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Oral Contraceptives: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Oral contraceptive pills are medications that prevents unwanted pregnancy. Oral contraceptives are hormonal preparations that may contain a combination of hormones oestrogen and progesterone or progesterone alone. When given in certain amounts and at certain times during the menstural cycle, these hormones prevent the ovary from releasing an egg for fertilization.

How is the treatment done?

Oral contraceptives have many effects that can prevent an unwanted pregnancy from taking place but the main action of these pills is- it stops a woman’s egg from fully developing each month. Thus the egg can no longer accept a sperm and as a result fertilization is prevented. Pills which contain a combination of oestrogen and progesterone prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the release of the hormones luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone help in the development of egg and preparation the lining of uterus for the implantation of the embryo. Progesterone also functions as the hormone which makes the uterine mucus that surrounds the egg and make it more difficult for the sperm to penetrate the egg and therefore or fertilization to take place. In some women, progesterone also inhibits ovulation. There are different types of combination birth control pills- monophasic, biphasic, triphasic. Most birth control pills are packaged as 21-day or 28-day units. For the 21-day packages, tablets are taken daily for 21 days. This is followed by a seven day period during which no pills are taken. Then the cycle repeats. For 28-day units, medication is taken for 21 consecutive days, followed by a seven day period during which placebo tablets are taken. Women just starting to take the pills should also use additional contraception for the first seven days of use because pregnancy may occur during this period.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Any woman who does not want to get pregnant and does not have medical histories like migrane, blood clots, breast cancer can use oral contraceptive method to prevent pregnancy but it is advised to consult a doctor before taking the pills.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Women who smoke and especially those who are over thirty five years of age and women with certain medical conditions like history of blood clots or breast or endometrial cancer, are advised against taking oral contraceptive pills as these conditions can increase the risks of the pills.

Are there any side effects?

The most common side effects of birth control pills are nausea, headache, breast tenderness, weight gain, irregular bleeding and mood alterations. Women with a history of migrane may suffer increased migrane frequency. Oral contraceptives may also aggravate insulin resistance and thus pose a risk of diabetes. Though uncommon, oral contraceptives can lead to increase in blood pressure, blood clots, heart attack and stroke.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

There are no such post treatment guidelines.

How long does it take to recover?

A combined pill is packaged in either 21 day or 28 days everyday pack.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Some pills usually cost more than thousand rupees. While some may cost hundred rupees. Cost depends on the type of pills used. Many health clinics sell these birth control pills for less amount.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The birth control pills work when taken at the right time and right amount for the prevention of pregnancy. So, the result of taking the pills will be as desired.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Women can use some other ways of preventing pregnancy such as the injection known as Depo Provera which is injected every three months. Women can also use vaginal ring known as Nuvaring, that is squeezed and placed in the vagina for three weeks and is taken out for a week during periods and then replaced with a new ring. Women can also use hormone UID and copper UID.

Safety: High Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range: Rs. 100- Rs. 4000

Popular Health Tips

Morning Pill - Is It Risky To Consume It?

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Morning Pill - Is It Risky To Consume It?

Morning after pill is an emergency form of contraception. It is a type of birth control which can prevent unwanted pregnancy which is a potential risk after unprotected sexual intercourse. The typical name, “morning after pill”, is on account of the fact that it is usually taken on the morning after you have had unprotected sex the earlier night.

How does it work?

It primarily works by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. It does not cause abortion, but merely stops ovulation temporarily and thus, prevents fertilization of the egg with the sperm. It is required to be taken within 72 hours or 3 days after having unsafe sex for it to work effectively, but the sooner you take it, the better it is.

Risks associated with the Morning after Pill

Although the prospect of using this pill seems very useful and handy, there are risks associated with it as well.

  1. It has temporary side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, lower abdominal pain or cramps.

  2. It is not a reliable form of birth control like condoms, copper-Ts or IUDs as you might still get pregnant.

  3. It can lead to bleeding between your periods or heavy menstrual bleeding can be experienced. It can even make your menstrual cycle irregular.

  4. In serious cases, it can even lead to cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding inside the brain) and cerebral thrombosis (formation of clots in the brain).

  5. It does not protect you from any sort of STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) or STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection).

  6. It can even lead to hormonal imbalances if taken on a regular basis as it can interfere with your regular estrogen and progesterone levels.

  7. If taken multiple times, it can even affect your fertility in the future as it can alter the pH levels of your uterus.

  8. It is an emergency contraceptive and not recommended for routine use.
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Popular Questions & Answers

Is there any oral contraceptive way for men? If yes then name few. If no then name few female oral contraceptives.

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
For males there is no contraceptive pills in market. For ladies there are innumerable ovral -l. Femilon. Mama -d. Mama -n.
1 person found this helpful

Which is the safest oral contraceptive and vaginal contraceptive and how to avoid pregnancy.

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Warangal
There is nothing called safest coz there are failure chances for every pills . Still it can protect 95% you can consult me for dosage and type

My friend has taken contraceptive pills now she is not getting pregnant .is this because of contraceptive pills.

fellow in Obstetric Medicine , MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, FMAS, DMAS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Not really! The fertility tends to return quickly after stopping the pills. However may take about six months for some. It wad be a Good idea to visit a gynaec who cud rule out other causes of infertility.
1 person found this helpful

Doctor could you please let me know is there any side effects of using contraceptive pills. Thank you.

Anesthesiologist, Bangalore
Low dose pills available now. Its quiet safe. Stopping intermittently and restarting will further reduce the limited side effects.
2 people found this helpful

Tell me name of oral contraceptive pill which needs to be taken daily for unprotected.

Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Oral l has got minimum hormones, do take it for 3 cycles, give a break of a month, restart for next 3 cycles. Remember taking too much of hormones does have repurcussions on future fertility.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Tips about Menstrual cycle, Safe periods and various methods of contraception.

I am Dr. Indu Taneja working as a senior consultant in Fortis Escort Hospital Faridabad. My special interests are high risk obstetrics and laparoscopic surgery. Today I will talk about contraception little about the normal menstrual cycle.

A normal cycle is of approximately 28 days so the ovulation means the egg formation occurs in the middle of the cycle that is approximately 14 days but this day is not fixed it can be one or two days prior or one or two days later. So let s say if it happens on 14th day four or five days before the egg formation and four or five days after the egg formation is the period which is the danger zone that means the pregnancy can happen in this period if you have intercourse during this period so this is the danger zone. So if one happens to have the relation in this period one can use emergency contraception which is you must be all aware of pill 72 or unwanted pill which is to be taken 72 hours within this period the pregnancy is to be avoided.

Next will be other contraception like the barrier method which is normally condom. This is not the foolproof method. This has the maximum failure rate approximately 35 percent. This is mainly effective in the period when the patient is breastfeeding. At this period this is the common effective method. Then there are the other methods you have heard about the pills and the Copper T. The pills are the second commonest method in which every day one has to take the pill for 21 days. The main drawback of the pill is you have to remember you have to take it on a fixed time and fixed day. You should not miss even a single dose. If one misses a dose you can have breakthrough bleeding and the failure also happens. So this is the main drawback of the pills but otherwise the safety profile is very good.

Other method is the IUCD that is the Copper T which is inserted inside the uterus. This has again the same efficacy as the pills but the advantage over the pills is you are not supposed to remember this. This once inserted can be kept and can be used for three years to five years. Government has also provided the intra uterine device which is effective for five years it is as effective as the contraceptive pills but little drawback of this is sometime this can cause irregular bleeding or the heavy bleeding during the periods which can be taken care of giving some kind of medications.

If you need any further clarification or any kind of clarification or consultation you can consult me on lybrate.
Play video
Contraception refers to something, which works to prevent a pregnancy from occurring. But what is emergency contraception? This sort of contraception is made use of in case other methods of birth control do not work or a woman has had unprotected sex.
Play video
Emergency Contraception
Emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy after unprotected love making or if the contraception you have used has failed. Tell a GP, nurse or pharmacist what medicines you're taking, and they can advise you if they're safe to take with the emergency contraceptive pill.
Play video
Contraception After Giving Birth
When Can You Use Contraception After Having A Baby?
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Types of Contraceptive Methods
Here are some effective contraceptive methods

Hi! I am Dr. Renu Yadav, I am a practicing obstetrics and gynaecology in sector 40 at Angels Care Clinic. Family planning is the most important things which I think everyone should know and should be aware off. The various forms of family planning are Oral Contraceptive Pills, barrier contraceptives and multiloads. People have very uncommon notion about oral contraceptives pills that they cause weight gain, acne and menstrual irregularities as well.

Different people come with different type of complaints but oral contraceptives is the best modality as you as a person you are choosing it and its in your hand how and when you are taking the medicines and the control is completely in your hand when you want to get pregnant and when you do not want to get pregnant. It must for the ladies who are working in long shifts; maximum time is spent in offices, unmarried girls who are sexually active. Its the best modality to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Along with that the other different modality is barrier contraceptives, its more about male contraception, that we call it as barrier contraceptives, you know them by the name of condoms.

For women who have already had children s, we suggest you give a gap of three to five years between the two births so the best modality comes as a Multiload. Multiload is a intra uterine copper device. Along with that there is a modified device also come in, which comes by the name of Mirena. So Multiload, if you get it inserted after your delivery, it can be inserted after six weeks after delivery and you can use it without any discomfort any pain any other complaint and It is totally safe for five years time and you would not get pregnant by anyhow. A routine checkup after the first visit when you got the Multiload inserted in you, a routine visit after your first menstrual cycle is a must. After that you can check the threat on your own and make sure that the device is working properly.

Along with that Mirena is an advanced kind of intra uterine devices, It s a device which is inserted inside the uterus and it delivers a constant amount of progesterone in your body system. Mirena can also be used with patient having fibroids and having menstrual irregularities. It s a very wonderful thing which has come in practice and it gives really good results, the patients have very satisfactory results in whatever problems they are associated with and especially with family planning.

If you want to know more about Mirena or any other family planning practices, you can contact me at with putting your questions and queries over there or you can come and personally visit me at my clinic at sector 40 and at Medi Urban clinic at Phase 4.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice