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Last Updated: Jan 30, 2020
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Pid - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

About Symptoms Causes Side effects Complications Treatment Cure Advice Home remedies

What is PID?

PID or Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection that affects the upper part of the female reproductive system which includes the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and inside of the pelvis. Often, there may be no symptoms of this illness.

What are the early symptoms of PID?

PID does not cause any obvious symptoms. However, if you observe any of these mild symptoms, it’s better to get examined.

  • Pain around the pelvis or lower tummy
  • Dyspareunia
  • Pain while urinating
  • Bleeding between periods and after sex
  • Heavy periods
  • Painful periods
  • Unusual vaginal discharge especially when yellow or green

Some other serious symptoms include:

  • Severe pain in the stomach
  • High fever
  • Feeling sick
  • Signs of shock

Some of these signs and symptoms are also observed in other conditions like appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. Thus, medical help should be taken to diagnose the disorder.

What are the causes of PID?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by the upper female genital tract infection. The infection gets spread from the vagina & cervix up to the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

  • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS(STIs): 1 in 4 cases of PID are caused by STIs like Mycoplasma Genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis or gonorrhea are mostly present in 75-90 % of cases of PID. These usually infect only the cervix and can be treated by single-dose antibiotics. If left untreated, the infection may extend upwards to the upper genital tract and can result in PID.
  • OTHER CAUSES: In some cases, the bacteria present in the vagina spread upwards and cause infection in the reproductive organs. Although these bacteria are harmless in the vagina, they may cause bacterial infection in other parts of the body. This is more common if you have had a history of PID, cervical mishandling, miscarriage or IUD insertion.

People who are more likely to develop PID are :

  • Those with multiple sexual partners
  • Have a new sexual partner
  • History of STIs
  • History of PID in the past
  • Are less than 25 years of age
  • Are sexually active at a younger age

What are the side effects of PID?

Untreated PID causes scar tissue and abscess collections in fallopian tubes damaging the reproductive organs. It may also cause:

  • Ectopic pregnancy: Scar tissue caused from PID can prevent the implantation of the embryo in the uterus, rather implanting it in the tube itself causing tubal pregnancy. This can result in life-threatening bleeding and is a medical emergency.
  • Infertility: PID infects the reproductive organs and affects the process of fertilization. The more number of times one had PID, the more risk of infertility. Also, delayed treatment of PID can result in infertility.
  • Chronic pelvic pain: Scarring of other pelvic organs, especially fallopian tubes causes severe pain during intercourse or ovulation.
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess: PID forms an abscess in the tubes and ovaries. If untreated, this could result in a life-threatening situation.

What are the serious complications of PID?

Pelvic inflammatory disease if left untreated can lead to serious complications. Some of the complications are as follows:

  • A patient may feel severe pelvic pain which can last for few months to years.
  • It can lead to scar which can cause pain during the process of ovulation or sexual intercourse.
  • Another major complication is the development of ectopic pregnancy. The scar tissue caused due to the PID acts as a hindrance to the fertilized eggs to pass through the fallopian tube so as to cause implantation in the uterus. Such ectopic pregnancy can cause severe bleeding and may thus require emergency treatment.
  • PID when left untreated can cause failure of the organs and lead to infertility.
  • It can also lead to abscess which is a collection of pus in the uterine tubes or ovaries.

How is pelvic inflammatory disease treated?

PID is usually a result of infection from multiple bacteria. Hence, a combination of antibiotics may be prescribed to combat the infection. The initial dose may be an injection followed by a 14 day-long course of antibiotics. The course of antibiotics must be completed even if you are better, to ensure that all the infection is cleared off. In severe cases of PID, hospitalization may be necessary to give IV antibiotics. If you have lower pelvic pain, painkillers may also be given along with antibiotics.

Follow up - After 3 days of taking antibiotics, it is necessary to get checked if they are working well for you. If the medicines are efficient, another follow up appointment is made at the end of the course to ensure if the infection has been cleared off.

Treating sexual partners - It is necessary to prevent the infection from spreading or recurring, even if no specific cause is identified. Sexual contacts must be avoided during the course of treatment.

Is PID curable?

Early detection is a key factor behind the cure of this disease. A late diagnosis of this condition often can lead to damage to the patient’s reproductive system.

Formation of scar tissues due to recurrent episodes of PID can increase the risk of infertility as multiple recurrences of this illness often results in tubal blockage of the fallopian tubes. This can also lead to the development of an ectopic pregnancy.

Experts Advice:

Experts recommend ultrasound scanning of the reproductive organs for diagnosing this disease. Antibiotics are generally prescribed for the treatment of this infection. PID is more recurrent in women who have a previous history of this disease. Use of IUD (intrauterine device) is another other reason for getting infected with this disease.

What are the home remedies for pelvic inflammatory disease?

Home Remedies of PID:

  • Bed-rest may be required for several days in case of serious infections.
  • Drinking plenty of water and eating healthy foods to fight the infection is essential.
  • Avoid using douche or tampons.
  • If a person is in extreme pain, he/she can use aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or acetaminophen. Heating pads can also be helpful in a few cases.
  • Avoid sexual relations while or before completing the course of treatment. If you are going to have one, it is recommended to use protection so as to avoid spreading the infection.
  • Follow-up appointments are mandatory to ensure that the infection is cured, even if the symptoms are gone.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, My friend is 25 years old and she had an intercourse with her boyfriend soon after that she took levonorgestrel after 5 days she got bleeding for 3 days. Her period starts on 3rd. Actually They met on her 8th day of her period. What is the cause? Is that her period started?

MBBS, Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics, Diploma in Sex Therapy & Counselling
Sexologist, Pune
It is due to I pill effect. Caused withdrawal bleeding. I pill, unwanted 72 is designed as an emergency contraceptive medicine don't use it as routine backup method for contraception as it causes irregular menses ,abdominal cramp, heavy bleeding.
1 person found this helpful

Hi Sir, Mild free fluid in pelvis or thickened endometrium ho gaya. Koi serious bimari hai kya ye? Could you tell me kya hai ye?

MBBS, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE)
General Physician, Delhi
You may need pelvic examination and few other tests to identify reasons of pain in your genital tissues, vaginal dryness or pain-triggering spots. Dryness or shrinking of the vagina might make sex uncomfortable and, in turn, reduce your desire. Es...

Dr. today was the last day of periods of my girlfriend. Today we had protected sex. But after sex, she is little bleeding from her vagina. What's the problem. Is there any problem?

MBBS, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE)
General Physician, Delhi
Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, most women don't experience blood loss severe enough to be defined as menorrhagia. You may re...
1 person found this helpful

I am having post coital bleeding from 4 days. There is no pain and no smell just bleeding. No itching no burning.

Homeopath, Noida
Was it your first intercourse. If no then you need to immediately consult gynecologist for a checkup.

Watvis the success rate of placentrax lmp injection kya yeah injection lagane ke time husband wife ko sex krna jaruri hai pregnant hone ke lite.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Acupuncture, PHD- Acupuncture
Sexologist, Kota
Yes, do sex after placentrax. Placentrax helps to get rupture of egg at proper size and proper time. So at this time sex is must for the union of sperm and egg to conceive.

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Content Details
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MBBS,MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Hi I am Dr. Rushda Riaz, Gynaecologist, Motherhood Maternity Center, Delhi. Today I will talk about the pelvic inflammatory disease. It is a very general condition in the female. It is a common infection in the pelvic cavity of the female that inc...
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