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Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) : Origin, Symptoms, Transmission, Treatment and Precautions

Last Updated: May 10, 2023

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What is Coronavirus?

Coronavirus full name aka also known as Novel Coronavirus which comes from the family of viruses known as Coronaviruses (CoV) which was identified in the year 1960s. The virus got the name from its shape which is like a crown.

It can spread in both animals and humans causing disastrous health problems like respiratory diseases in humans, diarrhea in cows and pigs and upper respiratory disease in chickens.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic in nature i.e. they are passed from animals to humans. People can get infected by touching the infected person or the things they have touched.

Coronavirus Live Updates :

Always remember... rumors spread faster than viruses.

Latest INDIA updates:

  • Covid-19: Centre, Delhi huddle as third wave gets steeper
  • Second Covid-19 peak in Mumbai to be less severe comparatively, says TIFR
  • Centre directs states to form committees to oversee Covid-19 vaccination drive
  • Coronavirus Updates: Active Cases Drop Below 5.5 Lakh As India Reports Less Than 40,000 Fresh Infections
  • Lockdown measures extended in West Bengal till November 30 with relaxations

Latest Updates Across the world:

  • Sri Lankan villagers defy coronavirus curfew to rescue stranded whales
  • CureVac vaccine triggers immune response, UK begins review for AstraZeneca drug
  • Covid-19 cases, deaths rising rapidly ahead of Election Day
  • Failing to learn from its first-wave mistakes, Italy hurtles back toward lockdown
  • Russian vaccine trial suffers setback with a shortage of doses, India to help take the vaccine to the world

Coronavirus Origin And Outbreak:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain that traces its origin to Wuhan, China and was first discovered in December 2019. It was not previously identified in humans.

Since the infection came to light, it was speculated that it was engineered as a bioweapon in a lab. However, scientists have not been able to find any evidence that indicates the virus was made in a lab or otherwise engineered. According to findings published in journal Nature, the infection is a product of natural evolution.

The outbreak was initially severe in China where it infected and killed the most number of people. But, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), Europe is the new epicentre of the infection. Countries that have reported high infection and fatality numbers include Italy, Iran, Spain, France, USA, South Korea, and Germany.

How Does Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Spread?

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is believed to transmit mainly:

  • Through close contact with an infected person (within 1 meter).
  • Via respiratory droplets produced when an infected patient coughs or sneezes.
  • By touching an object that has a virus on its surface, and then touching own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes
  • By eating the animal meat which is infected by Coronavirus

How Long Does The Virus Survive On Surfaces?

It is not exactly known that for how long will the virus survive on the surface. According to many studies, this virus may persist on surfaces for a few hours to several days. It varies under different conditions depending on the type of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment.

Is Covid-19 The Same As Sars?

No, both the diseases are different. The virus that caused COVID-19 and the one that caused the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 are related genetically but the diseases they cause are different. SARS was deadly but less infectious than COVID-19. Also, after 2003, there were no outbreaks of SARS seen in the world till date.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)?

Patients suffering from Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have shown several symptoms ranging from mild to severe illness. The symptoms take around 5 to 14 days to appear. Below we have mentioned the signs which are seen in the patients suffering from COVID-19:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath

or may be least two of these symptoms

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Repeated shaking with chills
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • New loss of taste or smell

Patients who have progressed to an advanced stage may also experience some of the following symptoms and these are the emergency warning signs for COVID-19 and should get medical attention immediately:

  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • Trouble breathing
  • Confused state of mind
  • Bluish lips or face

What Is The Incubation Period For Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)?

The time between contracting the virus and onset of symptoms can vary between 1 to 14 days. Most commonly, within five days, an infected person starts showing the symptoms.

How Can Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Be Diagnosed?

At first, a lab technician will take a sample of your blood through a needle or using a cotton swab he will take a sample of your saliva or respiratory secretions (from the nose or from the back of your throat). Later, the sample is sent to a testing facility to confirm the presence of viral material or antibodies that respond to the virus.

COVID-19 Testing Laboratories:

The Indian Council of Medical Research setups government labs and permits specific private labs to conduct Covid-19 detection tests. Please find the list of centers along with their location below:

Is There Any Vaccine For Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)?

There is no vaccine available in the entire world to protect against COVID-19. Scientists are working on the same to develop the vaccine as soon as possible. It is, however, predicted that in the coming 18 months, there will be no vaccine or medicine available to cure this pandemic.

How Can We Treat Coronavirus?

There is no specific treatment for COVID-19. Looking after the symptoms, patients are advised to seek medical care to help relieve symptoms. If your symptoms are severe, supportive treatments may be given. The current treatment methods for COVID-19 usually lay emphasis on managing the symptoms of the viral infection.

  • Antiviral or retroviral medications
  • Breathing support, such as mechanical ventilation
  • Steroids to reduce lung swelling
  • Blood plasma transfusions

Read More: Corona Virus And It's Homeopathic Approach!

What Are The Preventive Measures For Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)?


Most people who become infected experience mild illness and recover, but it can be more severe for others. Take care of your health and protect others by doing the following:

  1. Wash your hands frequently

    Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.

    Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.

  2. Maintain social distancing

    Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing. Why? When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain the virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.

  3. Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth

    Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.

  4. Practice respiratory hygiene

    Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.

    Why? Droplets spread the virus. By following good respiratory hygiene you protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.

  5. If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early

    Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and call in advance. Follow the directions of your local health authority.

    Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also protect you and help prevent the spread of viruses and other infections.

  6. Stay informed and follow the advice given by your healthcare provider

    Stay informed on the latest developments about COVID-19. Follow the advice given by your healthcare provider, your national and local public health authority or your employer on how to protect yourself and others from COVID-19.

    Why? National and local authorities will have the most up to date information on whether COVID-19 is spreading in your area. They are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

    Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading.

Follow the guidance outlined above

Stay at home if you begin to feel unwell, even with mild symptoms such as headache and slight runny nose, until you recover. Why? Avoiding contact with others and visits to medical facilities will allow these facilities to operate more effectively and help protect you and others from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.

If you develop fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical advice promptly as this may be due to a respiratory infection or other serious condition. Call in advance and tell your provider of any recent travel or contact with travellers. Why? Calling in advance will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This will also help to prevent the possible spread of COVID-19 and other viruses.

When to use a mask?

  • If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected 2019-nCoV infection.
  • Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing.
  • Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly.

How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask?

  • Before putting on a mask, clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • Cover mouth and nose with mask and make sure there are no gaps between your face and the mask.
  • Avoid touching the mask while using it; if you do, clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • Replace the mask with a new one as soon as it is damp and do not reuse single-use masks.
  • To remove the mask: remove it from behind (do not touch the front of the mask); discard immediately in a closed bin; clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

Traces Of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) In India:

The first case of coronavirus was detected on January 30 in Kerala. The student was studying at Wuhan University and his treatment was done in the Kerala hospital. By now, according to the Ministry of Health, until today, total confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been increasing drastically.

Should We Worry About Covid-19?

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COVID-19 has been declared a situation of pandemic worldwide. The illness caused due to this virus is generally mild in children and young adults, however, people of older age or suffering from diabetes or heart diseases are at a high risk of getting infected with Coronavirus.

If the precautions are not taken on the initial stages, the infection gets serious and need proper medical care. By taking the below mentioned preventive measures, we all can stay safe from this disease.

  • Clean the surfaces with the disinfectant to kill the virus
  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water
  • Avoid touching your mouth, eyes and nose
  • Cover your mouth with an elbow when you sneeze
  • If coughing, sneezing or cold persists for a long time, visit your doctor immediately

Myth Busters Regarding Coronavirus Disease

  1. Cold weather and snow CANNOT kill the CoronaVirus.
  2. Hand dryers are NOT effective in killing the CoronaVirus.
  3. There is NO evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline has protected people from infection with the CoronaVirus.
  4. The CoronaVirus CAN be transmitted in areas with hot and humid climates.
  5. Ultraviolet light SHOULD NOT be used for sterilization and can cause skin irritation.
  6. Garlic is healthy but there is NO evidence from the current outbreak that eating garlic has protected people from the CoronaVirus.
  7. The CoronaVirus CANNOT be transmitted through mosquito bites.
  8. Thermal scanners CAN detect if people have a fever but CANNOT detect whether or not someone has the CoronaVirus.
  9. Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses, antibiotics only work against bacteria.
  10. There is NO evidence that companion animals/pets such as dogs or cats can transmit the CoronaVirus.
  11. Spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body WILL NOT kill viruses that have already entered your body.
  12. To date, there is NO specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the CoronaVirus.
  13. Taking a hot bath DOES NOT prevent the CoronaVirus.
  14. Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, DO NOT provide protection against the CoronaVirus.

Getting Your Workplace Ready To Deal With COVID-19

Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace

The low-cost measures below will help prevent the spread of infections in your workplace, such as colds, flu and stomach bugs, and protect your customers, contractors and employees.

Employers should start doing these things now, even if COVID-19 has not arrived in the communities where they operate. They can already reduce working days lost due to illness and stop or slow the spread of COVID-19 if it arrives at one of your workplaces.

  1. Make sure your workplaces are clean and hygienic

    Why? Because contamination on surfaces touched by employees and customers is one of the main ways that COVID-19 spreads

  2. Promote regular and thorough hand-washing by employees, contractors and customers

    Why? Because washing kills the virus on your hands and prevents the spread of COVID19

  3. Promote good respiratory hygiene in the workplace

    Why? Because good respiratory hygiene prevents the spread of COVID-19

    Brief your employees, contractors and customers that if COVID-19 starts spreading in your community anyone with even a mild cough or low-grade fever (37.3 C or more) needs to stay at home. They should also stay home (or work from home) if they have had to take simple medications, such as paracetamol/acetaminophen, ibuprofen or aspirin, which may mask symptoms of infection.

Is There any Cure/Vaccination for COVID-19?

At this point in time, there’s no vaccine to protect you from the novel coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2. There also are no special medications approved to treat the symptoms of COVID-19. People who get a mild case need care to ease their symptoms, like rest, fluids, and fever control. Those with severe symptoms need to be cared for in the hospital.

Vaccines and treatment options for COVID-19 are currently being investigated around the world. There’s some evidence that certain medications may have the potential to be effective with regard to preventing illness or treating the symptoms of COVID-19.

However, researchers need to perform randomized controlled trials in humans before potential vaccines and other treatments become available. This may take several months or longer.

Here are some treatment options that are currently being investigated for protection against SARS-CoV-2 and treatment of COVID-19 symptoms.

  1. Remdesivir

    Remdesivir is an experimental broad-spectrum antiviral drug originally designed to target Ebola.

    Researchers have found that remdesivir is highly effective at fighting the novel coronavirus in isolated cellsTrusted Source. This treatment is not yet approved in humans, but two clinical trials for this drug have been implemented in China. One clinical trial was recently also approved by the FDA in the United States.

  2. Chloroquine

    Chloroquine is a drug that’s used to fight malaria and autoimmune diseases. It’s been in use for more than 70 yearsTrusted Source and is considered safe. Researchers have discovered that this drug is effective at fighting the SARS-CoV-2 virus in studies done in test tubes. At least 10 clinical trials are currently looking at the potential use of chloroquine as an option for combating the novel coronavirus.

  3. Lopinavir and Ritonavir

    Lopinavir and ritonavir are sold under the name Kaletra and are designed to treat HIV. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there could be benefits to using Kaletra in combination with other drugs.

  4. APN01

    A clinical trial is set to start soon in China to examine the potential of a drug called APN01 to fight the novel coronavirus. The scientists who first developed APN01 in the early 2000s discovered that a certain protein called ACE2 is involved in SARS infections. This protein also helped protect the lungs from injury due to respiratory distress.

    From recent research, it turns out that the 2019 coronavirus, like SARS, also uses the ACE2 protein to infect cells in humans.

    The randomized, dual-arm trial will look at the effect of the medication on 24 patients for 1 week. Half of the participants in the trial will receive the APN01 drug, and the other half will be given a placebo. If results are encouraging, larger clinical trials will be done.

  5. Favilavir

    China has approved the use of the antiviral drug favilavir to treat symptoms of COVID-19. The drug was initially developed to treat inflammation in the nose and throat. Although the results of the study haven’t been released yet, the drug has supposedly shown to be effective in treating COVID-19 symptoms in a clinical trial of 70 people.

Get Professional Help

To get professional help, you can reach out at:

  • Helpline Number Toll-free: 1075, +91-11-23978046
  • Helpline Email ID : ncov2019[at]gov[dot]in OR Ncov2019[at]gmail[dot]com
  • Website:

Know More About:Coronavirus PAN India Helpline Numbers


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Written ByDrx Hina FirdousPhD (Pharmacology) Pursuing, M.Pharma (Pharmacology), B.Pharma - Certificate in Nutrition and Child CarePharmacology
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Reviewed ByDr. Bhupindera Jaswant SinghMD - Consultant PhysicianGeneral Physician
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