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Overview

Cysts - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

The treatment depends on the patient’s age, nature, type of the cyst and the various symptoms.

The doctor may also advise the patient to wait and watch and not to undergo any treatment as sometimes, the cyst can resolve on its own within a few weeks to months’ time. Typically, watchful waiting is the option when the symptoms aren’t severe and the cyst is small and filled with fluid. Having said that, following up with ultrasound tests of the pelvis is required to detect any change in the size of the cyst.

Secondly, birth control pills reduce the possibility of the formation of new cysts in the subsequent menstrual cycles. The chances of suffering from ovarian cancer are also reduced with prolonged intake of oral contraceptives.

Eventually, surgery becomes the last line of defense if the cyst doesn’t appear to be a functional one, is growing in size with time and has persisted over 2-3 months. Otherwise, cysts that cause pain may need to be surgically operated on and removed.

Ovarian cystectomy is a procedure wherein the cyst is surgically removed but not the ovaries. On the other hand, oophorectomy is a technique wherein the cyst along with the affected ovary is removed but the other one is kept as it is.

How is the treatment done?

Laparotomy and laparoscopy are the two surgical techniques to remove ovarian cysts.

Laparoscopy is employed to treat most of the cysts. It is a keyhole surgical technique wherein tiny incisions are made on the stomach and gas is inserted to bloat up the pelvis that allows a doctor access the ovaries. A laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera and light fitted on one end) is inserted into the abdomen in order to allow the surgeon to see the internal organs clearly. The cyst is then removed through the tiny incisions. Laparoscopic removal requires a shorter downtime and causes considerably less pain.

A Laparotomy is preferred in case of a cancerous cyst or a cyst that is too big in size for a laparoscopy to be performed. In this case, a single but a comparatively larger incision is made to allow access to the surgeon to the cyst. The cyst along with the ovary may have to be taken out and then sent to the laboratory to check for malignancy.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Surgery is carried out in the following scenarios:

  • Both the ovaries have been affected by cysts
  • The cyst exceeds 3 inches in size
  • The cysts (cyst) do not reduce in size or go away with time
  • The cyst is not a functional one
  • Development of a cyst despite the fact that the patient hasn’t started her menstrual cycle
  • If the cyst forms even post-menopause
  • The cyst grows in spite of the patient taking contraceptives
  • Possibility of ovarian cancer

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

There is no non-eligibility criterion as such. However, the first line of treatment would be to just wait and watch as maximum cysts often tend to go away on their own. Secondly would be to administer oral contraceptives that would take care of the problem. Only if the above-mentioned treatments don’t work, should one opt for a surgical removal of the growths.

Are there any side effects?

The possible elements of risk include:

  • the ovarian cysts might develop again even if a cystectomy has been carried out
  • The pain may not reduce completely
  • Chances of scar tissue at the site of the surgery; on the fallopian tubes, pelvis or the ovaries
  • Infections
  • Damage caused to the bladder or the bowel at the time of surgery

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The post-treatment guidelines are:

  • One will have to take things easy for about 15 days
  • Some amount of pain near the stomach area is normal
  • In case of heavy and persistent bleeding, swelling or severe pain in the abdominal area, fever and thick vaginal discharge, one should contact his/her general physician without delay
  • Regular pelvic tests are a necessity in order to detect any further growth in the ovaries
  • In addition to these, any aberration in the menstrual cycle should be reported to the doctor immediately

How long does it take to recover?

If a laparoscopy has been performed, then the patient can resume their daily activities within 24 hours. However, any strenuous activity including exercising should be struck off the itinerary for about a week or possibly more (up to 10 days). On the other hand, post laparotomy, a 4-day hospital stay becomes necessary. Normal activities can resume only after a month or 6 weeks, as advised by the doctor.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The average price for removal of ovarian cyst through a surgery is within the range of Rs.3,50,000-Rs. 4,30,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

A cystectomy surgery helps remove the cyst without causing any harm to the ovary, leaving it unaffected, and thus preserving the patient’s fertility. Having said that, there always remains a possibility of a new growth on the other ovary post-cystectomy. An oophorectomy is the only way to ensure that such further growths are absolutely prevented; however, it would compromise on the patient’s fertility as both the ovaries need to be surgically removed during such a surgery.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Having discussed earlier, the alternatives to surgically removing s cyst are ‘waitful and careful watching’ as to what happens to the cyst or the intake of oral contraceptives.

Safety: High Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 3,50,000 - Rs. 4,30,000

Popular Health Tips

Can Renal Cysts Develop Into Cancer?

DM - Nephrology, MD - General Medicine
Nephrologist, Delhi
Can Renal Cysts Develop Into Cancer?

Simple renal cysts are often found even in normal kidneys. In fact, they are so common that they are rarely considered as a disease. Certain lifestyle traits or genetics can be the cause of renal cysts occurring in adults as well as children, though no conclusive reasons have yet been confirmed for the occurrence of the same. Medical imaging technology such as ultrasound, X-ray, and CT scanning are being extensively used to discover these lesions.

In various surveys of people undergoing ultrasound for evaluation of non-kidney-related problems, generally 15% men and 7% women over the age of 50 were detected with renal cysts. Once the radiologic imaging of the cyst is obtained, the doctor can determine what further examination will be required.

There are basically two types of renal cysts, simple and complex.

  • Simple cysts are usually round, have a thin outer wall, are filled with fluid and are rarely required to be treated.
  • Complex cysts, however, can have thicker walls with solidified mass or can also be a collection of small cysts. These are definitely required to be examined further as they can be cancerous.

With the latest radiological approach to renal cysts, i.e. the Bosniak classification, observation of lesions is preferred to biopsy. Even though biopsies nowadays are largely non-intrusive, they are still recommended under very specific circumstances.

This classification uses a complicated algorithm of CT scan features like size, density and perfusion and places cystic renal masses into one of the five different categories. Categories I and II are generally simple cysts, not requiring further analysis. Still, an ultrasound is repeated at intervals of 6-12 months to ensure that the cyst is not growing. However, Bosniak category IIF cysts indicate complex cysts which are required to be observed. Lack of change with time indicates that the mass is benign, while any increase indicates the possibility of cancer. Through observation, one can prevent unnecessary surgeries.

It is mostly recommended that lesions falling under Bosniak III category should be immediately surgically removed as 40-50% have the possibility of becoming cancerous. However, close follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging can be used to avoid unnecessary surgeries as it is useful for characterizing the internal content of a cyst which may be is indeterminate even after the ultrasound and CT scan. Category IV lesions necessarily require surgical removal of the kidney, as nearly 85-100% of these are cancerous. More than 90% of those diagnosed with renal cancer which is confined to the kidney can hope to become disease-free within five years after diagnosis.

Thus, complex renal cysts have a higher possibility of developing into cancer if they are found to be malignant during the period of observation and steps should be taken for immediate removal.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2665 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cysts - How Can It Be Treated?

DNB (Obstetrics & Gynecology), DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Ovarian Cysts - How Can It Be Treated?

During their reproductive years, women can develop ovarian cysts, which can be described as fluid-packed sacs around their ovaries. Cysts are known to form in a woman’s ovaries during their menstrual cycles and also, through the pregnancy phase. In most cases, women with cysts do not require treatment as they dissolve on their own. However, at times, the cysts could enlarge in size and be the cause of discomfort. In rare cases, they could be cancerous too. Mostly, no symptoms are perceived when they occur. At times, the woman could experience irregular menstrual cycles, bowel-related problems, and pain during intercourse. If you notice these symptoms, visit the doctor for a diagnosis.

As a part of the diagnosis of ovarian cysts, blood tests and ultrasounds are conducted. These tests can help assess whether you are pregnant, have hormone-related problems, or if cancer is suspected.

As per the results, the medical experts will be able to structure your treatment plan. Ovarian cysts can be either functional or non-functional. If they are a part of your menstrual cycle, they are termed as functional (follicle or corpus luteum cysts). On the other hand, if the ovaries have the tendency of forming cysts or they are a result of cancer, they are known to be non-functional in nature.

Treatments for Ovarian Cysts:

In a majority of the cases, no treatment is administered for ovarian cysts. The medical professionals may deem it suitable to treat the abnormality only if the cysts cause any discomfort. Some of the treatment methods for ovarian cysts include the following:

  1. Medications: If the cysts are painful, then your doctor may prescribe birth control pills. They may not prove to be effective in dissolving the cysts but can prevent new cysts from developing. At times, hormonal drugs may be advised to control the functioning of the ovaries and the complete reproductive system.
  2. Surgical Procedures: In some cases wherein the ovaries are large in size or the cysts are causing discomforting symptoms or they do no dissolve over a period of time, a surgery is performed as a part of the treatment plan for ovarian cysts. A surgery may be required in women nearing menopause as the cysts may turn cancerous in them. The doctors may remove the cyst or the ovary, depending on the location, size, and the number of cysts.
  3. Laparoscopy: In case of smaller cysts, your doctor may conduct laparoscopy. As a part of this procedure, a small-sized incision is made around your belly and with the help of minute surgical equipment, including a small-sized camera-mounted tool, the cyst is removed. d. Laparotomy: If your cyst is cancerous, then laparotomy may be considered appropriate. In this procedure, the removal of the ovaries is carried out through a large-sized cut in the belly.

Final Thoughts: Most of the cysts that develop in the ovaries of women are benign. Normally, they dissolve within 30 to 90 days. In some cases, they can rupture and as a result, you may experience pain. During a pelvic exam, the presence of the cysts can be ascertained. Also, ultrasounds are performed to learn whether the ovarian cysts are simple or compound. If they are simple, they are considered benign; in cases of compound cysts, a surgery is required as a part of the treatment. For determining the type of treatment for ovarian cysts in women, their age is taken into consideration. Also, the type, size of cysts, and their appearance on the ultrasounds are considered.

Functional cysts are monitored on a frequent basis and only if they rupture and cause bleeding symptoms, then doctors may perform surgery. As an aftermath of the surgery, the tissue is examined by the pathologists under a microscope, following which the professionals are able to determine the type of cyst.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4692 people found this helpful

Sebaceous Cysts - Factors That Put You On Risk!

MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), DDV, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Pune
Sebaceous Cysts - Factors That Put You On Risk!

Sebaceous cysts are also called as epidermoid cysts are characterized by the formation of small bumps beneath the skin, which are, however, noncancerous and can appear anywhere on the neck or face. Usually arising from sebaceous glands, sebaceous cysts are often harmless and take a long time to grow and develop. They normally do not cause any severe problems as such, but if they tend to be bothersome and painful, then you consult a doctor for treatment and diagnosis.

Signs and symptoms of sebaceous cysts include:

  1. Small, round bumps found underneath the skin.
  2. Formation of a thick, yellow, pungent-smelling material that may or may not leak from the cysts.
  3. Formation of small blackheads clogging the opening of the cyst.
  4. When inflamed, the area turns reddish in color and may swell up.

Causes behind it
Sebaceous cysts develop when the sebaceous glands or ducts are either damaged or clogged. Sebaceous glands generally secrete keratin and sebum, oils which are responsible for coating the hair and skin. Whenever they get blocked, these fluids accumulate, resulting in the formation of cysts. Whenever they get damaged, the cysts burst open and keratin oozes out as a thick and yellow fluid. Blockage or damage can occur because of any of the following reasons:

  1. Cuts, scratches and surgical wounds.
  2. Skin conditions like acne.
  3. Genetic problems like Garner's syndrome.
  4. Cell damage because of surgery.
  5. A deformed gland or duct.

A few factors which may make you more vulnerable to growing sebaceous cysts:

  1. If you have a history of acne.
  2. If you receive injuries to the skin.
  3. If you are past the age of puberty.
  4. If you have rare genetic disorders.

If the cysts trouble or bother you in any way, you should consider receiving treatment as they can cause further problems in the near future. These may include:

  1. Boil-like infections.
  2. Genital discomforts such as problems in urinating.
  3. Even when it is not infected, a cyst can get inflamed causing a lot of pain and uneasiness.
  4. Sebaceous cysts can, in extremely rare cases, lead to skin cancer.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4937 people found this helpful

Uterine Cysts - Treatment It With Homeopathy!!

BHMS, MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Lucknow
Uterine Cysts - Treatment It With Homeopathy!!

Uterine cysts are a type of cysts or tumours, which grow in the uterus. This is prevalent in women when they are near their childbearing years. Uterine cysts have some typical symptoms, which would let you know when to consult a medical practitioner for further help. It would cause excessive bleeding for a long duration of time. There is bleeding from the uterus in between your menstrual cycles. At times, it becomes very difficult to empty your bladder and irritation and discomfort are caused. It also leads to constipation. These are frequent symptoms, which accompany uterine cysts. These types of cysts are almost always non-cancerous, but it is beneficial to take an expert advice on that matter. Homeopathy is a great option to treat such cysts.

Homeopathy is becoming increasingly popular throughout the entire world. Now it is time to prove to the world what homeopathy can offer in surgical diseases. Homeopathic medicines cannot take the place of surgery but can be of great help to the patients who do not want to go for surgery or cannot be operated upon due to various medical reasons. There are specific medications to treat cysts through homeopathy. Some of them are:

  1. Calcarea Carbonica: This medicine is suitable for those who bleed profusely during their menstrual cycle. Such excessive bleeding causes shivers and shrills in them, making them more prone to anaemia. In fact, excessive bleeding also influences their fertility cycles. This medicine is administered on overweight women who suffer from uterine cysts.

  2. Thlaspi Bursa Pastoris: This is prescribed to women who experience frequent menstrual cycles within short intervals. In fact, one does not even recover from the shock of the previous cycle and the new one starts. It is usually accompanied by excessive pain in the uterus. This medicine not only treats the cysts, but also the frequent period cycles and pain in the uterus.

  3. Trillium Pendulum: At times, due to excessive bleeding from the uterus, the patient suffers from fainting spells. Such cysts are also characterised by bright red blood flow during the menstrual cycle. These are the two main symptoms to administer this medicine on the individual.

  4. Fraxinus Americana: Apart from irregular periods with pain in the uterus, it is also followed by breaking down spells. One experiences cramps in the feet during this type of cyst. In such conditions, the best natural homeopathic therapy that can be administered is Fraxinus Americana.

  5. Calcarea Fluorica: This is a common medicine which is given to those patients who have extremely large tumours. These tumours are also characterised by their unique hardness.

Uterine cysts are a common problem in women and can be treated effectively. One needs to be alert about the symptoms and must immediately report to a specialized homeopathic practitioner for an effective administration of medicines, which may lead to a successful cure.  

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3640 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cysts - The Many Types!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Ovarian Cysts - The Many Types!

In order to have proper information about ovarian cysts, it is essential to discuss the anatomy of ovaries. These are basically a part of the female reproductive system and are located in the lower abdomen on the two sides of the uterus. The major functions of ovaries are production of eggs, oestrogen and progesterone hormones.

So what exactly are cysts? Cysts are fluid-filled sacks, which sometimes develop on the ovaries. These are usually painless, causing no such symptom and females develop a cyst at least once every year. However, there are various kinds of ovarian cysts like the dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. The most common kinds of cysts are usually the functional ones. The types of follicle cysts include the following:

  1. Follicle cyst: When the menstrual cycle starts, the egg grows in a sac, usually called follicle, which is located inside the ovary. In usual cases, the follicle breaks and the egg is released. However, there might be a case where the follicle may not break. In situations like these, the fluid present in the follicle may turn into cysts in the ovary.
  2. Corpus leuteum: After the egg is released into the uterus, the follicle ideally dissolves. However, in case the follicle does not dissolve, the excess liquid causes the developing of little sacs and these are the other kinds of cysts.

Most of these tumors are benign (non-cancerous) and never spread beyond the ovary. Benign tumors can be treated by removing either the ovary or the part of the ovary that contains the tumor.

Malignant (cancerous) or low malignant potential ovarian tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body and can be fatal.

There are some more types of cysts as well, which are as follows:

  1. Dermoid cyst: This is a sac-like growth, which occurs on the ovaries that can contain hair, fat or other tissues. They’re a type of ovarian germ cell tumor. Usually these tumors are benign, but occasionally they can be malignant.
  2. Endometriomas: These are those tissues, which should originally grow inside the uterus, but instead they attach themselves outside the uterus to the ovaries. This in turn results in cyst formation.
  3. Cystadenomas: These are basically non-cancerous growths that develop on the ovary surface.

Polycystic ovary syndrome
This is a condition that some women develop, a large number of small cysts form inside the ovaries, thereby causing the ovaries to enlarge. It is important that polycystic ovarian syndrome is treated soon because if left untreated for long, it may cause infertility in women. These cysts are usually not harmful, but they can cause the following:

This is not that big a deal and can be controlled easily. Also with healthy living and eating, this condition can be brought to normal. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Popular Questions & Answers

How cyst occur in women, it obstacles the pregnancy. Is there any relationship between menses and cyst?

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
It is an abnormal growth of the follicles... It has relationship with menses... It makes it irregular... And it can be cured by Homoeopathy...

I'm having white coloured cyst (milia) on my face at eye orbit region where dark circles appear. Can you please suggest me something so that they disappear.

MBBS, DDV, IMCAS
Dermatologist, Nagpur
Hii lybrate-user, Milia are the retention keratin cyst. Not to worry. Apply Benzoyl peroxide cream once daily at night .Gradually it will go.
2 people found this helpful

What should be the cyst size to do laparoscopic surgery I have cyst my right ovary size 3.10 cm and left ovary is normal and my period is also regular what should I do to get pregnant.

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), (MRCOG)
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Regular periods and cyst 3.1 cm is normal. Surgery is needed if cyst is more than 7 cm, and if it is not a clear cyst and has some suspicious features.

Hi doctor, my mom age is 44. She is suffering from uti and had an ovarian cyst in left ovary with the size of 2.25*11.25*2.18 mm. And she had prescribed for ciprofloxacin, metronidazole,domperidone, omeprazole.Is it curable with this itself or it needs any surgery. Please reply me soon.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Cyst is smLl in size, get her CA 125 levels done, if normal then repeat USG after 3 months. If cyst regresses then nothing to be done ,if after 3 months the size of cyst increases then surgery will be required.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?