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Kidney Stones - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

A kidney stone is a crystalline and hard mineral material that gets formed within the kidney or in our urinary track. Kidney stones are a common cause of hematuria (blood in urine) and often cause severe pain in the abdomen, groin or in the flank. Kidney stones are also sometimes called renal calculi.

The condition of having a stone or multiple stones in the kidney is known as nephrolithiasis. However, having stones in other locations in the urinary track is known as urolithiasis. Any person can develop this disease, but people with certain diseases and conditions or people who take certain medications like calcium-containing antacids, diuretics and protease inhibitors are more susceptible to this disease.

This illness is more common in men than in women.

Urinary stones, mostly develop in patients who are between 20-49 years and people who have suffered more than one attack of this illness are always prone to further stone development. Kidney stones are more common in residents of industrialized countries than bladder stones. Opposite of the same proves to be true for residents of the developing world, where stone in the bladder is most common. It is believed that dietary factors play a major role in creating this difference. Over the last few decades, it has been observed that incidents of developing kidney stones have increased, which is more likely related to the obesity epidemic around the globe.

People with chronically elevated uric acid levels are also more prone to the formation of uric acid related kidney stones. Pregnant women, though the numbers are few, at times develop kidney stones. Factors that may contribute to kidney stone formation during pregnancy includes a slowing of the passage of urine, due to decreasing bladder capacity because of the her enlarged uterus and increase in the progesterone levels in her body.

Often dehydration from reduced fluid intake, over time, leads to the formation of kidney stones.

Diagnosis of kidney stones is a controversial procedure. Usually to confirm the diagnosis of this illness, imaging tests are performed on the patients. In case of medical emergency non-contrast CT scans are done on the patients, since this can be done rapidly and it helps to rule out other causes for flank and abdominal pain.

However, in the recent times, as it is believed that CT scan exposes the patients to significantly more radiation, ultrasound scans along with plain abdominal X-ray is used for diagnosing kidney stones. When patients are put on medication, it has been observed that small stones pass out naturally through the urine. However, for larger stones (beyond 9-10mm) lithotripsy is done to break up the larger stones into small pieces, with the help of shock waves, so that they can pass out through the urinary system.

Can't be cured Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Non communicable
Sudden excruciating pain and cramp in lower back region or in the groin and abdomen. Nausea and vomiting. At times bloody urine. Fever and chills. Difficulty in urinating along with testicular or penile pain.

Popular Health Tips

How To Get Rid Of Kidney Stones?

Dr. Abhinav Agarwal 87% (55 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. (General Surgery), MBA (Healthcare), M.Ch - Urology/Genito-Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Gurgaon
How To Get Rid Of Kidney Stones?
A kidney stone may not be as big as the stones in your garden, but can be quite a pain. Kidney stones are actually mineral crystals that are usually a combination of calcium and phosphates. The size of a kidney stone ranges from the size of a sugar crystal to a ping pong ball. While some kidney stones pass out of the body along with urine, others can block the ureter and become painful. In addition to being painful, a kidney stone can cause permanent damage to your kidneys. Since large kidney stones are usually painful, they rarely go undiagnosed. However, if a kidney stone is left untreated, it could cause the kidney to atrophy and lower the functionality of the kidney. Kidney stones that are related to an infection can also lead to chronic urinary tract infections and damage the kidney through scarring and inflammation. This could eventually lead to kidney failure. Not all kidney stones need to be treated with surgery. If the kidney stone is very small, your doctor may prescribe plenty of water and medication to treat the pain. With plenty of water, you should be able to pass the stone in your urine. Ideally, you should take plenty of rest until the stone is passed. Larger kidney stones may need you to be hospitalized for treatment. These are: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): To begin this of treatment, a painkiller is administered. Ultrasonic waves are used to determine the location of the kidney stone. Shock waves are then passed through the kidney stone to break it into smaller pieces, which can then pass out of the body through urine. Ureteroscopy: This is also called retrograde intrarenal surgery and is performed when the kidney stone is stuck in the ureter. A ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and bladder into the ureter. Laser energy may then be used to break the stone into smaller pieces to unblock the ureter. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL): This surgery is performed under general anesthesia. It involves a small incision being made in the back and a nephroscope passed into the kidney through it. Laser or pneumatic energy is then used to break up the stone into smaller pieces and pull them out. Open surgery: Open surgery is performed only in the case of an abnormally large stone or abnormal anatomy of the person. An incision is made in the back that allows the doctor to access the kidney and manually remove the stone.

Renal Colic - How It Can Be Treated?

Dr. Mukesh Shah 89% (55 ratings)
DNB - Urology/Genito - Urinary Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Urologist, Mumbai
Renal Colic - How It Can Be Treated?
Our kidneys act as filters which constantly flushes out toxins and excess minerals with water in form of urine. Urine contains lots of minerals which may precipitate and form stones. Urine has lots of pro-precipitating agents and anti-precipitating agents. When their balance disturbs due to some disease, stones start forming. These stones may often lead to abdominal pain which is referred to as renal colic. What exactly is renal colic? Renal or ureteric colic is the term used for typical pain in one side of abdomen in flank region starting from back and radiating forward towards lower abdomen up to scrotum. This is usually associated with nausea, vomiting and urinary discomfort. There may be blood in urine. How kidney stones are related to renal colic? Kidney stones usually form inside kidney and lies there without causing any pain. But whenever they are dislodged and stuck at mouth of kidney (pelvis) or anywhere in ureter, they block the passage of urine of that kidney. This causes swelling in kidney termed as hydronephrosis. This swelling in kidney causes renal / ureteric colic. This colic is protective phenomenon and tries to push out the stones. Small stones do come out in urine by this natural process. This spontaneous expulsion of small stones is common and many local practitioners used to get credit of it feigning benefit of their medicine. However large stones need some form of intervention to come out. Otherwise, they do harm to kidneys in long term. Symptoms of kidney stones along with renal /ureteric colic - Most stones which are lying in calyces of kidney are asymptomatic Nausea & vomiting Frequent urinary tract infections Fever with chills Foul smelling urine Hesitency, frequency and burning in urination Blood in urine (urine with a reddish, pink or brownish hue) Passage of small stones in urine Treatment of renal colic Treatment of ureteric/renal stones involves control of symptoms and stone removal. Expectant Treatment or Medical Expulsion Therapy: Small stones of less than 4 mm size usually pass on its own and some medicines like alpha-blockers and steroid hasten up their expulsion. Medium size stone (4-6 mm), sometimes passes with aid of these medications. But stones larger than 6 mm usually require intervention. Lithotripsy: This method involves breaking of stones by shock waves into small dusty particles which pass through urine on its own. This is usually suitable for stones upto 1.5 cm and lying in kidneys. This is non-operative treatment which can be done on OPD or Daycare basis. Ureteroscopy (URS): This method involves entry of very thin semirigid scope through urethra into ureter. Stone is broken by LASER and removed. This involves single day admission and spinal anaesthesia. RIRS- Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery: In this method very thin flexible scope in maneuvered through urethra into the upper ureter and pelvi-calyceal system of kidney. Stones in kidney or upper ureter are broken by LASER and removed. This is also done under anaesthesia and requires a day admission. Mini- PCNL: This method is suitable for large renal stones. In this technique, a small hole is made into the kidney through back and tiny scope is entered into the kidney. Stones are broken by LASER and removed. This is done under anaesthesia and require two to three days admission.
2602 people found this helpful

Kidney Stones - 3 Best Ways You Can Manage Your Condition!

Dr. Gajanan Manamwar 92% (2632 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Pune
Kidney Stones - 3 Best Ways You Can Manage Your Condition!
Kidney stones is a disorder of the urinary tract wherein stones form in the kidney. This happens when solid particles in the urine become concentrated; the solid particles mostly being acid and mineral salts. This disorder can affect any part of the urinary tract: from the bladder to the kidneys. The treatment for this disorder is designed depending on the severity of your symptoms. Symptoms Once affected by this disorder, pain in the lower abdominal region will be common. The pain may get aggravated when you urinate. You may also exhibit symptoms of vomiting, nausea and a constant urge to urinate. Hematuria (presence of blood in the urine) is another symptom common to this disorder. Causes There is no single known cause for kidney stones. These stones occur when certain solid particles such as uric acid and calcium are present in the urine in large amounts. However, certain factors that increase the risk of kidney stones are: Family history of kidney stones Lack of sufficient water in the body or dehydration Eating foods which are loaded with sugar and salts Obesity Ayurvedic treatment Ayurvedic remedies for kidney stones are natural and free from side effects. Apart from relieving the symptoms, they also help in improving your overall well-being. These remedies balance the various doshas in the body and thus, lead to improved functioning of the abdominal organs. The Ayurvedic remedies for kidney stones are Stay hydrated: Staying hydrated is the basic you can do to either prevent kidney stones or treating the condition. Dehydration is one of the most important causes for the formation of kidney stones. Avoid certain foods: You need to avoid consumption of certain foods such as apples, tomatoes and cheese which increase the risks of kidney stones. Exercise on a regular basis: You need to chalk down and stick to an exercise regimen to keep your weight at optimal levels. Remember that obesity is a major contributor to kidney stones.
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Kidney Stones - Can They Be Effectively Treated Using Homeopathy?

BHMS, MD - Homeopathy, Post Graduate Diploma In Emergency Services (PGDEMS)
Homeopath, Indore
Kidney Stones - Can They Be Effectively Treated Using Homeopathy?
The kidney is a vital organ that regulates the levels of fluids, minerals, salts, and other such substances in our body and when this balance gets disrupted, it results in the formation of Kidney stones. This problem is medically known as Nephrolithiasis and can cause pain when the stone moves about the urinary tract. Types of Kidney Stones There are several types of kidney stones and knowing the same can help in determining the cause and offer a valuable insight into how to get rid of them. The common variants of kidney stones are: Calcium stones- This is the most common type of kidney stones which are usually found in the form of calcium oxalate. It is a natural substance available in foods and also produced daily by the liver. Certain fruits, nuts, vegetables, and chocolate have high oxalate content. High doses of vitamin D, metabolic disorders, and intestinal bypass surgery can increase the concentration in the urine. Struvite stones- This type of kidney stones form in response to infection, and they can grow fast and become large in size within a short span of time with few or no symptoms. Cysteine stones- When a person has a hereditary disorder causing the kidneys to give out too much of amino acids or cystinuria, then cysteine stones start forming. Uric acid stones- When a person does not drink enough amount of water or lose too much fluid or eat a high amount of protein on a regular basis then he or she may have uric acid stones. Causes and Risk Factors Kidney stones tend to have no definite or a particular cause even though numerous risk factors can surge the risks. Kidney stones are formed when the urine contains an excessive amount of crystal-forming substances including uric acid, oxalate, and calcium. Also, when urine lacks the crucial substances which may prevent the crystals from sticking together, the formation of kidney stones can occur. A person with a family history of this problem is likely to have kidney stones. Other risk factors include dehydration, certain diets, obesity, digestive diseases, surgeries, and other medical conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, and hyperparathyroidism. Lifestyle changes recommended to improve the situation Lifestyle changes can indeed dramatically reduce the occurrence of kidney stones. Drinking more fluids can reduce the recurrence of stones by 40% and risk is reduced by 80%. Also, the urinary system is healthy and is flushed out of toxic chemicals. Follow a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Reduce salt, sugar, and animal protein. Limit the consumption of foods with high oxalate content. If you have calcium oxalate stones restrict foods rich in oxalates like beets, okra, spinach, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate, black pepper and soy products. How Homoeopathy is beneficial to break down Kidney stones? Although Kidney stones are considered a case of surgery, but with Homoeopathic medicines we can break down and dissolve Kidney stones and help to pass the dissolved stone without surgical intervention. Not only does Homoeopathy treat Kidney stones, it also has shown remarkable results in treating the recurrent tendency towards formation of kidney stones. Homoeopathic medicines beneficial to treat kidney stones are: Lycopodium, Berberis.vulgaris, Sarsaparilla, Cantharis and Hydrangea to name a few. These medicines should be taken under the guidance of a qualified Homoeopath.
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E R E C T Pnemonic for High Blood Pressure Causes

Dr. Amit Sinkar 91% (10 ratings)
DNB (Cardiology), DNB (General Medicine), MBBS
Cardiologist, Pune
E R E C T Pnemonic for High Blood Pressure Causes
E R E C T Pnemonic for High Blood Pressure Causes E R E C T is simple pnemonic to know causes for High blood pressure. E - stands for Essential Hypertension which means it has no cause and is found in 85% of people R - stands for Renal/Kidney related cause for hypertension like kidney stones, kidney failure etc E - stands for Endocrine causes for hypertension like Tumurs of Adrenal gland situated just above kidneys or excess consumption of steroids or oral contraceptives C - stands for Coarctation of aorta a birth defect in aorta which is major blood vessel coming out of heart which needs correction T - stands Toxemia of pregnancy which happens during second or third trimester of pregnancy Except for Essential hypertension all other causes are for hypertension are curable that means Hypertension also in these patients are curable, hence look for these secondary causes

Popular Questions & Answers

I have two stone in Lt kidney. One is 10 mm in upper calyx and 2nd is 3.6 mm in lower calyx .plz give suggestion to treat.

Dr. Jamal Akhtar Azmi 90% (49 ratings)
MCh [Urology]
Urologist, Mumbai
For Kidney Stone Treatment depends upon Size Site Number Hounsefield unit Status of Kidney Present or absence of infection Options available are Dj stenting with ESWL RIRS PCNL I will prefer stenting with Eswl for your size Kidney STONE in upper calyx.
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I have two stone in Lt kidney. One is 10 mm in upper calyx and 2 and is 3.6 mm in lower calyx with no hydronephrosis. please give suggestion to remove them from kidney.

Dr. Bhavin Dhamsaniya 89% (16 ratings)
BHMS, Diploma In Naturopathy & Yogic Science (DNYS)
Homeopath, Rajkot
Homeopathy can completely cure this tendency towards recurrent kidney stones. Homeopathic medicines, along with proper diet management, yield positive long-term results. In such cases, Homeopathic medicines are selected after an in-depth analysis and study of symptoms involved. Only one best medicine can campletely cure stone from following medicine Homeopathic Medicines for Kidney Stones Berberis Vulgaris and Hedeoma Pulegioides – Well indicated Homeopathic medicines for kidney stones of left side –Berberis Vulgaris is one of the top listed Homeopathic medicines for kidney stones formed on the left side. A unique symptom guiding use of Berberis Vulgaris is pain in left kidney that radiates down the ureter and into the urinary bladder. The pain can be shooting, stitching, cutting or stinging in nature. The pain may worsen from motion or jarring movement. Urine may be yellow and may contain slimy sediments. The kidney region is also sensitive to touch. Hedeoma Pulegioides is another well indicated Homeopathic medicine for kidney stone of the left side. The guiding feature for using Hedeoma is dragging pain from the left kidney to ureter. In some cases, burning pain may be present in the left kidney. A frequent desire to urinate is also observed. Red sand in the urine may be found. Lycopodium Clavatum – Effective Homeopathic medicine for kidney stone of right side – Lycopodium Clavatum is an excellent choice of Homeopathic medicine for treating kidney stones of the right side. The person needing Lycopodium Clavatum has pain in the right kidney or right ureter. The pain worsens before urination. Urine is scanty. The kidney pain subsides after passing urine. Red sediments may appear in urine. In some cases, the urine may be purulent, turbid, or pale. Hydrangea Arborescens – Wonderful Homeopathic medicine for kidney stone with white or yellow sand in urine – Homeopathic medicine Hydrangea Arborescens is popularly known as the stone breaker. Hydrangea Arborescens is used to crush kidney stones, stones in ureter as well as bladder. A significant symptom to look out for is white deposits or yellow sand in urine. If one notices white or yellow sand deposits, then Hydrangea Arborescens is the sure shot cure. Soreness in kidney region may also be felt in such cases. In some cases, blood may appear in urine. Can notharis Vesicatoria – Homeopathic medicine for kidney stone with burning urination Homeopathic medicine Can notharis Vesicatoria is of great help in kidney stone where there is intense burning on passing urine. The burning may also be present before urine is passed and may continue after urination. Another attending feature is kidney pain with frequent urge to pass urine. Tenesmus of bladder may also be marked where the urge to pass urine is almost constant, together with unsatisfactory urination. Urine may contain jelly-like mucus. Sarsaparilla Officinalis – Wonder medicine for kidney stone with burning at close of urination In case of kidney stone with excessive burning at the close of urination, Sarsaparilla Officinalis is the Homeopathic medicine that you can count on. Urine passed is scanty. Urine may contain slimy or sandy particles. Sarsaparilla Officinalis is also prescribed for right-sided kidney stones. Ocimum Can and Tabacum – Homeopathic medicines for kidney stones when pain is attended with nausea/vomiting For kidney stones with pain attended with nausea/vomiting, Homeopathic medicines Ocimum Can and Tabacum benefit most. Homeopathic medicine Ocimum Can shows remarkable results in kidney stone of the right side with nausea or vomiting while Homeopathic medicine Tabacum is indicated for left-sided kidney stone with nausea or vomiting. Other features to look out for before prescribing Ocimum Can are red/saffron coloured urine, bladder tenesmus, burning on urinating and restlessness. Some accompanying symptoms that will decide on Tabacum as the best Homeopathic medicine are – sensitive renal region, yellow-red urine and cold sweat. Pareira Brava – Best Homeopathic medicines for kidney stones when pain from kidney radiates to thigh – Pareira Brava is a valuable Homeopathic medicine for kidney stone, especially in cases where pain from the kidney radiates down the thigh. In some cases, the pain may radiate down to the feet from the kidney region. There is also a constant urge to urinate. Urine is passed with marked pain. In men, pain may also be felt in glans penis while urinating. Red sand or stingy mucus may be observed in the urine. Lifestyle changes play a significant role in managing as well as preventing kidney stone complaints. Some minor changes that may help are: Increase of fluid intake. Lemon juice could be included In case of kidney stones with high uric acid levels, dietary products such as meat and seafood which are rich in purines should be avoided In case of calcium oxalate kidney stones, spinach, chocolates, nuts and rhubarb should be avoided Fill the Comment Form below -You can write about your problem To Dr. Bhavin and receive a reply on How Homeopathy can help in treating your illness.
1 person found this helpful

I am 39 old male with sticky stool, dysentery from 5 days, test reports fat globules present, this along with 4 mm calculi in right kidney, kindly guide.

Dr. Manish Satsangi 87% (33 ratings)
Sticky stools or steatorrhoea is found in disorders with poor fat metabolism or fat absorption, some specific kinds of sprue or gut infections, 4 mm kidney stones is a manageable entity ,location of stone is more important as with urgency of treatment. Get stool test done asap, culture too, with LFT/ser iron studies /tsh t3 t4, meet a doctor for that.
1 person found this helpful

Hi I am having kidney stone of size 9.2 mm in right and 5 mm in left .can it be cured using ESWL process and at the same time or in different time since its in both kidney.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 96% (4870 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* Only 9.2 mm stone requires ESWL.* 5 mm stone does not require ESWL. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
1 person found this helpful

I have two stone in left kidney one is 10 mm in upper calyx and 2nd is 3.6 mm in lower calyx with no hydronephrosis. please give good suggestion. I have mild pain below ribs in left side.

General Surgeon, Vijayawada
Hello any urinary stone larger than 5 mm usually requires intervention for removal, there are several methods of removal like ESWL, PCNL etc so visit a urologist and proceed accordingly just leave a positive feedback if helpful.
1 person found this helpful

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