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Overview

Cervical Cancer: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix. Cervix is located in the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Cervical cancer is one major cause of cancer and cancer caused deaths in women. Cervical cancer is caused when the cells in the cervix are infected by high-risk types of HPV or human papillomavirus.

Early-stage cervical cancer generally do not produce any signs or symptoms. Signs and symptoms start to develop when the cells start affecting the surrounding cells of the cervix. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal pain, heavy abnormal discharge, pain during urination etc. Symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause, watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor and severe pelvic pain or pain during intercourse.

Treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors. These factors include the stage of the cancer, other health problems associated etc. Treatment methods include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination of the three. Surgery removes the cancer cells from the body, depending on the location and extent of cancer spread. Surgery also takes into consideration the choice of bearing babies. Radiation passes high-dose X-rays or implants in the vaginal cavity to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. Chemoradiation is a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

How is the treatment done?

Cervical cancer which is detected early can be cured faster and better and also alleviates the risk of other problems. Patients affected with cervical cancer are first screened and diagnosed properly before moving onto the treatment.

Screening tests include a PAP test and HPV DNA test. During a Pap test, cells from the cervix are taken by the doctor using scrapes and brushes. These cells are then examined in a lab for abnormalities.A Pap test help to detect abnormal cells in the cervix, including cancer cells and cells that show changes that increase the risk of cervical cancer.The HPV DNA test helps to diagnose cells collected from the cervix for infection with any of the types of HPV. These cells are most likely to lead to cervical cancer. This test is prescribed for women of age 30 and older, or for younger women with an abnormal Pap test.

A special magnifying instrument (colposcope) is used to check for abnormal cells in the cervix which show signs and symptoms of being infected with cancer cells. Punch biopsy, Endocervical curettage, Electrical wire loop and cone biopsy are the several ways to detect the stage and extent of cancer in the body. Depending on the stage and extent of spread of cancer cells in the patient, they are staged under four- Stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV. For this purpose, imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used. These tests along with visual examination of the bladder and rectum help the doctor to determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the cervix region.

Treatment of cancer depends on the type of cancer and stage of advancement, patient’s age, medical history, any coexisting diseases or conditions, and other factors. Surgery is done when the tumor cells can be removed overall. Surgical procedures include conization, hysterectomy, cryosurgery, laser surgery, pelvic exenteration. etc. These procedures include laser beams or freezing and destroying methods to kill the cancer cells developed and prevent further multiplication of the same. Radiotherapy may be given for larger tumours in the cervix and it is usually given if the cancer cells have spread beyond the cervix and is not curable with surgery alone. Radiotherapy may also be used after surgery when there is a high risk that the cancer may come back. It is often given in combination with chemotherapy (chemoradiation). Radiotherapy can be of two types, external and internal. Chemotherapy is a method which uses medications which are usually injected into a vein, to kill cancer cells. These anti-cancer drugs aim to destroy all cancer cells with the least damage to normal cells. Chemotherapy is used in an advanced stage of cancer.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Women should always consult a doctor as soon as possible if they face symptoms that could indicate cervical cancer. They should visit the doctor if they experience unexpected bleeding between menstrual periods, irregular periods with severe vaginal bleeding, if the blood clots and causes pain, abnormal vaginal discharge containing mucus that may be tinged with blood and unexpected bleeding after douching or sex. If diagnosed with cervical cancer, they should consult the doctor immediately and get started with the treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

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Are there any side effects?

There are several side effects of the methods used in the treatment of cervical cancer. Surgery can also require removal of the ovaries. This means one will not be able to bear children anymore. Also, surgeries can leave behind parts of the cancer cells, which may later develop into something severe. Radiation therapy for cervical cancer can cause side effects on the patient like fatigue (tiredness), upset stomach, diarrhea or loose stools (if radiation is given to the pelvis or abdomen), nausea and vomiting and skin changes. Brachytherapy radiation only travels a short distance and causes irritation on the cervix and the walls of the vagina. Long term side effects of radiation therapy includes vaginal stenosis and vaginal dryness. They cause the cells and tissues to scar which make the vagina narrower and stretching limited. Radiation to the pelvis can weaken the bones, leading to low bone density and bone fractures. Hip fractures are the most common. Legs can also become swelled because of the fluid drainage problems in the leg. This is called lymphoedema. Women may also face side effects of menopause, which takes on after three months of the beginning of the treatment.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

After cervical cancer surgery, patients are encouraged to start moving about as soon as possible. This is done to encourage faster recovery and it is an essential part of recovery. If movement is not possible, patients must do regular leg movements and deep breathing exercises. Taking further medicines as prescribed and maintaining a proper life style will aid recovery faster. People should also consult their doctors after treatment for check-ups.

How long does it take to recover?

For a laparoscopic or vaginal hysterectomy, people stay at the hospital for two or three days. They need about three to four weeks to recover. For an abdominal hysterectomy, patients stay at the hospital is for three to five days and complete recovery takes about four to six weeks. Recovery from total pelvic exenteration takes a long time. They take around six months to recover completely. Some may even take a year or two. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy usually occur in sessions, thus, recovery takes a greater time.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Treatment of cervical cancer is very expensive. Surgeries and session wise radiation and chemotherapies are highly out of pocket for most of the mass. The cost of the cervical cancer treatment in India is around Rs 3,00,000- Rs 10,00,000. Some people incur even greater costs due to extended treatment and other associated complications.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Treatment aims to permanently cure the cancer or to bring about a complete remission of the disease. Usually, people with early detection of cervical cancer get treated permanently. But, the consequences of the procedures last life long for majority of the people. Also, treatment may fail to save the patient from the life threatening cancer cells if they are detected at a late stage when recovery is impossible. Later stages of cancer cannot be cured by treatment. Early detection may help the person live normal life expectancy but with some side effects.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are several types of alternative treatments available for cervical cancer. Apart from the standardized surgeries and therapies, people may use other methods like acupuncture, massage therapy, herbal products, spiritual healing, visualization etc for curing cervical cancer. Meditation and a proper diet rich in vitamins can also be used to prevent cancer cells from growing and reproducing. Many patients claim that these alternative treatments help them feel better. It is important to remember that these alternative treatments can only be done alongside the main treatment. These complementary treatments are done to provide relief from the symptoms and side effects of cancer treatments. Some types of alternative treatment may interfere with standard treatment. In some cases, the combination of alternative treatment and standard treatment may even be harmful. Hence, it is always better to consult a doctor at every step.

Safety: Disease Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Very High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs 3,00,000- Rs 10,00,000/-

Popular Health Tips

Role Of Laparoscopy In Gynaecological Cancers!

MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Role Of Laparoscopy In Gynaecological Cancers!

Minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopic surgery is increasingly becoming popular in all fields of surgery including gynecological oncology. Given its many advantages, it is easy to see why people prefer this form of surgery. The use of laparoscopy in the field of gynecological oncology began in the late 1980s. The first laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy was performed in 1989.

Laparoscopy and Endometrial Cancer
The endometrium refers to the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is rare are usually affect women over the age of 55 years. A hysterectomy is one of the forms of treatment for this condition. If detected in its early stages, this hysterectomy may be performed laparoscopically. As compared to traditional surgery, this reduces the hospital stay required and is associated with fewer postoperative complications. Laparoscopy may also be used to restage patients who have already undergone a hysterectomy.

Laparoscopy and Cervical Cancer
The lowermost part of the uterus is known as the cervix. A pap smear can help in the early detection of cervical cancer. This can be treated surgically in the form of a lymphadenectomy or a radical hysterectomy. One of the factors crucial to the management of this type of cancer is an evaluation of the lymph nodes. This is where laparoscopy is very useful. As in the case of endometrial cancer, laparoscopy may also be used for a hysterectomy procedure. A laparoscopic lymphadenectomy may also be performed to investigate the extent to which the cancer has spread. Advanced stages of cervical cancer can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation. In such cases, the role of laparoscopy may be limited to staging the patient before treatment.

Laparoscopy and Adnexal Masses
Adnexal masses refer to ovarian abnormalities and development of masses in the fallopian tubes, uterus and other organs in the pelvic cavity. Laparoscopy is routinely used to treat benign Adnexal masses. It can also be used in the management of malignant adnexal masses. However, its role is less clearly defined in such cases. When using laparoscopic procedures to address adnexal masses, it is important to identify benign masses beforehand.

Laparoscopy and Uterine Cancer
Laparoscopy can be used in a number of ways when it comes to the management and treatment of uterine cancer. These include staging apparent early stage cancer, determining the extent of the disease and resectability potential and to reassess a patient in cases of recurrent cancer. A hand assisted laparoscopy may also be used to resect the disease in some cases. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3323 people found this helpful

Cervical Cancer - Can It Be Treated?

MD - General Medicine, D.M. Medical oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Cervical Cancer - Can It Be Treated?

Cervical cancer is a cancer that affects only ‘females’. Although it is the most preventable cancer on Earth, it kills maximum number of women.

Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on your cervix, the lowermost part of your uterus that opens into the vagina, grow out of control. The cancer is treatable in early stages when it hasn’t spread to other parts of your body. However, at later stages, it can be fatal.

The scariest part about cervical cancer is that its symptoms are so general that they are easily missed by most women.

Having said that, the common symptoms of cervical cancer include the following:

  • Vaginal bleeding in between menstrual periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
  • Persistent pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic area
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Abnormal vaginal discourse

Causes of Cervical Cancer
Most cervical cancers are caused by a virus called human papilloma virus or HPV. This virus is spread by having unprotected sexual contact just like HIV/AIDS and genital herpes viruses.

There are many strains of the HPV and not all strains cause cervical cancer.

Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer
Since cervical cancer is spread sexually, it’s important for women to undergo Pap smear, a regular diagnostic test for early detection of this cancer. A pap smear is a cytological test in which cells from a woman’s cervix are taken and seen under a microscope. This test can identify changes in cervical cells before they become cancerous. If you observe these abnormal changes in cervical cells and treat them early, you are safe.

It’s recommended that sexually active women get a pelvic exam and a pap test every year to rule out malignancies in the cervix and nip this ‘female’ cancer in the bud.

Treatment of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer have several stages, and the treatment for most stages includes:

  • Surgery such as a hysterectomy may be opted for, which means removal of the entire uterus along with removal of pelvic lymph nodes. This implies you will never be able to bear children in future.
  • Sometimes, both the ovaries and the fallopian tubes are also removed, if cancer has spread upwards. This may result in a premature menopause.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation

Treatment for cervical cancer depends on how much the cancerous cells have spread. If it’s spread, your oncologist may suggest a combination of the above treatments.
Information and knowledge about this preventable yet lethal cancer should be disseminated among women, especially young women who have not become sexually active yet. And do remember that safe sexual practices like use of condoms and regular pap tests will save you from this cancer. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2136 people found this helpful

Cancer - How Can It Be Prevented?

MBBS, DGO, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Cancer - How Can It Be Prevented?

As we make many advances in the medical field, it can be safely estimated that almost one-third of cancers are avertable. This holds true for gynaecologic cancers and cervical cancer as well. With proper care and by making important lifestyle changes, these cancers can be prevented at an early stage, thus improving the longevity of a healthy person’s life.

Let us take a look at some of the cancer prevention and detection in the field of gynecology.

  1. Cervical cancer: This is one of the common cancers in women. In the developed world, one in every two individual is at the risk of being diagnosed with it. HPV is the main cancer causing agent of cervical cancers and a majority of these cancers can be prevented via HPV vaccination and many more types are preventable by early screening and diagnosis.
    • HPV vaccination: One of the effective ways to prevent cervical cancer is by vaccination. While a majority of the vaccines are done under the age of 5, HPV vaccines are inoculated to girls aged between 9 to 13 years. In all technicalities, they are done before a girl reaches puberty. HPV vaccination is for girls before they are sexually active.
    • Screening: Screening is also one more important step that helps in the early detection of cancerous cells and aids in the prevention. Screenings and diagnosis can be safely had by women who reach their puberty age and it is extremely important to have this check-up periodically.
  2. Uterine Cancer: Uterine Cancer is also one of the common types of cancer women experience and it is the 5th most common cancer among the women population. Just like other types of cancer, it can be completely cured if detected at an early stage. However, there is no definite way to screen uterine cancer, other than routine ultrasonography of pelvis. They are mostly related to obesity and high estrogen exposure. Uterine cancer is most common at the age of menopause and sometimes also found in reproductive age group.
  3. Ovarian CancerOvarian cancer is a rare type of cancer, but is one of the most hyperactive types of gynaecological cancers. There are no fool-proof screening methods available for it and it and in case if it is diagnosed at an early stage can be cured. It depends on a number of factors such as estrogen levels and in many cases; genetics seem to play an important role in such cancers. Also, women who have a family history of ovarian or colorectal cancer should be more careful in their approach and should be screened for cancerous cells periodically.

Conclusion
There are many screening programs and vaccination procedures where the cancerous cells can be safely eradicated. Awareness is extremely crucial for all types of cancer and gynaecological cancers are no different either. Get periodic health check-ups as a part of your routine and seek medical attention immediately in case of any abnormalities.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4144 people found this helpful

Cervical Cancer - Why You Must Get It Screened?

DGO , MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Cervical Cancer - Why You Must Get It Screened?

Are you aware of cervical cancer, which develops in the cervix of a woman? The cervix is the entrance to the womb from the vagina, and unusual vaginal bleeding accounts for being the primary symptom of this condition. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding may indicate several other conditions, you should get diagnosed for cervical cancer.

Symptoms
The various symptoms of cervical cancer are as follows:

  1. Abnormal and unusual bleeding from the vagina between periods, after having sex, and after menopause in women
  2. Pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen
  3. Pain while having sex
  4. Abnormal vaginal discharge

Diagnosis

  1. Over several years, cells lining the cervix go through various changes. In some rare cases, these cells, which are precancerous, may turn out to be cancerous. These cell changes in the cervix can be detected early, and proper treatment is capable of reducing the development of cervical cancer.
  2. A screening for cervical cancer should be carried out for diagnosing this condition. Cervical screening, or smear test involves the study of sample cells taken from the cervix. The sample cells are observed under a microscope for detecting cervical cancer or other abnormalities. An abnormal cervical screening does not always indicate cervical cancer, as abnormal results can occur because of an infection or because of the presence of precancerous cells that are treatable.
  3. Screening should be undertaken by women of all ages. It is recommended for women between the ages of 25 to 49 to undergo this cervical cancer screening once in every three years. For women between the age of 50 to 64, screening should be carried out once in five years. For women above the age of 65, screening is recommended for the ones who did not have a screening since the age of 50 and for the ones who had abnormal test results in the past.

Treatment

  • Cervical cancer can be successfully treated by a surgical procedure, if it is diagnosed at an initial stage. In some cases, the womb can be left in place, while it may be removed in some other cases. The surgical procedure used for removing the womb is known as hysterectomy.
  • Radiotherapy is an alternative surgical procedure that is undertaken by women with cervical cancer, at an early stage. In more serious cases, a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is used for the treatment of cervical cancer. Although quite effective, some treatment procedures for cervical cancer are associated with side effects such as infertility and early menopause.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5571 people found this helpful

Cervical Cancer Screening - When Should You Get It Done?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Cervical Cancer Screening - When Should You Get It Done?

Cervical cancer refers to the type of cancer that spreads through abnormal cells, which may be found in the lining of the cervix. This affects the lower part or the womb of the body. This may also be medically known as the uterine cervix. This kind of cancer is considered one of the most preventable ones. There are various kinds of screening tests that can help in early detection so that the symptoms become clear and the problem can be treated before the cancer spreads or malignancy sets in.

Read on to know more about the various screening measures that can help in treating and preventing the same.

  1. Pap smear test: This is one of the most recommended and easiest tests conducted for cervical cancer screening. The pap smear test is recommended for all women who have been through child birth. In this form of screening, the doctor usually takes a sample from the cervix of the patient. This will be then be put through a lab test to find any kind of anomalies in the cells of the cervix. This test is also strongly recommended on an annual basis for women who are going through menopause, as this is the time when the cells undergo maximum changes.
  2. HPV test: The HPV test can be conducted along with the pap smear test so as to find out if the HIV virus is active as well.
  3. Pelvic exam: In order to conduct screening for cervical cancer, the doctor may also ask the patient for a pelvic exam. In this test, the doctor checks the various areas like the uterus, the cervix and ovaries so as to ensure that there are no anomalies and irregular changes in these areas or organs of the body. This exam can help the doctor in finding any changes that may point at the risk of developing cervical cancer.
  4. Reading the test results: The doctor will usually take a look at the test results before making a clear diagnosis and recommending a course of medication or other kinds of treatment so as to prevent the spread or onset of cancer. For cases where this type of cancer has already progressed to a great degree, the doctor will usually recommend chemotherapy as well as radiation and sometimes, even surgery.

When should you get a screening test done?
Once you are above 21 years of age or have had a baby, it is imperative to get a screening test done at least annually. It is also important to get this done once a year if you are going through menopause. The doctors may ask you not to go through a test, if your previous three tests have been clear.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1920 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

What test is need to be done for checking cancer in men and women both. Eg. Like cervical cancer, breast cancer, blood and skin cancer.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth of cells in an area of our body. It can be due to loss of function of tumor suppressor genes or due to increased function of oncogenes. Screening is recommended for a few cancers to help in early detection and cure. Breast Cancer: screening mammography from age 45 years every 2-3 yearly. Cervical cancer: Pap smear (3 yearly) or HPV (5 yearly) from age 26 to 55 Prostate cancer PSA level every 2 years from age 50. Oral cancers: visual inspection in high risk individuals Lung cancer: low dose ct scan in high risk individuals Colon cancer: Fecal occult blood test (colonoscopy for high risk) Stomach cancer: OGD scopy for high risk Some tests which may be done, but not standard recommendations are: Ovary: usg and CA 125 Pancreas: Ca19. 9 and usg Skin and cancer: examination Blood cancer: CBC There are many cancers and that many causes of cancer. If localised, it may form a lump or swelling. Usually painless. If it has spread i.e. Stage 4, then symptoms due to the affected site or organ can occur. E.g. Breathlessness or hemoptysis in lung, jaundice in liver, ascites with abdominal distension in peritoneum, bone pain or fracture in bony mets, convulsion, vomiting and signs of raised intracranial hypertension in brain mets. It is not possible to write about all cancers and all it's symptoms. I will enumerate a few causes and symptoms of common cancers in non metastatic settings. Please note that most cancers donot have any cause and are asymptotic 1) Oral cavity and laryngeal cancers Symptoms: ulcer, Leukoplakia or erythroplakia rarely pain, neck node swelling, hoarseness of voice Cause: tobacco, alcohol, smoking, HPV, sharp tooth or ill fitting dentures with chronic trauma 2) Breast Cancer Symptoms: lump, nipple discharge especially blood stained, armpit swelling, nipple retraction, skin redness or thickening, skin dimpling Cause: increasing age and female sex are the most important non modifiable risk factors. Others include obesity, increased estrogen exposure due to early menarche, late menopause, no breast feeding, no children, OC pills, HRT, obesity. Familial due to BRCA genes 3) Colon or rectal cancer: Symptoms: bleeding per Rectum, alternating constipation or loose motions, lump in abdomen, intestinal obstruction Causes: Age, low fibre diet, Familial in AFP or HNPCC 4) kidney cancer Symptoms: Pain, lumbar swelling, hematuria Cause: Smoking, familial 5) urinary bladder cancer Symptoms: Hematuria, urinary retention Causes: smoking 6) lung cancer Symptoms: cough, hemoptysis, breathing difficulty, hoarseness of voice Causes: smoking 7) esophageal cancer Symptoms: difficulty in swallowing food, Causes: smoking, smoked fish 8) stomach cancer Symptoms: black stools, hematemesis, lump in abdomen, obstruction with vomiting Causes: smoking, alcohol 9) liver cancer Symptoms: lump in abdomen Causes: hepatitis B infection with cirrhosis, toxins 10) gall bladder cancer Symptoms: asymptotic, lump in abdomen, jaundice Cause: gall stones, cholesterosis 11) prostate cancer Symptoms: urinary retention, hematuria Cause: age, androgens 12) penile cancer Symptoms: ulcer Cause: HPV related 13) ovarian cancer Symptoms: mass in pelvis Cause: familial 14) endometrial cancer Symptoms: post menopausal bleeding or inter menstrual bleeding Cause: hormonal 15) cervical cancer Symptoms: bleeding pv Cause: HPV related 16) pancreatic cancer Symptoms: jaundice, lump in abdomen Cause: smoking 17) bone cancers: Symptoms: swelling, pain, fracture Cause: multifactorial 18) skin cancer Symptoms: ulcer or black lesion Cause UV rays 19) brain tumor Symptoms: neurological deficit, vomiting, visual deficit Causes: multifactorial 20) blood cancer Symptoms: bleeding, infections Cause: genetic, multifactorial 21) Testicular Cancer Symptoms: testicular painless swelling, abdominal lump Cause: genetic, multifactorial.
1 person found this helpful

Hello, In connection to my smear test, I was asked to go for CA125 test and ultrasound as well. Report reads ca125 as 117 and scan reads normal.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Ca 125 test itself can not suggest anything, need doctor to listen to detailed medical history in form of questions and answers, examination of patient and sometimes reports so meet concerned doctor.- Gynecologist.

Can vaccine of cervical cancer really protect me from this disease. At what age, I can have this Vaccine. please let me know this, I am a mother of 2 year old child and my age is 25. From where I will get this Vaccine.

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FICS (Surgical Oncology), Fellowship of Association of Indian Surgeons(FAIS), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Vaccine that protects from cervical cancer is a vaccine against human papilloma virus. It can be taken by women from 10 to 25 years of age. It provides about 70% protection. It can be available with gynecologists/pediatricians or in hospitals.
1 person found this helpful

Doctor I got one cervarix injection on 8th of December so my next injection is on 8th of January but I am not able to get this injection here in my native. If I miss ds now what will b the consequences? Is it must to get or if I would not get is there any side effects?

MBBS, DGO, FGO
Gynaecologist, Jalandhar
You can get the second inj. of cervarix upto 2.5 months after the first dose and the 3rd dose within 13 months from first dose if the schedule is interrupted due unavoidable reasons,so need not worry

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Causes, Symptoms and Prevention of Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer is caused due to the abnormal growth of cells which can invade or spread to other parts of the body easily. The treatment of this cancer does vary worldwide.
Play video
Cancer Of Cervix (Cervical Cancer)
Hello friends,

I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.

So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.

If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.
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Cervical Cancer
Hello, everyone. I am Dr Komal, obstetrics and gynaecologist. I am presently working at JP Hospital, Noida. Today I will discuss with you about Cervical Cancer with my main focus on vaccine available for it.

As most of us are aware that it is the cancer of mouth of the Uterus. It is a most common cancer among females in our country. It affects approximately 1,22,000 females per year in our country and it is a leading cause of death due to cancer in our country. The most common age group affected is 55-59 years of age. But the recent trend is showing the difference towards the age group as well.

Pap smear is a screening procedure and it is offered to all the females from 25 years of the age group and it should be carried out after every 3 years till the 49 years of age. And after this, continue this after every 5 years till you come under 65-69 years of age.

What is the cause of cervical cancer?

You must be surprised to know that in 99% of the cases, human papillomavirus, a viral agent is the infected agent of this cancer. Only 1% of the cause is due to some other things. So, it is a viral infection that causes cancer.

As it is a viral infection, we have the vaccination in our country to fight against the cause of this disease. And the most common vaccine used is Gardasil. World Health Organisation recommends that the vaccine should be referred to all girls between the age of 9-13 years because of its high immunogenicity of this age group. THis vaccination can also be available to all the females till 45 years of age.

The only issue is that once you become sexually active, then the immunogenicity decreases. However, you must be offered and you should go ahead to take the vaccine.

Two is the second dose and that you receive after 2 months of the first dose. And six is the second dose which you receive after 6 months of the first dose.

What is the cost of the vaccine?

It costs about 2800-3000 per dose. There is no severe side effects and the most common being the injection related things.

What is the contra- indication?

There is no contra- indication. But the one important thing is that pregnant women are not recommended to take this. Once you become pregnant while taking this vaccine then you should definitely dose for the next time.

So, this vaccine is available to prevent cervical cancer in the body even in a very minute form.

Hope this video is helpful for you to get aware of cervical cancer which is killing women every day in our country.

Thank you so much.
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Causes, symptoms and diagnosis of Cervical cancer
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