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Laparoscopy: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

Last Updated: Jun 30, 2023

What is laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is a surgical process used for examining the organs within the abdomen. It is a low-risk and minimally invasive process where only small incisions are made below the naval areas of the women who cannot conceive. In this process, a small instrument called laparoscope is used with high-intensity light and camera at the front. Many doctors recommend the process for having a view inside the abdomen in real time without having open surgery.

Your doctor can also take biopsy samples at the time of the process. The camera transmits the image of the organs present in the uterus onto the television monitor. The video camera becomes the eye of the surgeon in the process of laparoscopic surgery, and thus it helps the surgeon to determine whether there are any abnormalities with the patient. The surgery is often chosen over traditional treatment methods since it involves minimum post-operative discomfort, fast recovery, less duration of hospital stay, early return to daily chores and considerably smaller scars.

What symptoms indicate that you need Laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is indicated in the treatment of certain health problems related to gynecology, gastroenterology, urology as well as other specialties. Important symptoms related to such health complications needing surgical treatment may include the following:

  • Symptoms related to Pelvic inflammatory diseases: Pain and inflammation in the lower abdomen caused due to bacterial infection of the genital or urinary tract.
  • Symptoms of endometriosis: Severe pain accompanied by heavy menstrual flow.
  • Symptoms related to appendicitis: Severe pain and inflammation in the lower abdomen caused to infection of the appendix.
  • Symptoms related to ovarian cysts: Pain near pelvic region caused due to cyst formation in ovary.
  • Symptoms related to unexplained abdominal pain
Summary: Laparoscopy is an advanced surgical procedure that may be needed during the treatment of certain health conditions. These are associated with symptoms such as severe pain or inflammation in the pelvic or abdominal region, pain due to ovarian cysts, etc.

How to prepare for laparoscopy surgery?

  • You should guide your specialist regarding any medicine or over-the-counter meds you're taking. Your specialist will schedule the medication for you before and after the procedure.
  • Your specialist may change the portion of any meds that could influence the result of laparoscopy. These medications include anticoagulants, for example, blood thinners, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including headache medicine (Bufferin) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB). Different meds that influence blood thickening, herbal or dietary enhancements like vitamin K.
  • You ought to likewise tell your specialist in case you're pregnant or figure you may be pregnant. This will lessen the risk of harm to your developing child.
  • When the process of laparoscopy is done the specialist asks to do more tests like blood tests, urinalysis, X-ray of chest, electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). After these are done the specialist may also perform image testing which also includes ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI.
  • By doing these tests the specialist gets to know the better understanding of the norm that has been analyzed during laparoscopy. This helps in improving the viability of the disease.

How is Laparoscopy surgery done?

Laparoscopy is a less-invasive surgical procedure performed under the supervision of a surgeon. It is done with the effect of general anesthesia and the patient undergoing it remains unconscious throughout the procedure. Important steps involved in it include:

  • Preparation: This involves pre-operative preparations such as asking the patient to avoid eating or drinking for 6 to 12 hours prior to surgery, stopping the medications like blood-thinners a few days before the surgery, and quitting habits like smoking.
  • Procedure: A small incision of length 1 - 1.5 cm is made near the belly button. A tube is inserted through it, followed by pumping carbon dioxide gas to inflate the abdomen. This provides the surgeon more room to work and allows to get a clearer view of the organs inside.

    A laparoscope is inserted passing through the tube which relays images to the monitor or screen. Then, other incisions are made in the abdomen for insertion of the small surgical instruments. These instruments are guided through the laparoscope to be used for the treatment at the right place.

  • Post-operative steps: After the procedure is completed, carbon dioxide is let to pass out of the abdomen. The incisions are closed by stitching or clipping, followed by dressing.
Summary: Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows a surgeon to perform the surgery with a better view inside the abdomen or pelvis. It takes less time and gives better results as compared to other procedures.

How is laparoscopy performed?

Laparoscopy can be described as a method of performing the surgery where tiny incisions are made in place of large cuts. There are two types of laparoscopic surgery- advanced surgery with a hand-held device and robot-assisted surgery. The human hand performs different functions during the surgery which are hard to reproduce with the aid of laparoscopic instruments. It is not possible for the hand to access microscopic regions within the stomach. This has led to the development of hand-access tools which can easily reach the liver, pancreas, and bile duct.

Your doctor may recommend you to undergo surgery for reconstruction of the bile duct, altering the way of the bile duct which has been blocked by a tumour, reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract and suturing the jejunum to the pancreatic duct. It is often helpful if you are suffering from distal pancreatectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and adrenalectomy. The laparoscopic surgery helps in the evaluation of the gallbladder, pancreas, liver, appendix, stomach, spleen, small and large intestine along with the organs of reproduction. It helps the doctor to find if there are any abdominal mass or tumour or unwanted fluid in the abdominal cavity and liver diseases.

Why is laparoscopy performed?

Laparoscopy is performed when these tests don't give enough data or understanding to a determination. The technique may likewise be utilized to take a biopsy, or test of tissue, from a specific organ in the abdomen. It is regularly used to identify and analyze the source of pelvic or stomach pain. It's normally performed when noninvasive techniques can't help with It.

Who is eligible for the Laparoscopy treatment?

The eligibility of an individual for the treatment with Laparoscopy mainly depends upon the health condition the individual is suffering from. This surgical procedure is mainly indicated during systemic or physiological health conditions related to gynecology, gastroenterology, urology, and others.

Hence, any person suffering from these health complications is eligible for treatment with Laparoscopy.

Summary: Laparoscopy is indicated in the treatment of certain health complications related to gynecology, gastroenterology, urology, etc. Any person suffering from such problems is eligible for treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

There are no restrictions as such regarding who cannot undergo the laparoscopic surgery. But similar to all other surgical procedures, individuals with very high blood sugar and blood pressure may not be able to undergo the treatment. High cholesterol levels and smoking are also red flags for laparoscopic treatment.

What are the benefits of laparoscopy?

With conventional techniques, you may go through up to seven days in the emergency clinic for intestinal surgery, and your total healing may take 1 to about two months. In the event that you have a laparoscopic medical procedure, you may remain just 2 evenings in the hospital and recoup in 2 or 3 weeks. Furthermore, a shorter hospital remains commonly costs less. Laparoscopy has various advantages and traditional medical procedure. Since it includes less cutting:

  • You have little scars
  • You leave the hospital faster
  • You'll feel less pain while the scars heal, and they heal quickly
  • You return to your ordinary exercises sooner
  • You may have less inner scarring

What are the side effects of laparoscopic surgery?

Side effects include lightheadedness, coughing persistently, difficulty in urinating, and a constant feeling of nausea. You must not ignore them and report to the doctor. Although very rare, some people experience complications arising from the general anaesthesia, inflammation of the abdominal wall and a blood clot which may also travel to your pelvis and lungs.

The most common side effects of laparoscopic surgery include infection and bleeding. Thus, it is crucial to watch for the signs of infection and report any abnormalities to the doctor. If your stomach pain becomes intense with the passage of time accompanied by fever and chills, then it must be reported to the doctor without any delay. Plus, you may also experience swelling, redness, bleeding at the site of the incision. Other side effects include lightheadedness, coughing persistently, difficulty in urinating, and a constant feeling of nausea. You must not ignore them and report to the doctor. Although very rare, some people experience complications arising from the general anaesthesia, inflammation of the abdominal wall and a blood clot which may also travel to your pelvis and lungs.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The symptoms after undergoing the laparoscopic surgery start alleviating from the second day of the surgery. There are no restrictions on the amount of work you can do after the surgery but make sure that you listen to your body. You can use the stairs if you feel that you will be able to take the physical exertion. You must avoid sex for at least two weeks if your surgery has involved incisions in the vagina or the cervix.

What are the risks of laparoscopy surgery?

Laparoscopy has some most commonly known risks such as bleeding, contamination, and harm to organs in your stomach area. In any case, these are uncommon occurrences. There is a little risk of harm to the organs being analyzed during laparoscopy. Different types of liquids and specifically blood liquids may peep out into your body if any organ is punctured during the procedure. For this situation, you'll need other medical procedures to fix the harm.

After the laparoscopic, it is mandatory to look for any signs of disease. Contact your specialist if you experience:

  • Fevers or chills
  • Stomach torment that turns out to be increasingly serious after some time
  • Redness, swelling, dying, or waste at the cut destinations
  • Ceaseless sickness or regurgitating
  • Relentless hack
  • Shortness of breath
  • Powerlessness to pee
  • Unsteadiness

When should I worry about laparoscopy?

Although Laparoscopy is a safe procedure, there may be risks of some possible complications. Though rare, such complications may include bleeding, infections, injuries to other organs or blood vessels, anesthesia-related problems, inflammation of the walls of the abdomen, and formation of blood clots that may travel to the heart, lungs, brain, legs, or pelvis via the bloodstream.

These conditions are a serious concern and should be managed accordingly by the treating doctor.

Summary: Laparoscopy is a safe and accurate procedure, but in certain instances, there may be risks related to complications. Such conditions are a serious concern and must be tackled under the supervision of a surgeon.

How long does it take to recover from laparoscopic surgery?

Once the laparoscopic surgery is over, your doctor would keep you under observation to find out whether there are any complications. They will also see to the fact whether there are any adverse reactions to the anaesthesia being used. The timing of your release would depend on factors such as your overall physical condition, kind of anaesthesia and how your body reacted to the surgery. At times, you may have to remain in the hospital at night. You can start with your daily chores within a week but make sure that you attend the doctor for follow-up treatments.

What should I eat before laparoscopic surgery?

Pre-operative instructions are important and they involve guidelines explaining what to eat or not prior to the surgery. Important measures to be followed are:

  • A clear liquid diet should be preferred for 2 days before the surgery. No solid foods are suggested to be taken. A clear liquid diet mainly includes water, apple juices, cranberry juice, black tea or coffee without milk, clear broth, popsicles, etc.
  • Consumption of magnesium citrate is advised for 2 days prior to the surgery.
  • Eating or drinking after midnight before surgery should not be preferred.
Summary: There are certain pre-operative instructions to be followed before Laparoscopy and these provide details about the things one should eat or drink before the procedure. These are important and should be followed properly.

What should not eat after laparoscopic surgery?

A healthy diet is important to facilitate faster and easier recovery. But it is important to take care of what to eat and what to avoid during the postoperative phase. Important foods advised being taken after surgery include:

  • Liquid diet: Liquid is preferred to be taken after the surgery. This may include soup, broth, milk, pudding, plain curd, etc. In some cases, regular food may be taken if suggested by the doctor.
  • Fiber-rich foods: Fiber-rich foods are important for better recovery as well as these prevent constipation-like complications post-surgery. Cereals, whole wheat bread, fresh fruits, and vegetables are some preferred options.
Summary: Maintaining a healthy diet post-surgery is important. Hence, it is necessary to follow the diet instructions after laparoscopy which mainly includes having a liquid diet and fiber-rich foods.

How much does laparoscopic surgery cost in India?

This is yet another surgical procedure which is affordable for every commoner. The price lies somewhere around Rs. 20,000, but it can be a bit more on the basis of the quality of healthcare and your health complications. But many people undergo the treatment every year, and some insurances also cover it.

What are the results of laparoscopy surgery?

If the doctor takes a biopsy, he will look for instances of adhesions and scars, hernias, appendicitis, tumours and cysts, cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease. Since the laparoscopic surgery is an invasive procedure, it will mitigate the risk factors and ensure that your organs are healthy. But for this, you must abide by the instructions given by the doctor.

What exercises can I do after a laparoscopy surgery?

There are some preventive measures one must consider regarding physical activities and exercises after Laparoscopy. Exercises should be avoided in the initial few weeks, followed by a gradual start. Sit-ups, lifting heavy objects, push-ups, etc. should not be done. Some of the preferred exercises may include:

  • Brisk-walking
  • Mild forms of aerobics
  • Basic yoga poses
  • Basic stretching exercises
Summary: Physical activities and exercises are prohibited in the initial few weeks after Laparoscopy. But after a few weeks, one can perform mild forms of exercises such as walking, stretching, yoga, etc.

Which is the best medicine for Laparoscopy?

Some kind of pain or discomfort might be associated with Laparoscopy as in other surgical procedures. Abdominal inflammation along with pain is the most common of the post-operative symptoms.

It is preferred to take medicines to relieve such pain or inflammation. The medicines preferred during such conditions include Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Acetaminophen.

Summary: The medicines in the case of Laparoscopy mainly involve pain-relieving medicines. Such medicines mainly include NSAIDs like Acetaminophen which relieves inflammation along with pain.

Are the results of the Laparoscopy treatment permanent?

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure performed to study or treat specific health conditions related to gynecology, gastroenterology, urology, and others. The result of the treatment through Laparoscopy is permanent as it involves surgery with a clear field view of the organs, thus accuracy and success are more.

Summary: The results of the treatment with Laparoscopy are permanent in almost all cases as this surgical procedure is more accurate being less invasive as compared to other surgical procedures.

What are the alternatives to laparoscopy?

There is only one alternative to laparoscopic surgery which is HSG although many gynaecologists believe that it is a complementary process rather than an alternative. The other process is laparotomy which is a major surgery where the abdomen is cut open, and the patient is required to stay at the hospital for about 4 to 6 days.


Safety: High

Effectiveness: High

Timeliness: High

Relative Risk: Medium

Side Effects: Medium

Recovery Time: Medium

Price Range: RS. 20,000 and above


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Written ByDr. Ojas Potdar MBBS,DNB GENERAL SURGERYGeneral Surgery
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