An anticholinergic, Dilate 1% V/V Eye Drop is typically used just before an eye examination, especially before refraction eye exams. The drug temporarily widens, that is dilates the pupil and at the same time relaxes eye muscles.
The application of the drug is done about an hour before the examination is due. Once the first dose is given, the next is administered in about another 5 to 10 minutes. Dilate 1% V/V Eye Drop is only meant for application in the eye. It should not be taken by mouth or injected into the body.
When it comes to application, wash your hands thoroughly before using the drops. Once you have put in the drops, do not wash the dropper, just place the cap back on and close it. Make sure to wash your hands after every use.
All medicines lead to a few side effects. While some are common and disappear in a while, others are less common and can be very dangerous. Some minor side effects that may occur while using Dilate 1% V/V Eye Drop are blurry vision, eye irritation and redness. Major side effects are very rare in this case, but if you experience pain in the eyes, changes in vision or irregular beating of the heart, get in touch with your medical provider and seek immediate treatment.
Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.
The preoperative assessment consists of--
A test for your existing glasses prescription:
It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.
A full ocular examination: This includes looking at-
The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule.
The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.
This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.
This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.
Blood Pressure Measurements
It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.
Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients
Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Headaches on their own are quite a pain, but headaches can also be a symptom of a more serious illness. Most headaches are caused by the disturbance of pain sensitive structures around the brain. This can be inside or outside the cranium. Headaches can be seen as a sign of stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, food allergies etc. Thus, it can be considered a warning that you need to change your lifestyle or diet and relax. Depending on what causes the headache, a number of homeopathic remedies can be used to treat it.
1. Aconite: This is effective if the headache comes on suddenly and is worsened by cold. Another symptom of headache, which can be effectively treated by aconite is the accompanying of the headache by the feeling of a tight band over the head.
2. Belladonna: A throbbing headache that is centered on the front or right side of the head can be treated with Belladonna. This sort of headache is usually accompanied by shooting pains, dilated pupils and aggravated by the slightest movement, sound or draft of air. It is also usually worse in the afternoons.
3. Nux vomica: This is an effective cure for headaches caused by excessive alcohol or coffee, indigestion and hepatic insufficiency. It is usually centered over the eye and can persist all day or all night.
4. Cocculus: Symptoms of headaches that can be treated with cocculus are first, pain that extends from the back of the head to the nape of the neck, motion sickness and a tendency to worsen by thinking too much. Such types of headaches improve when the patient is indoors and resting.
5. Sanguinaria: A headache, which begins at the back of the head and settles over the right eye can be treated with Sanguinaria. These headaches usually start in the morning and intensify as the day progresses. It is often experienced by women who bleed excessively during menstruation. Lying down can relive this sort of headache.
6. Spigelia: A headache that settles over the left eye can be treated with Spigelia. Such headaches usually begin in the morning, reach their peak in the afternoons and subside by the evenings. Noise, movement or a change in weather can aggravate such headaches.
7. Cimicifuga: Headaches caused by fatigue and exhaustion can be treated using cimicifuga. This sort of pain is associated with sharp pains over the years and a shooting pain at the top of the head. You may feel like a bolt being driven through the head.
If you are diabetic then it is important that you visit your Ophthalmologist for regular Retinal check-ups. Even if you no eye sight problem at all Diabetes is known to be one of main causes for blindness in this modern times. If you suffer from bouts of blurred vision then it can be as simple as fluctuating blood sugar levels in the body. Hence, don't make new glasses if your blood glucose is high or fluctuating. Wait till about 3 to 4 weeks after it reaches stable levels.
How diabetes affects your eyes?
The lens of your eyes can swell in diabetes, and this blurs your vision.
What are the serous problems that are caused by diabetes?
Cataract: Cataract occurs when the lens of the eye become foggy. Although cataract mostly occurs in people who are above fifty, one can get this at an earlier age in diabetics. It progresses at a much faster rate than usual in diabetics. Cataracts also makes retinal assessment more difficult for your Retinal surgeon. Once the diabetes is under control, diabetics can comfortably undergo modern cataract surgery. Healing will be as good as in normals, and visual recovery will be excellent if there is no Retinopathy. The modern topical Phacosurgery and IOL implantation can be performed with a hospital daycare stay of only few hours, and almost all the activities can be resumed on the very next day. There is no need to stop blood thinners.
Glaucoma: This is another disease that can silently cause blindness in diabetes. Due to the non draining of fluids from the eye, the intra ocular pressure goes up, and this causes damage to the delicate Optic nerve of the eye. The vision remains spuriously good till the end stages. Hence annual eye pressure check up is mandatory in Glaucoma. Glaucoma tends to run in families. If Glaucoma is diagnosed or suspected, OCT of optic nerves and Ganglion cell layer and Visual fields are periodically performed to assess the possible worsening. Once damaged, the ganglion cells and the optic nerve cannot be rejuvenated. So prevention is the main stay of treating this disease. Usually eye drops will be prescribed, which should be used strictly as per advise. Sometimes a surgery is advised.
Diabetic Retinopathy: is a progressive damage to the fine vessels and to the nourishment of the retina. It can occur in either type 2 or type 1 diabetes. Till end stages of the illness, there may not be any symptoms, and vision will remain good! There are two major types, Macular where fluid accumulates in the central retina, and Proliferative, where retinal ischemia sets in causing vaso proliferation, which cause bleeding inside teh eye. If not treated in early stages, both of them can lead to blindness. Retinal LASERS, Anti VEGF injections and vitreo retinal surgery are the common approaches, depending on the seriousness. There has been tremendous improvement in the surgical techniques in advanced cases.
If you have of diabetes or even borderline diabetic tendencies, it is advisable to periodically check your blood sugar levels, Hemoglobin, Creatinine, Blood pressure & Lipid levels and also get your eyes checked at regular intervals. It is recommended that you need a pupil dilated vitreo retinal assessment as soon as you are diagnosed to have diabetes, and follow up once an year. If you already has Diabetics retinopathy, you may be asked to review once in 3 to 6 months.
The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.
Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:
1. Hereditary predispositions
2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus
There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).
Other symptoms of achalasia include:
The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.
1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
2. Weight loss
4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating
Some of the treatments include:
Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.
1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.
Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:
1. Acid reflux
2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe
When the eye does not produce the required amount of tears, a condition called dry eyes may emanate. This condition may cause stinging, pain, itching, redness and a host of other symptoms that make normal vision a temporary problem. Also, one might experience difficulty in wearing contact lenses and may feel as if there is are particles trapped within the eyes. Night time driving and facing glares of light also becomes difficult in such cases. Cases where the symptoms have been going on for a prolonged period, must be referred to an ophthalmologist so as to get the correct treatment. Let us find out the various types of treatment for this condition.
Speak with an ophthalmologist about the various options that one can use in order to fix this problem depending on the severity of your case. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!