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Overview

Blindness: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Blindness can also be called as anopsiastar, purblindnessstar, typhlosisstar, presbyopia et cetera in medical terms.

How is the treatment done?

Blindness is the state of visual impairment with complete loss of vision. The person becomes sightless and hence is unable to see. A blind person is unable to distinguish between darkness and light as both his eyes have lost the power of minimal vision.

There can be many causes of blindness which differ on the basis of the socioeconomic condition of the nation. One of the leading causes of blindness include ocular complications of diabetes, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and traumatic injuries. Trachoma, onchocerciasis (river blindness), and leprosy constitute infectious causes of blindness. Several other causes of blindness are vitamin A deficiency, retinopathy of prematurity, blood vessel diseases which also involve the retina or optic nerve including stroke, ocular inflammatory disease, infectious diseases of the cornea or retina, primary or secondary malignancies of the eye, retinitis pigmentosa, congenital abnormalities, chemical poisoning from toxic agents such as methanol. Blindness sometimes can be caused as the hereditary diseases of the eye.

The most obvious symptom of blindness is visual impairment or permanent loss of vision. Other associated symptoms may be present, such as, discomfort in the eyes, awareness of the eyes, foreign body sensation, and pain in the eyes or discharge from the eyes. These occurrences depend on the underlying cause of the blindness.

The treatment of visual impairment or blindness depends on the underlying cause of it. People who have poor vision as a result of a refractive error, can be given glasses which will alleviate the problem. Nutritional causes which result into blindness can be addressed by dietary changes. There are millions of people in the world who go blind due to cataracts in the eyes. In these patients, cataract surgery can help in restoring their sight. Inflammatory and infectious causes of blindness can be treated with medication in the form of drops or pills. People who lost vision as a result of corneal scarring can be cured by a corneal transplantation.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Diagnosis of blindness includes testing each eye individually and by measuring the visual acuity and the visual field, or peripheral vision by ophthalmologists. Patients may have blindness either in one eye (unilateral blindness) or both eyes (bilateral blindness). In case of hereditary blindness, historical information regarding the blindness can be helpful in diagnosing the cause of blindness. Temporary blindness differs in cause from permanent blindness. Visual field testing involves the patient to look straight ahead at a device while lights in peripheral vision are flashed on and off. The patients are asked to respond by pressing a button every time they see a light. This helps to show any gaps in their field of vision. Visual acuity test requires a person to be able to read letters on the Snellen chart.

Treatment of blindness depends on the underlying cause of the problem. People who go blind due to glaucoma should be treated with eye drops and tablets to clear the eyes and provide vision again. Surgical operations may also be done to cure this. Another method of treatment is to do laser treatment. For corneal ulcers which make people blind, patients should use eye drops and dark goggles to keep the eyes clean and free from dust, and foreign particles. Eyes should be given complete rest by mydriatics. Local steroid eye drops and ointments, cycloplegics, systemic steroids, ocular anti–hypertensive drugs are used to treat blindness of the iritis. Eye ointments like Tetracycline or Erythromycin can be used to treat blindness caused by trachoma. Retinopathy involves the treatment of complication, control of diabetes & hypertension. Night blindness can be treated with increases consumption of vitamin A. Corneal Opacity can be treated with surgery which is known as keratoplasty.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

People should immediately consult a doctor when they face problems with vision. Any symptoms of visual impairment such as blurring of sight, inability to see far or near et cetera should be attended by a doctor at the earliest. Blindness or complete absence of vision can affect people to a great extent and hamper their daily lives. They should consult a doctor to seek medical help and care for a cure to this disease.

Are there any side effects?

People with normal eye sight do not need to visit doctors for any medical treatment. People with proper vision, of both and far, within optical reach can lead a normal life without the need for glasses. If there are no issues with the eyes and no symptoms of going blind, people can refrain from any medical help.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

There are no known side effects of the treatment of blindness. If the surgical operations and treatments are carried out carefully, with harming any part of the eye, then people can be cured from blindness. People may face watery eyes for some days post treatment, but this goes away soon.

How long does it take to recover?

After treatment, people may take some time to adjust to light and visuals. They should first be exposed to low light and then slowly to higher amounts of light. This is done to prevent the retina from damage due to sudden exposure to a huge amount of light after a period of complete darkness. Post treatment, patients should completely follow doctor’s prescription and advices. They should use sun glasses to protect their eyes from the harmful rays and dust particles. Keeping eyes cleaned and seeing green color for a stretch can help in getting better visual capability soon. Also if blindness was caused as a result of any other associated disease, then special care must be taken to prevent recurrence of the disease again.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Blindness from birth can be difficult to cure. But people who go blind due to some other causes or at a later stages of life can be treated and sight can be brought back. Surgical operations and other treatments can cure blindness in less time. Post surgery, people may take around two or three days after which they can start seeing objects with full vision. Their vision improves given time and proper care. Complete recovery may take around a month time.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Treatment of blindness and other eye related problems involve one of the most expensive treatments in the world. A recent breakthrough which is known as genetic treatment to cure blindness will cost a huge amount per patient. In general, surgical operations and treatments cost around Rs 50,000- Rs. 10,00,000.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Mostly, the treatment of blindness is usually permanent. Blindness is now a curable disease if there are no severe complications. People can enhance their vision with improved diet, exercises and care.

Safety: Condition Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Very Low Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs 50,000- Rs 10,00,000/-

Popular Health Tips

Cataract - Factors That Put You At Risk!

MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Noida
Cataract - Factors That Put You At Risk!

Cataract usually affects people who are above 40. It is a blurring of the eye’s lens, which lies at the back of pupil and iris. It is the most usual cause behind the loss of vision for people above 40. Research also states that it is a major cause of blindness in the world.

Types of cataracts:

  1. Subcapsular cataract: People who are diabetic and those are taking high steroids are more prone to subcapsular cataract. In this type, the cataract develops at the back of the lens.
  2. Nuclear cataract: A nuclear cataract is related to aging. It usually affects the central portion of the lens of the eye.
  3. Cortical cataract: It is a white opacity, which begins from the periphery of the lens and spreads up to the center of the lens in a spot-like manner. It usually affects the cortex of the lens.

Symptoms:

  1. In the beginning, cataract affects a small portion of your eye and affects your vision.
  2. Your vision gradually gets blurred.
  3. Too much exposure to the light might cause glare.
  4. In nuclear cataract, you may notice a short-lived improvement of your near vision.
  5. In subcapsular cataract, you cannot notice any symptoms in the initial days.

Cause of cataract:
The lens inside our eyes acts like a camera and it is made of protein and water. The protein helps in keeping the lens clear. But with aging, the protein may start to form a lump, which causes cloudiness in the eye area. With time the cataract spreads all over the lens and creates more cloudiness, which ultimately leads to blindness. The factors which usually trigger cataract are

  1. Age
  2. UV rays from sunlight
  3. Obesity
  4. Hypertension
  5. Smoking
  6. Consumption of high dosage steroids medicines
  7. Statin medicines
  8. History of eye inflammation or any eye injury
  9. History of eye surgery
  10. Too much consumption of alcohol
  11. Hormone replacement therapy
  12. Family history of cataract

Prevention of cataract:
It cannot be guaranteed whether cataract can be prevented or not. A study shows that cataract is caused due to the oxidative changes in the lens of the eye. Nutrition studies have shown that consuming vegetables and fruits, which are high in antioxidants, may help in preventing cataract. Dietary intake of vitamin E, carotenoids lutein, and zeaxanthin from supplements and food items can decrease the risk of developing a cataract. Sunflower seeds, spinach and almonds are good sources of vitamin E. Kale, spinach, other leafy green veggies are the good sources of zeaxanthin and lutein. Food items that contain Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C decrease the chances of cataract.

Last, but not the least, when you step out, always wear a sunglasses, which has the ability to block UV rays. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.

2375 people found this helpful

Age Related Macular Degeneration - How It Affects You?

MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, FRCS
Ophthalmologist, Gurgaon
Age Related Macular Degeneration - How It Affects You?

Age-related macular degeneration, also known in brief as AMD or ARMD is one of the most common age-related causes for vision loss. It causes “blind spots” in vision, causing difficulty in activities requiring central vision like reading, sewing, driving, watching TV, computer usage, etc.

How it happens?

The centre portion of the eye is known as retina which has a screen in the posterior portion. For proper vision, light falls on this screen and is then processed to enable ‘vision.’ When this screen is not clear, blurred vision results. It may not cause total blindness but impairs vision including double vision and loss of central vision.

Types: There are two types of AMD, wet and dry.

  1. Dry: There are yellow deposits known as drusen which form in the macula, and as they grow in size, they impair vision, specifically the central vision. This is the common variant and can lead to the wet form.
  2. Wet: There are abnormal blood vessels which are formed in the retina. There is leaking of blood and fluid which makes it ‘wet.’ There could be scarring of these leaked substances, which again leads to loss of central vision. Further studies have shown that retina produces a protein knows as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which promotes the generation of new blood vessels, normally required for the production of new blood vessels. However, increased VEGF causes excessive proliferation of blood vessels, leading to macular degeneration.

Risk factors: Though age related, there are definitely some factors which put one at a higher risk for AMD

  1. Genetics: AMD is hereditary and runs in families
  2. Gender: Females are more prone to develop AMD than males
  3. Ageing: People above 60 are at greater risk
  4. Smoking: Direct and passive smoking contribute to AMD.
  5. Obesity: Accelerates the pace of AMD and severity of complications.
  6. Hypertension: Increases the chances of developing AMD
  7. Ethnicity: Caucasians are more prone to develop AMD as their lighter skin and eye color is more prone to sun damage
  8. Sun exposure: Increased sun exposure accelerates the onset of AMD

Symptoms:

  1. No symptoms in the initial stages
  2. Gradually, there is impaired central vision, affecting activities like reading, driving, and computer usage
  3. Color perception is impaired

Diagnosis:

  1. A routine eye exam will reveal the yellow deposits which actually cause the condition.
  2. An angiography may be done after injecting a dye to detect blood vessel growth.

Treatment:

There is no cure, but progress can be delayed

  1. Anti-angiotensin agents reduce pressure in the eyes and stop development of newer blood vessels
  2. Vitamins help slow down loss of vision
  3. Vision aids to correct vision. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.
3505 people found this helpful

Usher Syndrome - Things You Must Know!

MBBS, MS - ENT ( Gold Medalist Honors )
ENT Specialist, Gurgaon
Usher Syndrome - Things You Must Know!

Usher syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by complications in vision and hearing; the most common of them being partial/complete loss of hearing and retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by progressive deterioration of the retina, resulting in deprivation of peripheral vision and subsequent night blindness.

The symptoms and its rate of progression usually vary among people. Usher syndrome is classified into three types:

  • Type 1: In this type, children are born with balance issues and hearing loss problems. The symptoms of night blindness and loss of peripheral vision associated with ‘Retinitis Pigmentosa’ only appear in the early stages of adolescence.
  • Type 2: In type 2, children are born with moderate to mild hearing loss problems. Retinitis Pigmentosa develops soon after the child reaches adolescence.
  • Type 3: In type 3 Usher Syndrome, children are usually born with normal hearing skills, however, loss of hearing and Retinitis pigmentosa occur soon after puberty.

Causes
Hearing loss in Usher syndrome occurs when the nerve cells that are present in the cochlear (inner ear’s spiral cavity) are affected by genetic mutation. A similar problem occurs in the cells of the retina leading to loss of vision. These cells allow conversion of light into electrical signals for the brain to interpret them. Both the parents need to pass the mutated gene to the child for it to be affected. If the child has only one gene, then he/she rarely develops the symptoms.

Treatment
This disorder does not have any prescribed course of treatments. The vision loss that occurs in this disorder can be slowed down by nutritional therapy. This therapy involves providing the body with essential amounts of vitamin A which can help in reducing vision loss. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ent Specialist.

2807 people found this helpful

6 Common Retinal Diseases

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Diploma in Ophthalmology , Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Ahmedabad
6 Common Retinal Diseases

The retina is the third and innermost layer of the eye that catches light and helps us focus on things so that we can see clearly. This is one of the most important parts of the eye. The retina is made up of a number of light sensitive cells that are connected to nerve fibres. These nerve fibres help in transmitting the light into imagery through neuro impulses that reach the brain. There are many conditions and diseases that can affect this part of the eye.

Read on to know more.

  1. Macular degeneration: This is a common eye disease that is usually associated with aging and comes with symptoms like blurry vision and even blindness after a certain point. It can prevent a person from seeing things in a clear and sharp manner. This disease goes through a slow progression and can be of the dry or wet type.
  2. Diabetic retinopathy: This condition can leave one visually impaired in the long run with complete blindness. This complication usually arises when a person is suffering from diabetes. It can be proliferative or non-proliferative depending on the blood and fluid leakage as well as the severity of the inflammation in the retina. While the symptoms are very subtle, the advancement can begin at a very young age.
  3. Retinal vein occlusion: This condition usually happens when the veins of the retina gets obstructed or gets a blockage. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the entire area which can lead to significant vision impairment and an increase in the pressure on the eyes.
  4. Retinal tears and detachments: When the retina gets pulled and is subsequently lifted from its normal position, this can lead to a condition known as retinal tears and detachment. If this condition is not treated properly and on time, it can lead to vision loss in the long run. These tears can happen in smaller sections of the retina which can lead to retinal breaks causing detachments in the retina. This condition is most commonly seen in people over the age of 60.
  5. Posterior vitreous detachment: The vitreous is a gel like layer that allows the eye to retain its shape even as it allows the light to enter the eye and reach the retina. When the thin fibres connecting this layer and the retina get degenerated, there is a detachment that takes place between the two, leading to this condition.
  6. Epiretinal membrane and macular holes: The scar like tissue known as the epiretinal membrane that lines the back of the eyes. When the macular tissue gets distorted due to this membrane, a macular hole may form which can lead to progressive vision impairment.
4 people found this helpful

Bloodshot Eyes - Causes, Symptoms and Complications

MBBS, MS
Ophthalmologist, Navi Mumbai
Bloodshot Eyes - Causes, Symptoms and Complications

Bloodshot eyes indicate the reddening of the eye vessels. They can cause irritation and make the eye swollen. The condition may arise due to allergies, eye infections, allergies, fatigue and other illness of the eye. It does not signify a disease but indicates an eye condition which might have caused the eye to redden. Bloodshot eyes can be encountered in one or both the eyes.

Causes of Bloodshot Eyes:

One of the frequent causes of bloodshot eyes is irritants such as dry air, pollen, pet dander, dust and UV rays of the sun. Shortage of sleep also tends to make the eyes red. Inflammations of the eye can also make them red giving a bloodshot appearance. It can even happen with people who wear contact lens for more than 16 hours without soaking it in the disinfectant. At times excessive dryness can make the eyes red. Some other reasons for the eye to become red include conjunctivitis, blepharitis, glaucoma and corneal ulcer. Another concerning reason of bloodshot eyes is a subconjunctival haemorrhage. While the latter is not dangerous in nature, it can cause significant trouble if proper care is not taken on time.

Symptoms of Red Eyes:

Some of the common signs of bloodshot eyes include watery eyes, foreign sensation, burning feeling, dermatitis, falling of eye lashes, light sensitivity, swollen eyelid, itching of the eye and feeling of irritation of the eye.

The Complications Involved:

In most of the cases, bloodshot eyes do not imply serious complications. In case it happens from conjunctivitis, a person may not be able to go to work, wear cosmetics and come in public places since it is a communicable disease. If bloodshot eyes arise from a serious condition such as glaucoma and trauma, some of the possible complications may involve the following:

  1. Eye scarring

  2. Vision loss due to complete blindness

  3. Spreading of the existing condition to other persons

  4. Eye loss in severe cases

Preventive Measures:

Bloodshot eyes might arise from an array of reasons. While it cannot be totally dodged, some general preventive measures can ensure that such a condition does not arise:

  1. Keeping hands clean by thoroughly washing them with liquid soap

  2. Not sharing personal belongings such as washcloths, linen, and cosmetics

  3. Get immediate medical attention in case of any eye injuries

  4. Stay away from an environment that is full of allergens

  5. Staying away from people who are suffering from infectious eye diseases such as conjunctivitis

  6. Taking a shower immediately after getting in touch with an infected person suffering from conjunctivitis

  7. Wearing eye glasses in a dusty environment

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.

3385 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Sir my friend suffering from retinal pigmentosa he wants to know at what age he will be almost blind did you saw any of retinal pigmentosa patients can able to maintain their vision is all retinal pigmentosa patients are same or they are different from losing their vision early can he can able to maintain vision upto 60 years of age is it possible please give advice how to maintain the vision.

Fellowship In Comprehensive Ophthalmology, DOMS
Ophthalmologist, Sangrur
Hello 1. Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive disease 2. Speed of progression varies from person to person. I have seen patients going bling at young age of 30 years and I have seen patients having good vision even at age of 50 yrs. So, you can go for 6 months perimetry test and that will guide you the rate of progression.
1 person found this helpful

Suffered from adenoviral conjunctivitis of both eyes one and half year ago initially used moxi DM for three weeks with tapering dose got relief to redness but spk's still remained on cornea due to which suffering from impaired vision and blindness is this state curable or have to live with it.

Fellowship in Vitreoretinal Surgery, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Panipat
If the problem is too much you can consult a cornea specialist for some better treatment options as the spots due to acanthamoeba keratitis does`t generally impair vision to that extent.U have to live with it.
1 person found this helpful

Meri aunti ka 5 saal pehle operation hua tha, 6 months pehle ek aankh se or ab dono aankh se dikhai (blindness) nahi de Raha h .kya reason ho skta h.

PGDHHM, MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Get her checked by ophthalmologist as common causes are cataract, retinal problems, diabetic complications, glaucoma etc.

Treatment for colour blindness as I am red green colour blind and my mother and father are not colour blind so it can be cured with in a month because I have medical issue to be done right till june first week.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
A range of conditions exists where those who develop them are faced with a gradual loss of vision until their impairment is so severe that they are effectively blind. Retinal degeneration disorders have no cure.Curing color blindness is currently impossible. ... To cure this color blindness would require some form of gene therapy, repairing the damaged chromosome. However even this is only educated circumspection, there is no scientific method available at present that shows any signs of promise of a cure for color blindness.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Amblyopia and Childhood Blindness
Treatment for Amblyopia (lazy eye)

Hi. My name is Dr. Chandrashekhar Kale. I'm a pediatric Ophthalmologist and I'll be talking about Amblyopia and Childhood Blindness.

So when we say about pediatric ophthalmology the most common thing that comes to our mind is Bariatric Cataract and squint but if we look at the most common cause of preventable blindness in children then it's definitely Amblyopia or what we call as a lazy eye. Now Amblyopia is a Neurosensory disorder, that means your eye and brain both the things are involved. It's a condition in which vision in one of the eyes is less because of any focusing problems in your eye which occurred in your early childhood period. Now, this can be due to ocular misalignment which is called as squint or hindrance to light which enters the eye because of ptosis or cataract or can be simple refractive errors, especially the higher refractive errors. Usually Amblyopia is more commonly seen in one eye and hence is very difficult to detect because when the child sees, he sees with both the eyes open so if one eye has got a poor vision and another eye is good, the child will not be able to identify that he is not able to see with one eye unless he closes one of the eyes. So here comes the importance of early screening of the eyes.

As far as the treatment of Amblyopia is concerned, it is mostly treating the pre-depositing factors like squint or cataract where it's a surgical intervention or you can do a simple refractive error check up and glasses prescription. One of the most important factors for Amblyopia management is the exercises for lazy eye. The most common is the patching exercises where in you close the good eye and the child is forced to see from the poor eye. The principle behind this is once the child sees from the poor eye for a period of time your brain will get accustomed to see through the poor eye and gradually over a period of time visual improvement occurs in the eye. The only thing here is that the exercises, as well as the treatment, has to start before 8yrs of an age where in you can expect a complete recovery of the vision. Here, at our institute, we have a special device or software called the Vision Therapy software which is aimed for the improvement of vision in your Amblyopic eye.

This is basically a computer generated device where in some exercises are given via computers. Now since this is given by computer and designed in form of some small games the compliance in a child is much better as compared to the regular patching exercises. So, definitely, the visual improvement is much faster with this new computer generated exercises. So in a nutshell what I would like to say is that Amblyopia is definitely preventable, especially if you diagnose it at an early stage. We need more awareness regarding this condition, in the parents, in the public, also in the pediatrician so that the child gets his first eye check up as early as possible, preferably by three yrs of age. This is what I wanted to say about Amblyopia and treatment of lazy eye in a nut shell.

For further details, you can contact us at lybrate.com. Thank You.
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