having some abdominal infection. So depending upon the organ of infection the patient might complain about various symptoms. So there is no symptom which is very specific to HIV but depending upon the organ of infection the symptoms might vary.

So WHO has given staging of HIV? Basically, there are four stages of HIV according to WHO-

In the first stage, the patients will be completely asymptomatic. They won t have any symptoms.
When they come to the second stage they will develop some minute skin infections like for instance proretipeplamatitions what we call. Patients complain of itching and sometimes the state develops skin reactions. This patient has come up with Herpes reaction. Likewise, some patients might develop skin reactions like if the patient is having herpes which is very common in HIV. So when the patients enter into stage two they will be developing all these kind of skin problems.
When the patient is not taking any treatment, adequate oral treatment then the patient enters into stage three. In stage three what happens a patient develops a lung infection, they can develop diarrhea, and they can develop loss of weight more than 10percent. They will be having a prolonged fever of more than one month, prolonged diarrhea of one month. Sometimes the patient can develop oral infections like oral candidiasis which is very common in HIV patients. You see this picture the patient is having a severe oral infection in the mouth.
Likewise, if the patient is not taking any treatment even at this stage the patient enters to stage four for what is we call as AIDS, AIDS stage that is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. In this syndrome the patient will be developing all late complications of HIV like patients can develop severe nemesis pneumonia where the patient will have severe breathlessness, won t be able to sit comfortably without taking oxygen, supplemental oxygen or the if the patient is developing some abdominal TB, the patient can present with severe abdominal distension and patient can develop severe diarrhea. Likewise, if the patient can develop multiple malignancies like cot skin lymphoma, Kaposi s sarcoma. These malignancies can affect any part of the body. They are especially a prediction for the brain. Once the patient develops malignancies it s almost in a very late stage. So by seeing the symptoms also, you can tell what the patient is in. So these are all the symptoms seen in HIV and complications.
So in the next video, we will be talking more about the complications of HIV, how to diagnose HIV and how to treat HIV and what are prevention steps that can be taken to prevent HIV. I am thankful to Lybrate for providing me this opportunity to reach patients all over India.

If you want to contact, you can contact me at Sriniwasa Hospital at Narayanguda. It is beside Deepak Theatre in Hyderabad. You can contact me through Lybrate or my website www.hivaidsclinic.in. Thank you.
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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Causes and Treatment for HIV

A very good evening to all of you. I am Dr Hardik Thakkar. I am a MD physician, and an infectious disease expert speaking from Mumbai. Today I would like to take this opportunity to speak to you on HIV.

It is one of the most dreaded diseases, which can infect a person. As you know about the mode of transmission,

the most common mode of transmission is through the sexual route, whether through the heterosexual route or through the homosexual route.
The second common mode of transmission is accidental injury or from needle stick injuries or accidental injury from blood contamination; that is, contamination of the body surfaces with the blood.
The third, uncommon cause though, is through blood transfusion.
The fourth cause, which is not very common these days, is through the pregnancy, and we are using medication so that this does not happen to the child.
Coming back to the disease, what happens is, with this disease, it affects the helper T cells of your immune system. So as a result of this the CD4 cells, they decrease in the number and the helper cells decrease in the body and they are not able to mount an immune attack on any infection and they can come and attack your body. As a result, the immunity of the person goes down, he gets more vulnerable to infections like tuberculosis, fungal infections, candida infections, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and meningitis. This is because, the immune system is hijacked by the virus. And that is the reason, this is a disease everybody is afraid of. At the moment we do not have any curative options available.

However, we do have medications that help you to suppress the viral load. As a result the CD4 counts increase, and your immunity increases, and the people live a longer life. At the moment I would like to talk about the newest launch of the ART medicine which is dorita.This is a game changing molecule because it is very effective. It does not have side effects. It is produced in India at a much affordable rates.

For more information on the disease and about the different treatment options available , you can get back to me through my website or through lybrate.com. Thank you very much.
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