I am Dr Tripti Raheja, I am working as senior consultant gynaecology in Max Super Speciality Hospital in Shalimar Bagh. Today, we are going to discuss fertility Problems and their treatment. Inability to conceive or reduce fertility is a very common problem it affects 15% of the couples. This reduce fertility can be due to male factors, female factors or unknown factors. In man we have reduced fertility because of poor quality of sperm or poor sperm count in their semen, women may have reduced fertility because ovaries do not produce eggs regularly or there can be some blockage in the fallopian tube so that the sperms cannot reach eggs in around 25% of couple the reason for reduced fertility remains unknown this is known as unexplained infertility. There are certain lifestyle changes which are likely to improve fertility, these are- stop smoking, reduce alcohol intake to less than 1 to 2 units, not more than once or twice a week, reduce intake of tea coffee or soft drink, do regular exercises, then maintain a healthy body with BMI should be between 20 to 25. It is a well-known factor if you are underweight or if you are overweight you are likely to suffer from infertility related problems. Men are advised not to wear a tight undergarment because they increase the temperature in the scrotum around the testis, so it deteriorates the sperm quality. If a couple is trying to conceive for more than 1 year and if they are unable to conceive so they are offered the certain test. So in men, we use really advice semen analysis to know the quality of sperms and to know the sperm count. If the first semen analysis report come out to be abnormal then again you will be advised to have it again after the gap of 3 months or maybe earlier as advised by your doctor if the repeat test also comes out to be abnormal then you will be advise, some blood test like hormone test and ultrasound of the squadron. So if you have low gonadotropic hormones levels in your blood, you will be given gonadotropic injections to improve sperm count. If you have some blockage in the flow of sperm from the testicles then a surgery may be beneficial for you to correct that blockage. Otherwise, if you have male factor infertility and if you are unable to conceive for more than 2 years it is advisable to go for In Vitro Fertilization or you normally called a test tube baby.
A woman may have reduced fertility because of reduced production of or irregular production of egg in their ovary. So they are advised to go for the test to know the ovulation and this test can be in the form of a blood test to check hormone levels or ultrasonography, this test also helps us to know how well your ovary will respond to fertility drugs. There is 1 more test which is usually, advised to women that is tubal patency test to check whether your fallopian tubes are blocked or then missed and that this can be done by x-ray or ultrasound even the sometimes an operation is necessary, operation laparoscopy is necessary to check the pregnancy of your fallopian tube. So, if there is some problem in the production of eggs by ovaries, you will be given some treatment in the form of tablets usually to stimulate the formation of the egg from the ovary in few women however gonadotropic injection may lead to be given to stimulate the formation of eggs in the ovary. If you have a blockage in fallopian tubes and if the blockage is my mild, then you will be advised to undergo surgery to correct the blockage. But if the blockage is serious, surgery is usually not helpful and in such circumstances, you are advised to go for In Vitro Fertilization. In cases of unexplained fertility, the cause is unknown and the couple is unable to conceive for more than 2 years they are advised usually, to go for In Vitro Fertilization. So in end, I would like to say, that the fertility-related problems, reduce fertility is a very common problem and in most of the cases are easily treatable. So do not lose hope, consult a qualified gynaecologist and after having the proper treatment you should be able to conceive.
If you want to consult me further you can text me via Lybrate you can have a text consultation or you can come to visit me at my clinic in Vijay Nagar, North Delhi. Thank you.