Common Specialities
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Common Treatments

Glaucoma - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a medical condition which damages the optic nerve of the eye and can get worse overtime. It occurs due to the buildup of pressure in your eyes. Glaucoma is usually inherited and passed down the genes if your family member has it. Glaucoma usually destroys the nerve which aids in transmitting images to your brain. It can result to irreversible vision loss within a few years if not treated properly. If you have diabetes, you are more prone in developing glaucoma.

Causes of glaucoma:

Glaucoma occurs when the liquid in the eye doesn’t circulate how it should, this in turn results in extremely high pressure in your eyes. The liquid which is called aqueous humor usually starts to flow out your eyes through a channel. If this channel is blocked, the fluid starts building up resulting in Glaucoma. Factor such as inflammatory conditions, blocked blood vessels in the eye, acute eye infection, chemical injury and a blunt can cause Glaucoma. It is rare but possible in some cases. An eye surgery performed to treat another condition can also trigger Glaucoma. It can affect both the eyes.

Types of Glaucoma:

  • Open angle Glaucoma- This is a very common type of Glaucoma. It is also known as wide-angle glaucoma. In this condition, the trabecular meshwork seems normal but the fluid fails to flow the way it should.
  • Angle-closure Glaucoma- It is also called narrow-angle Glaucoma and acute angle closure. In this condition, the eye doesn’t seem to drain properly because the area between the cornea and the iris is extremely narrow. This can cause an immediate buildup of eye pressure. It is linked to cataracts and farsightedness (clouding of the eye lens)

Risk factors for Glaucoma:

Risk factors for Glaucoma:

  • If you have Scandinavian, Inuit, Hispanic, Japanese, Russian, Irish or African-American ancestry.
  • If you are over 40 years old.
  • If your family members have Glaucoma
  • Having diabetes.
  • If you take steroid medications such as prednisone.
  • If you have had trauma to one or both the eyes.

How is Glaucoma diagnosed?

At first, the specialist will dilate your pupils with eye drops. He will then check the optic nerve. A test called tonometry can be performed to keep a check on your eye pressure. A visual field test is also done to figure if your peripheral and side vision has been affected or not. Diagnoses for Glaucoma takes very less time and is also quite painless.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Blind and patchy spots on your central and side vision Tunnel vision Severe headache Eye pain Vomiting and nausea Eye redness Blurred vision

Popular Health Tips

Glaucoma & Retinal Surgery - Things You Must Know!

FAECS, DNB Ophtalmology, DO Ophthalmology, Fellowship In Phacoemulsification & Refractive Surgery
Ophthalmologist, Indore
Glaucoma & Retinal Surgery - Things You Must Know!

Caring for your eyes is important for great vision, but at times certain ailments, such as glaucoma and retinal detachment can be a cause for concern. Glaucoma is a condition, which causes the degeneration of the optic nerve of the eye. Retinal detachment, on the other hand, is an eye disorder which leads to peeling of the retina from the underlying tissue.

All about glaucoma
There are quite a few options when it comes to the surgery of glaucoma, though a doctor’s advice would be needed to choose the right one. Each type of surgery caters to a certain situation. One of them is known as trabeculectomy. While the term may seem a bit complex, it basically refers to a surgery in which there is a pathway made for the outflow of the water-like substance in the eye. It is good to know that this is a non-laser surgery, so all the complexity which comes with a laser surgery is avoided.

There is another glaucoma surgery called a trabeculotomy, which is basically the same but there is no tissue which is removed, unlike a trabeculectomy. The names can be confusing, can’t they?
While all these surgeries are good, why exactly are they needed? Well, the aim is to reduce the pressure in the eye, called intraocular pressure (IOP). Doing this helps prevent further damage. In short, all glaucoma surgeries endeavour to reduce the amount of fluid produced by the eye or to drain it.

All about retina surgery
The retina can be thought of as the screen at the back of the eye onto which everything projects.

  • When it comes to why a retina gets detached, it can happen due to a variety of reasons. Some of the most common are injuries as a result of accidents and eye infections. Eye diseases like glaucoma and the like can also cause it. However, the good news is that there is corrective surgery for this, which is proven to work.
  • The surgery for the retina includes sealing up any tears as well as positioning it correctly again. In many cases, an air bubble helps get the retina back in place. If there are tears in the retina, laser helps repair them. These surgeries include pneumatic retinopexy and sclera buckle surgery. The primary objective of such surgeries is to reattach the retina and to prevent vision loss.
  • Considering how serious a matter it is, it is only to be expected that recovery from retinal detachment surgery is a gradual process. Precautions which need to be taken include not visiting high altitude places or flying unless the doctor has given an ok as this could lead to an increase in the eye’s pressure.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2474 people found this helpful

Diabulimia - Should You Be Worried About It?

Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Mumbai
Diabulimia - Should You Be Worried About It?

Diabulimia is an eating disorder often associated with Type-1 Diabetes. Also referred to as ED-DMT1, not many people are aware of this non-clinical term. It is a well known fact that many people with Type-1 diabetes require the daily administration of insulin. In the case of Diabulimia, a person having Type-1 diabetes purposely manipulates with the insulin dosage in an endeavour to lose weight. In some extreme cases, a person may completely avoid the use of insulin.

You need no rocket science to understand the impact diabulimia will have on a diabetic patient (Type-1) who is entirely dependent on insulin. Some of the lethal consequences of diabulimia include

  1. Yeast infections: Manipulating with the appropriate dosage of insulin can trigger an abnormal rise in the blood glucose level (Hyperglycemia), some of which gets eliminated out through the urine, thereby enabling a person to lose weight. However, the high glucose level is just the ideal and favorable condition for yeast growth. The hyperglycemic condition will result in increased yeast infections. The infection can be very uncomfortable and annoying. In fact, there will be repeated yeast infections until the blood glucose level comes down to the normal range.
  2. Ketoacidosis: As already mentioned, diabulimia devoids the body of insulin. As a result, glucose is unable to enter the body cells (glucose is an important fuel for the muscles and the other cells and tissues of the body). In its absence, the body starts looking for alternate sources. Gradually the body starts breaking down fats to get the desired energy. Increased breakdown of fats results in accumulation of ketone bodies in the bloodstream, a condition medically termed as Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The condition if left untreated can be harmful triggering Cerebral Edema (a condition characterized by a swelling of the brain), Hypokalemia (low potassium level) or even Hypoglycemia.
  3. Diabetic retinopathy: Hyperglycemia can spell doom for your eyes. The accumulation and buildup of high levels of glucose in the eyes often damage the retinal blood vessels, a condition known as Diabetic Retinopathy. There may not be any early signs associated with the condition. However, diabetic retinopathy can give rise to many serious complications such as Glaucoma (characterized by severe damage to the optic nerve), Vitreous Hemorrhage (the blood leaks into the areas adjacent to the vitreous humor of the eye), or even Blindness. There may also be a Retinal Detachment.
  4. Renal failure: One of the common and harmful consequences of diabulimia is the kidney failure. Increased concentration of glucose in the kidneys often damages the filtration units of the kidneys called the Glomeruli (increased glucose blocks the capillaries of the kidney) leading to kidney damage and failure.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2029 people found this helpful

Glaucoma - A Complete Guide on It!

MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Noida
Glaucoma - A Complete Guide on It!

Glaucoma is a serious eye condition in which the optic nerve gets damaged and the situation gets worse over time. If untreated, individuals may go permanently blind. Most individuals, with glaucoma, have no previous symptoms or warning signs of this disorder and this is the reason why it is important to have regular eye check-ups.

Causes of glaucoma
Eyes have a liquid called aqueous humor. This fluid flows out of the eyes through mesh like channels for proper lubrication of the eye. However, there can be situations in which these channels may get blocked. In such a case, there would be a build-up of this liquid, thereby causing an increase in fluid pressure. This is usually a major cause of glaucoma. Although there has been no elaborate evidence of what exactly causes this blockage, doctors have noticed that this can be inherited.

Other less common causes include:

  1. Any sort of blunt injury or chemical injury to the eye
  2. Blocking of blood vessels inside the eye
  3. Other inflammatory conditions
  4. Improper eye surgery

Types of glaucoma
There are mainly two kinds of glaucoma than can occur:

  1. Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common kind of glaucoma and is also called wide-angled glaucoma. In this kind, the tubular meshwork through which the liquid flow occurs is normal. However, the fluid flow isn’t the way it should be.
  2. Angle-closure glaucoma: This is also known as acute glaucoma or chronic angle closure. In this case, the liquid is not able to drain properly because of the angle between the iris and the cornea being too narrow, thus causing the iris to be in the way. This can cause a sudden build-up of pressure, thereby leading to chronic glaucoma.

Facts about glaucoma

  1. This disorder usually has no previous signs or symptoms and occurs all of a sudden.
  2. This disorder mainly affects individuals above 40 years of age.
  3. Glaucoma can be inherited.
  4. People with diabetes have chances of suffering from glaucoma.
  5. If not treated early, it may lead to permanent blindness.

Symptoms of glaucoma
Usually there aren’t many symptoms to warn people about this disorder. However, one of the first signs is definitely losing peripheral or side vision. Other symptoms might include

  1. Chronic vision loss
  2. Visibility of halo around lights
  3. Narrowed vision

Glaucoma is treated by any of the three methods:

  1. Prescription eye drops in order to reduce eye fluid formation, thereby resulting in outflow increase
  2. Laser surgery
  3. Microsurgery

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.

2630 people found this helpful

Annual Eye Exam - 3 Reasons Why It Is Important!

Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Annual Eye Exam - 3 Reasons Why It Is Important!

Before you go through this, just close your eyes for a few seconds and ponder how your life would be if you are unable to see? Pathetic isn’t it? Eyes are one of the greatest gifts from the almighty, and it is your sole responsibility to protect them and keep in optimal health so that you too can keep on enjoying the beauty of nature.

Sometimes people are too lazy to go for an eye checkup when there is absolutely no vision problem and in other cases, people just don’t feel it is important to go for an eye checkup once in a year. However, routine eye exams are crucial for every person regardless of the age, gender, origin or habits. It is not just for individuals with poor eyesight but for everyone with or without eye problems. Here are the top reasons why you must be paying a visit to an ophthalmologist.

  1. Getting the prescription updated: You may think that your eyes are fine and there is nothing reasonable in visiting an ophthalmologist. But it is a general human tendency to neglect things until it is so late that nothing can be recovered. And your eyesight and eye health is no child’s play- it is vital in directing the quality of your life. The skilled ophthalmologist can monitor the condition of your eyes and follow up the changes that have taken place over time. Your eyes and their features are unique, and thus it becomes easier for the expert to detect what’s been altered in them.
  2. Seeing to the best of your abilities: People with corrective lenses often experience the need for tracking the periodic changes that have already taken place. Your eyes alter their shape and condition with time. Thus, keeping your prescription updated offers a subtle yet crucial advantage that you may not have considered before. Some of them are even concerned with your safety such as your ability to see while you drive at night.
  3. Eye diseases can be secretive: Sometimes, vision issues can come in quickly but often eye disorders tend to creep up that most individuals are not able to see. The deterioration can be so subtle and slow that you are unable to detect anything until it has progressed to a great extent. Eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma typically have no symptoms, which can be detected at an early age.

And it goes without saying that vision loss cannot be reversed. But in case you visit your ophthalmologist regularly from an early age, vision loss can be prevented or at least slowed down.

2744 people found this helpful

Glaucoma - Factors That Put You Risk!

Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Glaucoma - Factors That Put You Risk!

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterised by damage to optic nerve usually due to excessively high intra ocular pressure (eye pressure). If left untreated can lead to optic nerve damage resulting in progressive, permanent vision loss. Glaucoma usually affects people above the age of 40, but can affect younger people as well. This condition causes fluid to build up in the eye, which puts pressure on the optic nerve.

There are broadly two types of glaucoma - Open angle glaucoma ( more common in elderly) and angle closure glaucoma.

Women are more likely to suffer from glaucoma than men are. Ethnicity also plays an important role in determining the risk of suffering from this condition. East Asian and African Americans have a high risk of glaucoma, as they have a shallow, anterior chamber depth. Some of the other conditions that can increase a person’s risk of glaucoma are:

  1. Diabetes
  2. Hypothyroidism
  3. Myopia
  4. An earlier eye surgery
  5. Retinal detachment
  6. Tumours
  7. Injury to the eye
  8. Long term corticosteroid medication

If diagnosed early enough, glaucoma can be treated and its effects can be reduced. However, the damage already caused by glaucoma cannot be reversed. The aim of glaucoma treatment is to either reduce the production of fluid in the eye or improve its flow. This helps slow down the progression of this disease and prevents any further loss of vision. Glaucoma treatment usually takes the form of eye drops or surgery.

Eye drops are the first step towards treating glaucoma. There are many different types of eye drops. Prostaglandin analogues aim at increasing the flow of fluid out of the eye and are usually prescribed in cases of swelling around the rim of the eyes, darkening of the iris and blurred vision. Beta-blockers can also help lower the secretion of fluids in the eye.

Patients who are also suffering from diabetes or lung conditions such as bronchitis may be prescribed cholinergic agents, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or sympathomimetic drugs. Cholinergic agents help improve the outward flow of fluid in the eyes while Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce fluid production in the eyes. Sympathomimetic drugs do both reduce the production of fluids and improve outflow.

If the eye drops are not effective, surgery may be advised to lower the pressure built up in the eye. Some of the common types of surgery for glaucoma are:

  1. Trabeculoplasty: This procedure involves directing a high-energy laser beam into the eye to open clogged drainage canals. The surgery has high success rates but the problem may recur after surgery.
  2. Filtering surgery: This involves creating an opening in the eye and removing a part of the trabecular meshwork, thus allowing fluid to flow outwards.
  3. Drainage implants: Children or patients with secondary glaucoma may be treated with this surgery where a small silicone tube is placed in the eye to aid in fluid drainage.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2939 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, After Laser surgery for NA Glaucoma my IOP remained at 15/16mmHg for 5/6 years. Of late in 2018, it was 22/20mmHg without any apparent indication in premature. As precaution, Dr.advised to instill Xalatan once at night. Since last one year it is steady at 17/14mmHg. My vision is normal. Am I case for Surgery? Why IOP went High? Your opinion will be highly appreciated.

DNB Ophtalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Bangalore
By laser surgery, did you mean just laser application or proper surgery for glaucoma was done? If after the laser or surgery, if iop rose, that means failure of the treatment. But since with eye drops, since the pressure is under control, leave it at it. But yes, regular 6monthly (atleast) follow up is needed.
1 person found this helpful

I am glaucoma patient. It is my right to say that glaucoma start appearing is because I got heart attack. In glaucoma machine I got one portion damaged. Now further timolol and other medicines I use when I felt eye sight problem. Is glaucoma needs daily medicines.

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
No glaucoma is a separate entity & is unrelated to myocardial infarction. Cerrtainly, you would be requiring topical drugs to keep your intraocular pressure at a desired range.
1 person found this helpful

I am 22 year old female. My ophthalmologist suggested me to have central corneal thickness test. I found this test is for the glaucoma diagnosis. Should I proceed immediately?

DNB, Cornea Fellow, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Mumbai
Yes sure, it is to check your corneal thickness and correlate it with your eye pressure. On other thoughts, why are you hesitant to do the test when your Ophthalmologist has already ordered for it.
2 people found this helpful

My FAther Left eyes is suffering from glaucoma since 15 years. He lose his right eyes light before 8 years. Now doctors says after some days his lose this eyes light also. If we operate then 5% only chances of light. So advise.

Fellowship In Comprehensive Ophthalmology, DOMS
Ophthalmologist, Sangrur
hello i think your father has severe damage of optic nerve in this case, i would recommend you to follow instructions of your doctor

My mother has been suffering from herpes she got from her forehead which turned to neuralgia n has effected her eye which might lead to glaucoma. We have tried going to different doctors but all in vain please advice is Botox a good therapy.

MBBS, DOMS, MS - Ophthalmology, Fellowship In Phacoemusification, Senior Consultant Surgeon
Ophthalmologist, Patna
It is called post herpetic syndrome ,pain &burning sensation will gradually disappear in a year or two but it will disappear, you may take B12 in high dose at least for a year(tab neurokind forte one tab daily)& use analgesics tab if unbearable pain ,you may also lubricating eye drops ( genteal eye drops) 3-4 times regularly I will not advise you to go for botox, there is no chance of glaucoma in post herpetic neuralgia with regards
2 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Glaucoma?

Causes of glaucoma:

Types of Glaucoma:

Risk factors for Glaucoma:

How is Glaucoma diagnosed?

Play video
Glaucoma - Know The Treatment And Symptoms
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that cause damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. The optic nerve is a bundle of millions of nerve fibres which carry visual impulse from the retina at the back of eye to the brain. The increased Eye pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve and fasten the natural nerve fibre loss. Since nerve cells can't regenerate this damage is permanent and irreversible.
Play video
Briefing On Glaucoma

I am Dr. Ankush Mutreja, Ophthalmologist. Meri specialty cataract and glaucoma treat krna hai. Aaj hum glaucoma ke bare me baat krenge. Ye blindness ka sabse bada cause hai. Isko early diagnose kia jaye to eye ko prevent kia ja skta hai. Agar eye me pani bhar jaye to eyes me dust dabb jata hai. Iske karan roshni kam ho jati hai. Iske 2 types hain, open angle and angle closure. Iska risk factor hair age. Congenital glaucoma bhi hai jo bachon me payi jati hai. Iske causes hain diabetes, hypertension, thyroid, injury and steroids use. Ye bimari silent killer hai. Is bimari me side vision pehle jati hai. Angle closure ke symptoms hai redness of eye, one side headache, vomiting.

Open angle ke symptoms hai eye power ka frequently change hona, side vision ka issue. Intial diagnosis eye pressure se check kia jata hai. 2nd test hai gonioscopy. Hum OCT krte hain jisme hum dekhte hain ki nerve kitni damage ho chuki hai. Iska prevention kaise ho skta hai? 40 years ki age ke baad routine eye check-up. Glaucoma test and eye pressure test krayein. Apko apna BP, hypertension thik rkhna hoga. Protective eyewear use kriye.

Thank You!
Play video
Glaucoma (Kala Motia)
Are You at the Risk For Glaucoma?
Play video
Why Regular Eye Tests Are Important?
Play video
Vision Loss in Glaucoma
Symptoms, types and treatment of Glaucoma
Symptoms, types and treatment of Glaucoma

Hi guys! I am Dr. Ravi Thadani from Ravi eye Foundation. Today we are talking about a condition called Glaucoma. Glaucoma in Hindi is known as kala motia, kala pani and some parts of India it is known as savarbai. This is one of the most common cause for irreversible vision loss in India. There are various types of Glaucomas. What is exactly Glaucoma. It is a condition in which normally the pressure of the eye is raised because of some blockage, outflow of aqueous humor which is normally produced inside the eye continuously.

There are various types of glaucoma, the most common is chronic type of glaucoma. In this chronic type of glaucoma there is gradual and slow increase in the pressure of the eye which causes a little and gradual damage. I am showing you the illustration (displays the illustration) of this condition. This is the angle of the eye where there are drainage tubes which takes out the fluid which is being produced inside the eye. There is some sort of blockage here because of one or some other reason or narrow angle so the fluid is not being drained out and thus it keeps on collecting inside the eye, this is causing increased intra-ocular pressure in the eye. This gradual increase in pressure of the eye causes continuous pressure in the nerve of the eye, which causes damage to the nerves and the retina. Because it is a slow process most of the times there are no symptoms, but few symptoms some people can notice many a times.

This is most commonly seen in people of 40 to 50 years of age and are colored halos , sometimes they may complain of chronic and frequent headaches and frequent change in the power of the glasses. There are few types of glaucoma which are not very common like Acute Glaucoma, Conginetal Glaucoma, Secondary, Traumatic. The incidence of this condition is more commonly seen in patients who have a very strong family History of Glaucoma or the patients who are diabetics. Most of the time the chronic glaucoma is detected during routine eye examination, whenever the patient comes to a eye surgeon for routine eye check up, if he is of age more than 40 years then we usually do a comprehensive eye check up in which we try to rule out any findings related to glaucoma. That s the reason we we always recommend to all the patients to go for a routine comprehensive eye check up after 40 years of age in 1 or 1 and a half years. If this condition starts it is timely detected and treated.

There are few diagnostics tools whoch help us to detect glaucoma, like tonometry, OCT, Gonioscopy and few other tools which helps us to establish diagnosis of glaucoma. Once this condition is established, nowadays we have such a large number of medicines which helps us to control it very nicely. It was in the old days, say about 2 to 3 decades back when there were not much medicines and we used to depend upon only surgical treatments or just a few medicines which used to cause a lot of people turning into blind. But nowadays the main domain remains its early detection, timely treatment is started and if the patient continuously puts the medicine and he is contact with the eye surgeon then most of the cases they save their vision for much longer time.

If you guys have any queries or you want to consult me regarding glaucoma you can call me or you can consult me online at Lybrate.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice