Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
The uterus or womb, is a muscular structure and is held in place by ligaments and pelvic muscles. If these muscles or tendons become weak, they cause prolapse and are no longer able to hold the uterus in its place.
Uterine prolapse happens when the uterus falls or slips from its ordinary position and into the vagina or birth waterway. It could be complete prolapse or even incomplete at times. A incomplete prolapse happens when the uterus is just hanging into the vagina. A complete prolapse depicts a circumstance in which the uterus falls so far down that some tissue rests outside of the vagina. Likewise, as a lady ages and with a loss of the hormone estrogen, her uterus can drop into the vaginal canal. This condition is known as a prolapsed uterus.
Causes of Prolapse: The risks of this condition are many and have been enumerated as follows:
- Complicated delivery during pregnancy
- Weak pelvic muscle
- Loss of tissue after menopause and loss of common estrogen
- Expanded weight in the stomach area, for example, endless cough, constipation, pelvic tumors or accumulation of liquid in the guts
- Being overweight
- Obesity causing extra strain on the muscles
- Real surgery in the pelvic zone
Symptoms: Some of the most common symptoms of prolapse involve:
- Feeling of sitting on a ball
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- Increase in discharge
- Problems while performing sexual intercourse
- Seeing the uterus coming out of the vagina
- A pulling or full feeling in the pelvis
- Bladder infections
Nonsurgical medications include:
- Losing weight and getting in shape to take stress off of pelvic structures
- Maintaining a distance from truly difficult work
- Doing Kegel workouts, which are pelvic floor practices that strengthen the vaginal muscles. This can be done at any time, even while sitting down at a desk.
- Taking estrogen treatment especially during menopause
- Wearing a pessary, which is a gadget embedded into the vagina that fits under the cervix and pushes up to settle the uterus and cervix
- Indulging in normal physical activity
Some specialists use the following methods to diagnose the problem:
- The specialist will examine you in standing position keeping in mind you are resting and request that you to cough or strain to build the weight in your abdomen.
- Particular conditions, for example, ureteral block because of complete prolapse, may require an intravenous pyelogram (IVP) or renal sonography. Color is infused into your vein, and an X-ray is used to view the flow of color through your urinary bladder.
- An ultrasound might be utilised to rule out any other existing pelvic issues. In this test, a wand is used on your stomach area or embedded into your vagina to create images of the internal organ with sound waves.
If you have mild uterine prolapse, either without symptoms or with symptoms that don't bother you, you probably don't need treatment. However, your pelvic floor may continue to lose tone, making uterine prolapse more severe as time goes on. Check with your doctor to monitor the extent of your prolapse and review your symptoms.
For advanced cases of uterine prolapse, treatment options include:
- Vaginal pessary. This device fits inside your vagina and holds your uterus in place. Used as temporary or permanent treatment, vaginal pessaries come in many shapes and sizes. Your doctor measures and fits you for the proper device. You'll learn how to insert, remove and clean the pessary. A pessary also can irritate vaginal tissues, possibly to the point of causing sores (ulcers) on vaginal tissues, and it may interfere with sexual intercourse.
- Surgery. To repair damaged or weakened pelvic floor tissues, your surgeon may perform the procedure through your vagina, although sometimes an abdominal surgery is needed. Surgical repair of your prolapse may involve grafting your own tissue, donor tissue or some synthetic material onto weakened pelvic floor structures to support your pelvic organs. Your surgeon may recommend a hysterectomy, which removes your uterus. In some cases, minimally invasive (laparoscopic) surgery is a possibility. This procedure involves smaller abdominal incisions, special surgical instruments and a lighted camera-type device (laparoscope) to guide the surgeon. Which surgery and surgical approach the doctor recommends depends on your individual needs and circumstances. Each procedure has pros and cons that you'll need to discuss with your surgeon.
If you plan future pregnancies, you might not be a good candidate for surgery to repair uterine prolapse. Pregnancy and delivery of a baby put strain on the supportive tissues of the uterus and can undo the benefits of surgical repair. Also, for women with major medical problems, the causes of surgery might outweigh the benefits. In these instances, pessary use may be your best treatment choice for bothersome symptoms. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
A blood clot (also called a thrombosis) is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid.
The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. This can cause damage to body organs and even death.
Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help save both you and your baby.
If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup (before pregnancy) or at your first prenatal care checkup. Also tell your provider if someone in your family (your parent or a brother or sister) has had problems with blood clots. This means the condition may run in your family.
What problems can blood clots cause during pregnancy?
If you have a blood clot or a kind of thrombophilia called antiphospholipid syndrome (also called APS), you may be more likely to have complications that can affect your health and your baby’s health, including:
- Blood clots in the placenta. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. A blood clot in the placenta can stop blood flow to your baby and harm your baby.
- Heart attack. This usually happens when a blood clot blocks blood and oxygen flow to the heart. Without blood and oxygen, the heart can’t pump blood well, and the affected heart muscle can die. A heart attack can lead to lasting heart damage or death.
- Intauterine growth restriction (also called IUGR). This is when your baby grows poorly in the womb.
- Miscarriage. A miscarriage is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Placental insufficiency. This is when the placenta doesn’t work as well as it should so your baby gets less food and oxygen.
- Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Some of these signs include having protein in the urine, changes in vision, and severe headache.
- Premature birth. This is when your baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
- Pulmonary embolism (also called PE). An embolism is a blood clot that moves from where it formed to another place in the body. When the clot moves to a lung, it’s a PE. PE can cause low oxygen levels in your blood and damage your body organs. It’s an emergency and a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms of PE may include:
- Trouble breathing
- Fast or irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain
- Feeling anxious
- Coughing up blood
- Stillbirth. This is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Stroke. This happens when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that brings blood to the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts open. Pregnancy and childbirth cause strokes in about 8 in 100,000 women. Stroke can cause lasting damage to the body or death.
- Thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel and blocks blood flow. It most often happens in the deep veins of the legs but can be in other places of the body:
How are these conditions treated?
Your provider may use tests like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (also called MRI) to find out if you have a blot clot or clotting conditions. Ultrasound uses sound waves and a computer screen to show a picture of your baby inside the womb. MRI is a medical test that makes a detailed picture of the inside of your body. These tests are painless and safe for you and your baby.
If you are pregnant and have a clotting condition, you may need to go for prenatal care checkups more often than women who don’t have these blood clot conditions. At these visits, your provider checks your blood pressure and can use other tests, like blood tests, to monitor your health.
Your gynaecologist also checks your baby’s health in the womb using tests like:
- Ultrasound to check your baby’s growth and development. She may use a special kind of ultrasound called Doppler to check your baby’s blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord connects your baby to the placenta. It carries food and oxygen from the placenta to the baby.
- Fetal heart rate monitoring (also called a nonstress test or NST). This test checks your baby’s heart rate in the womb and sees how the heart rate changes when your baby moves. Your provider uses this test to make sure your baby’s getting enough oxygen.
A blood clot occurs when your body sends cells, called platelets, to interrupt the stream of blood. Typically, this happens when you have a cut, to keep the damage from draining consistently. During pregnancy, your blood will probably cluster as a defense mechanism against losing an excess amount of blood during the process.
Signs and Symptoms
Women have a tendency to be more sensitive and risk-prone of potential difficulties while they are pregnant. Despite the fact that blood clots are far-fetched, there are a couple of signs that can demonstrate the possibility of a blood clot. These include:
- Swelling or pain in one leg
- Pain that increases when you walk
- Veins that look bigger or more swollen than usual
Different components that can additionally raise your odds of growing profound vein related blood clots in pregnancy include:
- Being thirty-five or older while pregnant
- Pre-pregnancy blood clots outside of pregnancy
- Being overweight
- Having a cesarean conveyance (C-section).
However, there are certain solutions to every problem. In order to get rid of blood clots during pregnancy or prevent them from happening, these are the possible solutions:
- Continue moving: In case that you are overweight and inactive, it will affect your blood-stream and increase your risk for profound vein clots in pregnancy. So, remain active and keep up a healthy weight. If you must be on bed rest because of a damage or inconvenience in your pregnancy, your specialist may endorse blood thinners as a careful step.
- Get up during travel: Flying alone is a risk for clots; so pregnant women need to be very careful about that. In case that you need to fly, get up and move around consistently and do a lower leg exercise while you sit. Do a similar thing in case you go for a long journey or have to travel fast.
- Wear pressure tights: Since they enhance the flow and lessen swelling in the legs, pressure tights can bring down your danger of profound clots in pregnancy.
- Drink loads of water: Remaining hydrated during pregnancy forestalls clots by keeping the blood from getting too thick.
The reason pregnant women need to be aware of the connection amongst pregnancy and clot risks is that an untreated clot can possibly break free and go through the circulatory system. The fear is that it will move to the heart or lungs and cause a pneumonic embolism, which can lead to death. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Female infertility is not really a rare condition, it happens to one out of six couples. Infertility is a condition in which a woman is unable to conceive despite efforts. There can be a number of causes for female infertility, including problems with ovulation, uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. Age can also be a contributing factor to infertility. Following are the reasons that might be responsible for female infertility
- Ovulatory problems
- Cysts in the ovaries
- Hormonal imbalance
- Excessive alcohol or drug usage
- Eating disorders like bulimia or anorexia
- Excessive weight
- Enormous stress and pressure
- Thyroid gland issues
- Very brief menstrual cycles
- Damage of organs of reproductive system
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Scar tissues or adhesions of some sort
- Presence of polyps in the uterus
- A previous serious infection in the fallopian tubes or uterus
- Chronic medical illness relating to the reproductive system
- A previous ectopic pregnancy
- A birth defect in the uterus or fallopian tube
- The DES syndrome where in the infertility can occur to the offspring due to the medication DES is given to a mother in order to prevent miscarriage or premature of the child.
- Abnormal presence of cervical mucus can make it more difficult for sperms to reach the egg.
Now that the part about the causes has been discussed, it is essential to discuss the treatment. Are there really ways to reverse infertility in women to make them fertile? Well, in some chronic cases it is not possible; however, some are treatable by the following methods:
- In the case of hormone imbalance or endometriosis or short menstrual cycles, hormones are taken to treat the problems.
- Medications can be taken to stimulate ovulations.
- Fertility enhancing supplements can be used.
- In case of infection in any of the reproductive parts, antibiotics can be taken to remove them
- In order to remove blockage or scar tissues from the uterus, fallopian tube or pelvic area, minor surgeries can be performed.
Yes, there are some tips for prevention of infertility
- Taking all the steps required to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
- Avoid intake of illicit drugs
- Having regular checkups with the gynaecologist
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
- Exercising regularly
- Having a healthy sexual relationship
This article is a short walkthrough on female infertility and answers most of the commonly asked questions. In case you have further questions, you can always consult a medical practitioner near you.
In order to have proper information about ovarian cysts, it is essential to discuss the anatomy of ovaries. These are basically a part of the female reproductive system and are located in the lower abdomen on the two sides of the uterus. The major functions of ovaries are production of eggs, oestrogen and progesterone hormones.
So what exactly are cysts? Cysts are fluid-filled sacks, which sometimes develop on the ovaries. These are usually painless, causing no such symptom and females develop a cyst at least once every year. However, there are various kinds of ovarian cysts like the dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. The most common kinds of cysts are usually the functional ones. The types of follicle cysts include the following:
- Follicle cyst: When the menstrual cycle starts, the egg grows in a sac, usually called follicle, which is located inside the ovary. In usual cases, the follicle breaks and the egg is released. However, there might be a case where the follicle may not break. In situations like these, the fluid present in the follicle may turn into cysts in the ovary.
- Corpus leuteum: After the egg is released into the uterus, the follicle ideally dissolves. However, in case the follicle does not dissolve, the excess liquid causes the developing of little sacs and these are the other kinds of cysts.
Most of these tumors are benign (non-cancerous) and never spread beyond the ovary. Benign tumors can be treated by removing either the ovary or the part of the ovary that contains the tumor.
Malignant (cancerous) or low malignant potential ovarian tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body and can be fatal.
There are some more types of cysts as well, which are as follows:
- Dermoid cyst: This is a sac-like growth, which occurs on the ovaries that can contain hair, fat or other tissues. They’re a type of ovarian germ cell tumor. Usually these tumors are benign, but occasionally they can be malignant.
- Endometriomas: These are those tissues, which should originally grow inside the uterus, but instead they attach themselves outside the uterus to the ovaries. This in turn results in cyst formation.
- Cystadenomas: These are basically non-cancerous growths that develop on the ovary surface.
Polycystic ovary syndrome
This is a condition that some women develop, a large number of small cysts form inside the ovaries, thereby causing the ovaries to enlarge. It is important that polycystic ovarian syndrome is treated soon because if left untreated for long, it may cause infertility in women. These cysts are usually not harmful, but they can cause the following:
- Hormonal imbalance, which may lead to acne or facial hair, may also cause individuals to stop ovulating or cause irregular periods
- Higher chance of getting diabetes as the body starts having insulin resistance
- Weight gain
This is not that big a deal and can be controlled easily. Also with healthy living and eating, this condition can be brought to normal. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Here are effects, precautions and treatments of Nausea and vomiting or Hyperemesis Gravidarum in Pregnancy.
Here are some treatments and symptoms of uterine fibroids
6 pregnancy complications you need to know about
The biggest wish of a to be mother's mind is a smooth and safe pregnancy. One of the ways you can deliver your baby safely is by being aware of the complications that may arise during this period and taking precautionary measures to reduce your chances of developing them.
Here are the 6 pregnancy complications that you need to know about?
Preeclampsia is a condition that normally occurs after the 20th week and is characterized by high blood pressure, kidney abnormalities and the presence of protein in your urine. Most of the time, symptoms are mild, which can be easily resolved with proper care. But the condition can progress quickly, causing several of your organs to not function properly and even proving to be life-threatening.
2. Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes happens when hormonal changes during this period hamper your body's use of insulin. As a consequence, the insulin hormone is unable to normalize blood sugar levels, leading to abnormally high blood sugar levels. While the condition is not usually a cause of concern for the mother, it can pose several health problems for the baby, more specifically, the occurrence of macrosomia (a condition wherein the baby has an abnormal body weight).
3. Premature labor
You're said to suffer from premature labor or preterm labor if you experience regular contractions that lead to your cervix dilating and effacing before the 37th week. Preterm birth can prove dangerous for the baby, not to mention make it prone to several health problems. In order for it stay alive and be healthy, you child needs to reach its full maturity before birth.
4. Ectopic pregnancy
When the fetus develops outside the womb, more specifically in the fallopian tube, a condition known as ectopic pregnancy is said to occur. It is highly important to put a stop to this pregnancy complication as it the developing embryo might bring about the rupturing of the fallopian tube, and may result in internal bleeding.
5. Placenta previa
The condition of placenta previa sees your placenta occupying a very low position in the uterus, most commonly, adjacent to or over your cervix. If the placenta continues to be at this position during the whole course of the pregnancy, it can lead to bleeding as well as other complications.
6. Low amniotic fluid
It is the fluid-filled amniotic sac that supports and protects your baby in the womb. It is said that about 4% of pregnant women worldwide experience low amniotic fluid levels during their pregnancy. This condition is also known as oligohydramnios. When this happens, labor is usually induced as you come close to the end of your pregnancy.
Why is Gynaecologic Laparoscopy so Revolutionary?
Designed to enable a surgeon to look into a woman’s pelvic or abdominal area for diagnosis or treatment, gynaecologic laparoscopy is fast gaining popularity as a minimally invasive procedure for a host of female reproductive health problems. This surgery is also commonly known as keyhole surgery.
In recent times, this form of surgery has begun to replace the conventional open surgery, as the latter poses disadvantages like greater blood loss or infection.
Depending on the purpose of the surgery, Gynaecologic Laparoscopy involves the making of one or more very small incisions (about 5mm in length) in the area that must be treated. One of the incision(or cut)s is used by the surgeon to insert a laparoscope (a lighted telescope) into your abdomen for seeing the insides of your cavity. Many surgical procedures, which were performed by making large abdominal incisions, are now being done using laparoscopy.
What are problems this surgical procedure is beneficial for?
The various health problems that it can be used to diagnose, treat or both are:
- Endometriosis (a condition that is characterised by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus)
- Ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy wherein the foetus develops in the fallopian tube instead of the womb)
- Sterilisation (blocking of your fallopian tubes through surgery to prevent future pregnancy)
- Ovarian cysts (fluid-filled sacs that develop on the surface or inside an ovary)
- Removal of womb, also known as hysterectomy
- Removal of ovaries
- Fibroids (non-cancerous growths within or on the surface of the uterus)
- Gynaecologic cancers such as ovarian cancer, uterine cancer and so on
- Pelvic pain
What are the benefits you can expect from gynaecologic laparoscopy as opposed to open surgery?
- It is no more required to make large abdominal cuts that are required in traditional surgery, thereby reducing your recovery time
- You suffer from less pain and scarring as the incisions made are much smaller
- A faster return to your normal routine, usually within a few weeks
- Serious complications arising from this form of surgery are very rare