Laparoscopic surgery, often referred to as the diagnostic laparoscopy is a surgical process used for examining the organs within the abdomen. It is a low-risk and minimally invasive process where only small incisions are made below the naval areas of the women who cannot conceive. In this process, a small instrument called laparoscope is used with high-intensity light and camera at the front. Many doctors recommend the process for having a view inside the abdomen in real time without having an open surgery. Your doctor can also take biopsy samples at the time of the process. The camera transmits the image of the organs present in the uterus onto the television monitor. The video camera becomes the eye of the surgeon in the process of laparoscopic surgery, and thus it helps the surgeon to determine whether there are any abnormalities with the patient. The laparoscopic surgery is often chosen over traditional treatment methods since it involves minimum post-operative discomfort, fast recovery, less duration of hospital stay, early return to daily chores and considerably smaller scars.
Laparoscopy can be described as a method of performing the surgery where tiny incisions are made in place of large cuts. There are two types of laparoscopic surgery- advanced surgery with a hand-held device and robot-assisted surgery. The human hand performs different functions during the surgery which are hard to reproduce with the aid of laparoscopic instruments. It is not possible for the hand to access microscopic regions within the stomach. This has led to the development of hand-access tools which can easily reach the liver, pancreas, and bile duct. It is very easy to access the areas which could only be reached through large cuts. In the case of robot-assisted surgeries, the doctor operates two devices which resemble the joysticks. It makes three incisions in the abdomen through which two robotic arms and one camera is inserted. The camera reflects high resolution and depth perceptive images which help the doctor to assess the condition of the patient. In most of the modern countries, the robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is performed to reduce complications and time of recovery.
Your doctor may recommend you to undergo the laparoscopic surgery for reconstruction of the bile duct, altering the way of the bile duct which has been blocked by a tumour, reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract and suturing the jejunum to the pancreatic duct. It is often helpful if you are suffering from distal pancreatectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and adrenalectomy. The laparoscopic surgery helps in the evaluation of the gallbladder, pancreas, liver, appendix, stomach, spleen, small and large intestine along with the organs of reproduction. It helps the doctor to find if there are any abdominal mass or tumour or unwanted fluid in the abdominal cavity and liver diseases.
There are no restrictions as such regarding who cannot undergo the laparoscopic surgery. But similar to all other surgical procedures, individuals with very high blood sugar and blood pressure may not be able to undergo the treatment. High cholesterol levels and smoking are also red flags for laparoscopic treatment.
The most common side effects of the laparoscopic surgery include infection and bleeding. Thus, it is crucial to watch for the signs of infection and report any abnormalities to the doctor. If your stomach pain becomes intense with the passage of time accompanied by fever and chills, then it must be reported to the doctor without any delay. Plus, you may also experience swelling, redness, bleeding at the site of the incision. Other side effects include lightheadedness, coughing persistently, difficulty in urinating, and a constant feeling of nausea. You must not ignore them and report to the doctor. Although very rare, some people experience complications arising from the general anaesthesia, inflammation of the abdominal wall and a blood clot which may also travel to your pelvis and lungs.
The symptoms after undergoing the laparoscopic surgery start alleviating from the second day of the surgery. There are no restrictions on the amount of work you can do after the surgery but make sure that you listen to your body. You can use the stairs if you feel that you will be able to take the physical exertion. You must avoid sex for at least two weeks if your surgery has involved incisions in the vagina or the cervix.
Once the laparoscopic surgery is over, your doctor would keep you under observation to find out whether there are any complications. They will also see to the fact whether there are any adverse reactions to the anaesthesia being used. The timing of your release would depend on factors such as your overall physical condition, kind of anaesthesia and how your body reacted to the surgery. At times, you may have to remain in the hospital at night. You can start with your daily chores within a week but make sure that you attend the doctor for follow-up treatments.
This is yet another surgical procedure which is affordable for every commoner. The price lies somewhere around Rs. 20,000, but it can be a bit more on the basis of the quality of the healthcare and your health complications. But many people undergo the treatment every year, and some insurances also cover it.
If the doctor takes a biopsy, he will look for instances of adhesions and scars, hernias, appendicitis, tumours and cysts, cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease. Since the laparoscopic surgery is an invasive procedure, it will mitigate the risk factors and ensure that your organs are healthy. But for this, you must abide by the instructions given by the doctor.
There is only one alternative to laparoscopic surgery which is HSG although many gynaecologists believe that it is a complimentary process rather than an alternative. The other process is laparotomy which is a major surgery where the abdomen is cut open, and the patient is required to stay at the hospital for about 4 to 6 days.
Gastric bypass is a kind of bariatric surgery, which helps in weight loss. This surgery aims to make changes so that your stomach becomes smaller than it used to be. This limits the amount of food you consume and effectively helps you to reduce weight.
Are you fit for the surgery?
Not everybody can go in for this surgery. Your doctor will recommend this surgery after careful evaluation. These are the parameters based on which your doctor will make a decision-
• Your medical history - If you suffer from sleep apnoea, heart ailments, liver diseases, kidney stones or if you have blood clots then you might have to undergo the surgery.
• Your psychological status - Sometimes obesity is the outcome of certain psychological ailments. A doctor will first ensure that these conditions are addressed before you go under the knife.
Gastric bypass operation is performed under general anaesthesia so you will be asleep for the entire duration of the surgery and it will be pain-free. The surgery is done laparoscopically. Tiny incisions are made through which scope and fine surgical instruments are introduced into the abdominal cavity. The camera guides the surgeon by providing live images from inside the body. Laparoscopic gastric surgery is advantageous because the wound heals faster and does not leave any marks.
Sometimes your surgeon might opt for an open surgery where she/he makes a large incision to reach the stomach.
There are two major steps to the surgery-
• The aim of the surgery is to make the stomach smaller so the surgeon divides it into two portions with staples. The food that you eat will go into the upper part (the pouch) of the stomach. The reduced upper stomach can hold at the most 28 grams of food so you are forced to eat less than usual. This will help you lose weight.
• The other step is the bypass surgery. After the pouch is created, the surgeon links it to the small intestine through the small hole in the pouch. This way, food will pass directly from the pouch to the small intestine. The surgery takes around 3-4 hours. You will be kept under observation for a couple of days and you will be released from the hospital in a week.
Gastric bypass operation is an effective and simple surgery that can help you reach your weight goals when you have a very high BMI and most other dietary restrictions have not been successful.
Obesity is one of the biggest menaces that can jeopardize a person's happy life. From mood swings to fertility problems as well as a myriad of health complications, obesity can make life miserable. Children and young teenagers seem to bear most of the brunt. The situation turns extremely complicated when a person suffers from Morbid Obesity or severe obesity. Morbid obesity is a condition where a person's body weight is found to be nearly 100 pounds more than the healthy body weight. Morbid obesity, if not treated on time, can prove to be fatal.
Laparoscopic surgery comes as a blessing when most of the other weight loss programs fail to produce any positive outcome. There are many options available such as the Laparoscopic Gastric Banding, the Gastric Bypass as well as the Malabsorption operations to aid a severely obese person to lose weight effectively.
i) The Laparoscopic Gastric Banding
The Laparoscopic Gastric Banding is a surgical procedure extensively used to lose weight.
A surgeon may also carry out the gastric bypass through an open surgery, but the laparoscopic surgery is a much better option.
iii) A person can also opt for Laparoscopic Malabsorption surgery.
When the appendix (present at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine) becomes swollen, it is called appendicitis. It can be acute or chronic and is a common cause of abdominal pain. It can happen at any age but it usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 30.
The appendix is an organ whose function is not yet known. It is believed that the appendix helps in recovering from diarrhoea and infections of the small or large intestine. However, the body can function normally without the appendix.
Symptoms of appendicitis
When the appendix inflames, bacteria start to multiply and this leads to the formation of pus inside the appendix. The build-up bacteria are accompanied by the following symptoms-
Appendicitis requires immediate medical intervention. If it bursts, it expels poisonous pus into the abdominal cavity and it can be life-threatening.
In most cases, surgery is the only permanent cure for appendicitis. Appendicitis often causes an abscess. Your doctor will recommend a course of antibiotics and then drain the abscess through your skin. After the treatment for infection, the doctor will prepare you for surgery.
Appendicectomy can be a laparoscopic surgery or an open surgery. If you are already taking some over-the-counter medicines, or are pregnant or if you are allergic to some medicines, you must inform your doctor before the surgery. On the day of the surgery, the doctor will ask you to not drink any water for seven or eight hours prior to the operation.
• If the surgery is laparoscopic, the surgeon makes three minute incisions in the abdomen. Then a camera (which displays images of the inside of the abdomen) and surgical instruments are inserted through the three holes into the abdomen. With the help of these, the surgeon extracts the appendix. A laparoscopic surgery is more advantageous than an open surgery because laparoscopic surgery reduces the risk of infection, causes less pain after surgery.
• When an appendix bursts, you will need immediate surgery. And for this, a surgeon will opt for an open surgery. In case of an open surgery, an incision is made in the lower right side of the abdomen. Then the appendix is removed and the wound is closed with stitches. Since it is an open surgery, the surgeon gets the opportunity to clear up your abdominal cavity if the appendix had burst. An open surgery is the most preferred type of surgery when it comes to a ruptured appendix.
The benefit of the surgery lies in the fact that you will never again get appendicitis. Moreover, a surgery can prevent the complications that arise from appendicitis.
Recovery after an appendicectomy-
• If the surgery is laparoscopic, you will be discharged from the hospital within a day.
• If the surgery followed a burst appendix, you may be required to stay in the hospital for around a week. The doctor will recommend bed rest for at least three weeks and you will be able to get back to work in a month.
If you have appendicitis, you will continuously have to endure pain in your abdomen. The situation becomes grave when your inflamed appendix bursts. Doctors advise people with appendicitis to undergo surgery so that the eventuality of a burst appendix does not arise.
The outcome and the procedure of an abdominal laparoscopic surgery vary among patients. The extent of the surgery, the length of the procedure, the surgeon, the hospital nursing staff, and a number of other factors vary with each patient.
Moreover, the recovery or the healing time also varies among patients. What applies to one patient may not apply to another. Generally speaking, surgeons will tell you that it takes only a few days to recover from a laparoscopic surgery, but this is not true to specific cases as in many cases, the recovery time has been longer than expected. So, a laparoscopic surgery is subjective to the health of the patient and the extent of the procedure; however, there are some tips that may prove to be helpful for you to deal with a laparoscopic surgery and to improve your healing process.
Here are some useful tips that you can follow before the surgical procedure.
Here are some useful tips that you can follow after the surgery.
The gallbladder is a very important organ in the human body. This is a pear-shaped organ which is used for storing the bile. Bile is a fluid which helps in digesting your food. When the gallbladder does not function well, then hard fragments will form in the gallbladder and they are calledgallbladder stones. The size of these stones differs from person to person. For a few people, they are just the size of a small rice grain and for few, it can be as large as a golf ball.
When gallbladder stones are formed, they will not vanish by themselves. They will cause pain and many other symptoms which are unbearable. You need to consult a doctor and you may have to get the gallbladder removed. This kind of gallbladder removal surgery is called cholecystectomy.
How are gallbladder stones removed?
More than 80 percent of people with gallbladder stones will need a cholecystectomy. This surgery can be performed in two different ways.
Before performing the laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, you will have to undergo a few tests such as blood test, complete physical test, gallbladder imaging tests and a review of your past medical history. After going through the reports of all these tests and checking all other medications that you take, your doctor will decide if you need gallbladder surgery or not.
Post Gallbladder surgery: Post-surgery, you may see some symptoms, but they are rare and mild. One of the common symptoms experienced after the surgery is diarrhea. You can start walking as soon as you start feeling better. But you should talk to the doctor in order to get back to your normal routine.
Regarding your diet, you will have to start with a liquid diet and make sure that you do not take heavy and fatty food. Your body will take some time to get back to digesting a normal diet and hence you will have to take good care.