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Overview

Skin Cancer: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A variety of reasons can cause malignant cells to develop in the tissues of the skin. This condition is called skin cancer. Although a type of cancer, skin cancer is quite curable if detected early. So, if you find an unusual spot or lump on your skin or a part of your skin that shows signs of discolouration or changes in size or shape in any way, you must not delay to consult a doctor. The doctor will remove a part of the affected skin and send it to a laboratory for a biopsy. A biopsy will be able to confirm the presence of malignant cells in the skin. It takes almost a week for the results of a biopsy to come in.

The doctor prescribes a particular course of treatment depending on the type of cancer, the stage it has reach and also its location. The three most common types of skin cancer are BCC, SCC and melanoma. SCC or Squamous Cell Carcinoma is the types of cancer that occurs due to the formation of malignant cells in the epidermis of the skin. BCC or basal cell carcinoma develops in the basal cells that surround the squamous cells of the epidermis. Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. The human skin has cells called melanocytes that produce the skin-colouring pigment melanin. When these melanocytes turn cancerous, the condition is called melanoma or malignant melanoma.

While deciding upon the best treatment option, the doctor takes into account the patient's age and general health as well. The most effective forms of treatment are surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, freezing and scraping.

How is the treatment done?

The most effective treatment for skin cancer is surgery. Now there are different types of surgery that can be performed depending on the type and stage of cancer. If the skin has developed a small cancerous part, that part of the skin can be easily removed by performing excisional surgery. If the affected portion of the skin is bigger in size, some of the nearbuy skin may have to be removed as well and the patient may need skin grafting to cover the area. Moh's Micrographic surgery is another technique in which the affected skin is removed a tissue at a time and examined under the microsope. The process is continued till no cancer cell is left in the skin. If the cancer is very small, instead of removing it, the doctor freezes and kills the cancerous cells by spraying or injecting them with liquid nitrogen. This process is called cyrotherapy. Another surgical process is lymphadenectomy where the lymph nodes nearby the cancer cells are removed to prevent spreading the cancerous cells to those lymph nodes. Curettage and electrocautery is another surgical technique where the cancerous cells are scrapped off and either heat or electricity is used to prevent any bleeding.

There are superficial skin cancers like BCC that don't require surgery and can be treated by laser therapy. Laser therapy involves shining a very intense beam of light on the cancerous growth to destroy it. There is also radiotherapy in which X-rays are used to destroy the cancerous cells. Radiotherapy is also used for large cancers that are are formed too deep inside the skin or for cancers that are formed at areas where surgery might be hazardous. Photodynamic Therapy or PDT is a relatively new form of treatment that has proved to be somewhat effective in skin cancer treatment. In PDT, cancer cells are destroyed using a light-sensitive drug and a beam of visible light. Topical medications, immunotherapy and chemotherapy, though not very common for skin cancer treatment, can also be effective depending on a number of factors.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Depending on general health condition and age, anyone suffering from skin cancer is eligible to receive treatmen for the same.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Doctors try to avoid radiation therapy for treating young people with skin cancer as radiotherapy sometimes ends up increasing chances of cancer in other parts of the body in the future.

Are there any side effects?

The treatment for skin cancer has a few possible side effects. Radiotherapy is a very common form of treatment for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Radiotherapy causes irritation in and around the area of the skin being treated, skin discolouration and hair-loss in that particular area. Radiation also causes some damage to the salivary glands and teeth when it used to treat cancer formed around these structures. Chemotherapy causes acne, discolouration, blistering, peeling and hepersensitivity to the sun. Chemotherapy also causes the nails to become brittle or cracked.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Patients who have undergone treatment for skin cancer are usually advised to avoid direct contact with sunlight for long periods of time. Patients are also advised to use creams providing UV protection while going out in the sunlight. Patients must follow up with their doctors to help detect the cancer in the earliest possible stage if it does come back.

How long does it take to recover?

The length of the recovery period really depends on the type of treatment that the patient went through. However, whether it was surgery or otherwise, it should not take a patient more than a week to a few months to recover completely.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost of the treatment depends on the stage of the disease and the particular course of treatment followed. However, it is not a very cheap disease to have. The treatment for skin cancer can cost anywhere between Rs.10,000-Rs.2,50,000 depending on a lot of factors.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Skin cancer is almost curable if it can be detected at a very early stage. 98% people survive for 5 years and more if their cancer gets diagnosed at an early stage. But, the survival rate goes down to 62% if the cancer spreads through the body in its later stages. And even if the cancer gets cured, there is no guarantee that it won't come back a few years down the line.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The conventional methods for treating skin cancer also bring a lot of side effects to the table. To avoid those, there are a few natural remedies for treating the disease. Black raspberry seed oil, eggplant extract, myrrh oil and frankincense oil are known to have anti-cancer properties and can be used to treat skin cancer. However, there is no proof of their effectiveness.

Safety: High Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs.10,000-Rs.2,50,000

Popular Health Tips

Skin Cancer - 10 Things That Can Increase Your Risk!

MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy, MBBS, PLAB
Dermatologist, Hyderabad
Skin Cancer - 10 Things That Can Increase Your Risk!

Skin cancer occurs when the DNA of the cells undergo mutations, thus causing unsystematic cell growth which evolve into a cancerous mass. This abnormality stems from the over-exposure of your skin to the Ultraviolet Radiations of the sun.

However, there are other factors too that escalate the risks of skin cancer.

  1. Fairer skin tone: Inadequate pigmentation or melanin content in the skin offers less protection against the harmful UV radiations. Having red or blond hair or light-colored eyes makes you more vulnerable to this condition.
  2. Sunburns: A history of sunburns can often be the root cause behind skin cancer.
  3. Excessive exposure to the sun: If you spend a considerable amount of time under the sun and especially if your skin is not protected by clothing or sunscreen, you tend to get a tan. A tan is the skin’s response to extreme UV radiations.
  4. MolesAbnormally large moles, known as dysplastic nevi, are more likely to turn malignant. Watch out for any change in the texture of the moles, which is one of the most important symptoms of skin cancer.
  5. Family history: According to studies, genes are considered to be one of the causes behind skin cancer. Hence, a family history of this condition could spell trouble for one.
  6. Personal history: Having suffered from skin cancer previously in life could endanger one even more.
  7. Pre-cancerous skin injury: Skin lesions, also known as actinic keratosis, make you prone to developing pre-cancerous growths on the skin. These could appear as scaly rough patches, ranging from brown to pink in color. They usually crop up on the hands, head and faces of people who are comparatively of a fairer skin tone.
  8. A weak immune system: People having a poor immunity system, including the ones affected by HIV/AIDS or are on immunosuppressant drugs which follow any organ transplantation have greater risks of developing cancer.
  9. Exposure to radiation: Radiation therapy is an often used treatment method for treating various skin conditions such as acne and eczema. Having been exposed to radiations, one could be indisposed to this condition even more.
  10. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain substances such as arsenic might increase your vulnerability manifold.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4148 people found this helpful

Vitamin C - Understanding Its Role As An Anti Cancer Drug!

MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
Vitamin C - Understanding Its Role As An Anti Cancer Drug!

When it comes to cold and the flu, Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is hailed as the best remedy and preventive agent. But did you know that this could also help fight against cancer? Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that is not produced by our bodies and needs to be sourced through food. It is needed for the synthesis of collagen, norepinephrine, and carnitine. Collagen is required to develop bones, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels.

Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter while carnitine is a protein required for transportation of fat to the mitochondria. Vitamin C is also a powerful antioxidant that protects the body against damage caused by free radicals. In addition, it boosts the immune system and increases the body’s ability to fight infections. Ideally, an adult man should have 90mg per day while an adult woman should consume 75mg vitamin C per day.

When it comes to cancer treatment, vitamin C can act as an immune-modulator. It enhances the body’s resistance to pathogens and suppresses production of IL-18. This is a key regulator in melanomas, carcinomas and other kinds of malignant skin tumours. In the case of gastric cancers, the production of IL-18 is boosted by the vascular endothelial growth factor. In the case of breast cancer, IL-18 induces the production of transferrin. Thus, by regulating and reducing the production of IL-18, vitamin C can help reduce the risk of skin cancers, stomach cancers, and breast cancer. Dosage is key to the efficacy of Vitamin C in preventing cancer as an immune modulator.

In its reduced form, vitamin C is known as ascorbate. This has the ability to act as a prooxidant. Ascorbate in high dosages induces apoptosis in some melanomas through mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, a low dose of ascorbate induces cell cycle arrest of some types of cancer cells. Thus, by acting as a prooxidant, vitamin C inhibits the growth of cancer cells. This includes growth by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress, suppressing growth factors and inhibiting angiogenic factor production. It also produces hydrogen peroxide-dependent cytotoxicity in cancerous cells without affecting other healthy cells.

The efficacy of vitamin C in dealing with various types of cancer has been found to be most effective when administered intravenously. In addition, it may also be given orally. Since vitamin C is cytotoxic and does not affect other cells, the side effects of this type of cancer therapy are usually negligible.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3281 people found this helpful

Lasers - Can They Cause Cancer?

Diploma In Dermatology, Fellowship In Aesthetic Medicine
Dermatologist, Hyderabad
Lasers - Can They Cause Cancer?

Today, Laser treatment is no longer as rare as it once was. Laser treatment is in fact the third most common type of cosmetic surgery performed. However, it is still surrounded by a number of misconceptions. One such doubt that many people have is whether Lasers have the ability to cause cancer. To understand this, one must first understand what laser therapy is.

Laser is a short form for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. There are many different kinds of lasers and laser mediums. These lasers can be used by doctors for cosmetic and surgical procedures as well as by engineers at constructions sites etc depending on the type of Laser. Though simple lasers are easily available, they should be used carefully.

With some lasers, radiation is emitted as a form of light. In others, this radiation may be in the form of ultraviolet or infrared rays and thus be invisible to the naked eye. This radiation should not be confused with the radiation from radioactive substances or microwave and radio waves. The radiation emitted by lasers is largely considered to be safe and does not harm the human body.

This radiation emitted by lasers does not use the same ultraviolet wavelengths as the UV radiation of sunlight. Radiation from laser beams is known as non-ionising radiation. It stays at the surface of the skin and does not penetrate into the cells. When laser treatment is used for hair removal it only penetrates to the hair follicle and no further. Thus, it does not cause skin cancer and does not damage our cellular DNA. Keeping this in mind, laser treatment can also be used for hair removal around the reproductive area without a worry.

Lasers used for cosmetic procedures are known to be every effective in the treatment of wrinkles and fine lines. It can also be sued to reverse the damage caused by excessive exposure to sunlight such as sun spots and dark patches on the skin. For these types of treatment, lasers may either be used to vaporize the top most skin layer or resurface the skin and remove wrinkles without peeling the skin. Both these types of lasers, promote the formation of collagen which is what actually helps reduce wrinkles and fine lines. Lasers are also often used to treat and remove pre-cancerous lesions. Thus, instead they can reduce a person’s risk of developing skin cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.

4139 people found this helpful

Melanoma - The 3 C's Of It!

MS - General Surgery, MCH - Oncology , MBBS
Oncologist, Pune
Melanoma - The 3 C's Of It!

The skin has the largest surface area and is most exposed to the external environment. This exposure causes a lot of wear and tear, and one of the worse complications including melanoma, which is a form of skin cancer. Read on to know about its causes, caution signs to stay alerted and how to take care of the skin.

Causes
The skin has cells known as melanocytes which give it the color. Generally, the more the number of melanocytes, the darker is the person’s complexion. This pigment is also present in skin, hair, nails, and eyes. The moles are skins are areas of higher concentration of these cells. Africans moles can be a precursor to melanoma, but not all moles turn to melanoma.

  1. Exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Fair-skinned people are at greater risk than darker complexioned people. A single sunburn experience can also increase the risk of developing melanoma
  2. Use of tanning beds, especially in people below 30, ups the risk of melanoma. Indoor tanning beds is classified as having the highest record by WHO
  3. Family history
  4. Ethnicity, with Hispanics at the greatest risk and African-Americans at the least risk

Caution

  1. For those who have risk factors for developing melanoma, a monthly self-exam is advisable. A formal annual exam with a dermatologist is also advised. This will help in early identification of the condition and lead to early treatment and containment.
  2. Melanoma is not restricted to the skin, can also occur in feet, eyes, and scalp
  3. Use a mirror to check all over the body
  4. If you have moles, watch for change in their size, shape, and regularity. Any change should be immediately checked for.
  5. If you see any new irregularities on the skin anywhere, get medical attention.
  6. Any sore that has not healed
  7. Any swelling that is near the mole or has not regressed
  8. Change in sensation including itching or pain
  9. A quick way to remember is to check for ABCDE: Asymmetry of the lesion, irregularity of the borders, change in color, diameter greater than six mm, and speed of evolution. Watching for these can help in early diagnosis.

Care
Melanoma is directly linked to sun exposure, and so reducing sun exposure and taking adequate precautions can help in prevention.

  1. Avoid or reduce exposure to sun
  2. Use sunscreen religiously. The SPF should be at least 30 and should be reapplied every two hours
  3. Use a hat or cap, sunglasses, and cover up when out in the sun
  4. Be extra careful when out on the beach or in the mountains
  5. Avoid sun if possible between 10AM to 4PM
  6. Use tan removal agents after a sun exposure

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.

1764 people found this helpful

Reduce the Risk of Cancer - Get Tips!

MBBS, MD - Oncology, DNB - Super Speciality, Immuno Oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Reduce the Risk of Cancer - Get Tips!

We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think.

  • Abstain from tobacco: Consuming raw tobacco or smoking tobacco can be equally detrimental to your health. Tobacco increases your chances of contracting the disease. As is known, passive smoking can also affect your health adversely. Tobacco can be the potential cause behind cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, oral cavity and even the pancreas. It might harm your kidneys and cervix. It is upon you to quit tobacco at the earliest possible. One should also try and persuade friends and relatives to give up smoking.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation: Complete abstinence from alcohol might not be possible if you have already been ushered into your work- life. The society might require you to be an occasional drinker. It is important to drink in moderation. Crossing the limit can propel consequences as serious as cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver and the heart.
  • A balanced and nutritious dietDeciding on a plant- based diet or a Mediterranean diet can aid your fight against the risk of cancer. A Mediterranean diet will involve green leafy vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, whole grains, mixed nuts, legumes and also the use of extra- virgin olive oil. Fish can be a safe bet but red meat should be avoided. One must also try to avoid processed meat as they tend to make you prone to the risk of cancer.
  • Immunization: Hepatitis B and HPV or Human papilloma virus vaccines are extremely necessary to protect you against the sexually transmitted types of cancer.
  • Sun protection: Caring for your skin doesn't arise from vanity. Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent kinds of cancer; the chances of this disease can be restricted by remaining in shade especially during midday, by wearing covered clothes and by using a good sunscreen lotion repeatedly while outside.
  • Exercise diligently: Did you think it was okay to have weaker muscles and bulging layers of fat? If yes, you probably have grown numb to the inadequacies you face in result. Unchecked fat can lead to obesity which further complicates health conditions. Metabolic activity differs from person to person. Regular exercising can help regulate metabolism according to the needs of your body. Physical exercise protects you against the risk of breast and colon cancer. Moderate or vigorous physical activity for 150 to 75 minutes a week respectively can reduce the risk of cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a oncologist.
4012 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Squamous cell carcinoma cancer patient. The size of tumor is 0.4*0.3*0.2. Which stage is this? And what are the risk of this disease? How much time the patient spends? In which stage, the patient stops eating?

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Less than 2 cms is usually stage 1, unless nodes are positive. Hopefully you are talking about the oral cavity or head and neck region I would be able to opine better if you could send me the details. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
2 people found this helpful

Squamous cell carcinoma cancer patient. The size of tumor is 0.4*0.3*0.2. Which stage is this? And what are the risk of this disease? How much time the patient spends?

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Where is the cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma can be of the oral cavity, laryngopharynx, lung, esophagus, anal canal and rarely of salivary glands and breast. The treatment depends upon the site and the stage. For e.g laryngeal cancers of small size may be treated by laser or radiation. Oral cancers by surgery. Anal cancers by chemoradiation. I would be able to opine better if you send me the details and the report. Subcm is a small cancer and the chances of cure are high of treated at earliest. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.

What test is need to be done for checking cancer in men and women both. Eg. Like cervical cancer, breast cancer, blood and skin cancer.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth of cells in an area of our body. It can be due to loss of function of tumor suppressor genes or due to increased function of oncogenes. Screening is recommended for a few cancers to help in early detection and cure. Breast Cancer: screening mammography from age 45 years every 2-3 yearly. Cervical cancer: Pap smear (3 yearly) or HPV (5 yearly) from age 26 to 55 Prostate cancer PSA level every 2 years from age 50. Oral cancers: visual inspection in high risk individuals Lung cancer: low dose ct scan in high risk individuals Colon cancer: Fecal occult blood test (colonoscopy for high risk) Stomach cancer: OGD scopy for high risk Some tests which may be done, but not standard recommendations are: Ovary: usg and CA 125 Pancreas: Ca19. 9 and usg Skin and cancer: examination Blood cancer: CBC There are many cancers and that many causes of cancer. If localised, it may form a lump or swelling. Usually painless. If it has spread i.e. Stage 4, then symptoms due to the affected site or organ can occur. E.g. Breathlessness or hemoptysis in lung, jaundice in liver, ascites with abdominal distension in peritoneum, bone pain or fracture in bony mets, convulsion, vomiting and signs of raised intracranial hypertension in brain mets. It is not possible to write about all cancers and all it's symptoms. I will enumerate a few causes and symptoms of common cancers in non metastatic settings. Please note that most cancers donot have any cause and are asymptotic 1) Oral cavity and laryngeal cancers Symptoms: ulcer, Leukoplakia or erythroplakia rarely pain, neck node swelling, hoarseness of voice Cause: tobacco, alcohol, smoking, HPV, sharp tooth or ill fitting dentures with chronic trauma 2) Breast Cancer Symptoms: lump, nipple discharge especially blood stained, armpit swelling, nipple retraction, skin redness or thickening, skin dimpling Cause: increasing age and female sex are the most important non modifiable risk factors. Others include obesity, increased estrogen exposure due to early menarche, late menopause, no breast feeding, no children, OC pills, HRT, obesity. Familial due to BRCA genes 3) Colon or rectal cancer: Symptoms: bleeding per Rectum, alternating constipation or loose motions, lump in abdomen, intestinal obstruction Causes: Age, low fibre diet, Familial in AFP or HNPCC 4) kidney cancer Symptoms: Pain, lumbar swelling, hematuria Cause: Smoking, familial 5) urinary bladder cancer Symptoms: Hematuria, urinary retention Causes: smoking 6) lung cancer Symptoms: cough, hemoptysis, breathing difficulty, hoarseness of voice Causes: smoking 7) esophageal cancer Symptoms: difficulty in swallowing food, Causes: smoking, smoked fish 8) stomach cancer Symptoms: black stools, hematemesis, lump in abdomen, obstruction with vomiting Causes: smoking, alcohol 9) liver cancer Symptoms: lump in abdomen Causes: hepatitis B infection with cirrhosis, toxins 10) gall bladder cancer Symptoms: asymptotic, lump in abdomen, jaundice Cause: gall stones, cholesterosis 11) prostate cancer Symptoms: urinary retention, hematuria Cause: age, androgens 12) penile cancer Symptoms: ulcer Cause: HPV related 13) ovarian cancer Symptoms: mass in pelvis Cause: familial 14) endometrial cancer Symptoms: post menopausal bleeding or inter menstrual bleeding Cause: hormonal 15) cervical cancer Symptoms: bleeding pv Cause: HPV related 16) pancreatic cancer Symptoms: jaundice, lump in abdomen Cause: smoking 17) bone cancers: Symptoms: swelling, pain, fracture Cause: multifactorial 18) skin cancer Symptoms: ulcer or black lesion Cause UV rays 19) brain tumor Symptoms: neurological deficit, vomiting, visual deficit Causes: multifactorial 20) blood cancer Symptoms: bleeding, infections Cause: genetic, multifactorial 21) Testicular Cancer Symptoms: testicular painless swelling, abdominal lump Cause: genetic, multifactorial.

My father's biopsy report suggests that there is poorly differentiated carcinoma and possible squamous cell carcinoma can you tell me what does poorly differentiated mean & and what stage it is of cancer?

M.Ch - Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Chennai
Differentiation means how closely a tissue resembles to its native tissue cells. Poorly differentiated means it has almost no resemblance to its native cells. The provided information is grossly insufficient to comment on the stage of the disease. Kindly provide the details regarding the organ of involvement and the extent of spread (CT/MRI details).
7 people found this helpful

I am 46 years old. I have a slowly growing disfigured mole on my stomach and also many red patches all over upper body. Is it skin cancer sign. What test to detect skin cancer.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
If its a growing mole, better to see a dermatologist or a cancer surgeon. They would do a biopsy to rule out cancer. The red spots are usually the Campbell De Morgan spots, which are benign, but show those also to the doctor you see, as they need to rule out spider nevi or hemangiomas.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Cervical Cancer
Hello!

I am Dr. Anjuli Dixit running a nursing home at sector 84 J-Block, Greater Faridabad. I am going to talk about something regarding cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women which infects about 80 to 90% of the girls before attaining menarche. So it is important to discuss something about this. What is cervix? Cervix is the part connecting uterus to the vagina of the woman and this is the part through which sperms passes into the uterus. So this is the most important organ which gets involved during sexual intercourse. So this is the part which gets infected even before attaining menarche and we should know something regarding this because it is the most common cancer of the women. What causes cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is caused by HPV virus which is present in vaginal secretions and in the environment which infects vaginal discharge and causes cervical cancer.

How it infects the woman? It may cause infection through skin, through sexual intercourse or through secretions which may infect the women. Who are the potential candidates for the cervical cancer? Girls after attaining menarche, girls which start early sexual intercourse, in girls who are having multiple partners and cigarette smokers are also potential candidates for this cervical cancer. How does it present? It may present through genital warts, through vaginal warts, through cervical erosion and any long-lasting infection which infects the cervix. Pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic discharge which is long lasting, pelvic pain leading to dyspareunia these are the symptoms which it affects the women and which causes women to seek medical advice. When we should seek advice? We should get Pap smear done even at the age of 20-25 years or just after becoming sexually active.

And early detection always improves the outcome of the cervical cancer treatment because it is a very slow growing disease and its effect, infects the part early and it presents the disease in a later stage. So even in early 20s or 30s women may get infected with HPV but it may present the disease at the age of 50. Earliest detection always brings better outcome. We should get Pap smear done at the age of 25 years. We can even prevent the infection before being infected by cervical cancer vaccine which can be given at the age of 9 years.

It may be given in 2 doses between the age of 9 to 14 year and then 3 doses at the age of 14 years and it can be given up to the age of 45 years. It will prevent cervical cancer because this is the only cancer which can be prevented by vaccine and early detection may lead to better outcome of the disease so early detection and treatment always prevents the cervical cancer spread.

Thank you!
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Breast Cancer
Symptoms, causes and treatment for Breast Cancer Patients

Hello friends. My name is Dr. Gayatri Juneja. I m a practicing gynecologist in Model Town for the last 20 years. I m a visiting consultant in Apollo Cradle Hospital Moti Nagar, and Fortis Hospital Shalimar Bagh, and Sunder Lal Hospital Ashok Nagar. It s a great pleasure for me to talk to you about certain problems which I think is becoming very important for all of us to know. I am going to talk about Breast Cancer.

Unfortunately, even in India, cancer breast is becoming very common. And it is not that it is a cancer which we cannot pick up at time. The only thing we need is to be aware of it. Only if we know what is happening with our body, is only then we can do what is normal, only then we can see what is not normal, right? It is one of the breast cancer is one of the easiest cancers to pick up. How? My body is my own. I should know what s happening to me. So minimum a lady can do is do a self examination. Teach your daughters how to do a self examination for the breast. If you find any lump, any time, if you feel there is some pain, which was not there, if you see the nipple is not in the normal position, it is retracted inside, if you see there is skin changes on your breast, if you see any size difference. See minor size difference will be there. That is a natural thing. But if you see there is drastic change, and if you are not comfortable with something, do not neglect it. It s not at all a normal thing. Go, see a gynaecologist.

It is a confidential thing between you and your doctor. Let her examine you. Let her guide you. You give her a proper history, if you have taken any contraceptive pills, even I-pill is very dangerous. I ll come to it later how. The thing is your doctor has examined you, then she will guide you what has to be done. There are various ways of diagnosing cancer of breast. First step is, you do a self examination. First step is over. You find the lump, you go to a doctor. Your doctor will ask for a sonography, that is ultrasound of the breast. And another part of it is an x-ray of the breast. Sometimes in younger age group the breast is very dense, and you cannot diagnose anything on mammogram.

You still are suspecting something, then your doctor might ask for an MRI. MRI is very effective in diagnosing, but we do not suggest it as first line treatment, first line of diagnosis. Once it is confirmed that yes, there is a lump, then what we do is, we ask for a biopsy. Now biopsy can be in 2 forms. It can be taken through the needle, which we call FNAC Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and other is open biopsy, where we remove the whole lump, and send it for testing. If the test comes negative, good, fine, everything is fine. If it comes positive, then further treatment depends upon the type. Then they will do a special CT scan for you, where the will diagnose if any lymph nodes are involved.

Depending on preliminary staging, your doctor will ask for a surgery. Now the surgery will it is better that the whole breast gets removed. Or what has to be done will be diagnosed, because it is not a single person specialty, it is going to be a multi-specialty treatment then. Now let s come down to who are the people who are at higher risk. Why should I consider that I am at higher risk? What who are those people? First, specially after menopause, obesity. If your lifestyle is not at all healthy, your food habits you eat lot of non-veg and processed food, like pizzas and burgers and frozen food, yes you are at risk. Then comes genetics.

If you have a family history of cancer in your nani, dadi, your bua, maasi, cousin, ya sister ya brother, or even cancer of ovaries, you are at high risk. But that doesn t mean who all have had the history of cancer will also develop this. You are at higher risk, but it is better only to be careful. Then comes very tall ladies it has been seen they are also prone for diabetes. Obesity, and people who have had hormonal replacement therapy with and once you re diagnosed don t get scared. It is a curable cancer, and life expectancy with variable modalities these days is quite good.The quality of life is also good.

So my suggestion would be, to conclude, that please be aware of what is happening with you, and take good care of yourself. If you are healthy, only then you can look after your family. Thank you so much.
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