Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas gland. Our body needs insulin to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells, in order to produce energy. Genetics is the major reason behind type 1 diabetes but some viruses are also known to cause it. Generally, it appears during childhood or adolescence. If you experience increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue and weakness; you must consult a doctor as these could be signs of type 1 diabetes. Bed wetting by children who did not do it earlier is also a big sign that should not be ignored. Certain medications can keep your condition in control if your diabetes is detected at the initial stage. People with type 1 diabetes have to undergo lifelong insulin therapy.
Your diagnosis will start with glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test that will show your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Your blood sample will be taken randomly to check the blood sugar level. Blood sugar level above 200 milligram per decilitre indicates diabetes. The treatment will start with injecting insulin, through syringes or needle, in your body. The doctor will choose the type of insulin according to your condition. Humulin R and Novolin R are short acting (regular) insulins. Types of rapid acting insulins are insulin glulisine (Apidra), insulin lipro (Humalog) and insulin aspart (novolog). Intermediate acting insulins include NPH (Novolin N, Humulin N). Insulin can be taken through a pump, with a reservoir of insulin, which is supposed to be worn on the outside of your body. A tube connects the pump to a catheter that is inserted under the skin of abdomen. You must undergo frequent blood sugar monitoring to keep a check on your condition. Artificial pancreas is the latest invention in this field. However, it is not common yet.
Increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue and weakness are some signs of type 1 diabetes. Also, if you have a family history involving diabetes, you must take care of your blood sugar level.
Minor diabetic conditions can be controlled by lifestyle changes.
Injections can cause temporary redness and irritation in skin. Other than this, there are no known side effects of the treatment.
You must take very good care of your health. Follow a diet filled with nutritious, low fat and high fibre foods like fruits, vegetables and whole grains. You should avoid sweets. Exercise daily to keep your body active. Consult your doctor before deciding on the kind of physical activities you must indulge in.
Type 1 diabetes caused due to genetics is not fully curable. It can just be brought under control over a period of time, depending on the severity of your condition.
One session of consultation with a doctor may cost around ₹800 to ₹1500. Cost of injecting insulin one time may be between ₹2000 - ₹4500.
Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition. The condition can be brought under control through medications and insulin injections.
You can try to maintain a healthy lifestyle in order to avoid your blood sugar level from increasing. Eat well, exercise daily. This helps in bringing your diabetes in control.
Rs 800 - Rs 4,500
What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 Diabetes, also known as Diabetes Mellitus type-1, is a condition which is characterised by the lack of sufficient amount of insulin in the body. This is a chronic condition and cannot be cured. The insufficient amount of insulin in the blood results in the spike in blood sugar levels, which in turn, can damage various organs in the body. However, with proper therapy and treatment, it can be controlled and the quality of life can be improved for the patient.
The tell-tale signs and symptoms of this type of diabetes are the frequent urges to urinate, increase in appetite, increased thirst and rapid weight loss. It is most commonly diagnosed in children or young adults and thus, it was previously known as juvenile diabetes.
Glucose and other types of sugars are essential for the body cells to absorb energy. The glucose that is present in the blood is taken up with the help of insulin and utilised for energy. The lack of this hormone renders the glucose useless as it is not being able to enter the body cells. This is precisely type-1 diabetes.
What Causes It?
The cause of type-1 diabetes is not known entirely. Although, there are certain theories that explain the cause –
Genetics: The chances of getting type-1 diabetes are increased in children if either of their parents suffers through from this disease. More than 50 genes are involved in diabetes type-1.
Environmental factors: Environmental factors are also thought to play a role in type-1 diabetes.
Viral infection: A theory suggests that viral infections are responsible for type-1 diabetes. According to this theory, the virus activates the auto-immune system of the body which in turn attacks the pancreatic beta cells along with the cells that are infected by the virus. Viruses like Epstein-Barr virus, Mumps virus, rubella virus etc. are considered to be responsible for the same.
How Is It Treated?
Many people with type-1 diabetes live long, healthy lives. The key to good health is to keep your blood sugar levels within the range your doctor gives you. You’ll need to check them often and adjust insulin, food, and activities to make that happen.
All people with type-1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar. Several types of insulin are available. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist and ask a free question.
Uncontrolled diabetes can be life-threatening. Prevent these serious diabetes complications by learning the warning signs.
People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many serious health problems, including heart attack, kidney failure, nerve damage, stroke, vision loss, amputation. But by keeping your diabetes in check — that means maintaining good blood sugar control, you can prevent many of these.
Stroke warning signs may include:
People with diabetes are at increased risk of nerve damage, or diabetic neuropathy, due to uncontrolled high blood sugar. Nerve damage associated with type 2 diabetes can cause a loss of feeling in your feet, which makes you more vulnerable to injury and infection. You may get a blister or cut on your foot that you don't feel and, unless you check your feet regularly, an infection can develop. Untreated infections can result in gangrene (death of tissue) and ultimately amputation of the affected limb.
ALTERED IMMUNE SYSTEM
Diabetes can also make it more difficult for your body to fight infections, causing skin problems. Various skin conditions are linked to diabetes, and even the most minor cuts or sores can turn serious fast. Any bumps, cuts, or scrapes should be cleaned and treated with an antibiotic cream and monitored carefully.
Type 2 diabetes increases your risk of kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy, a condition in which the blood vessels in your kidneys are damaged to the point that they cannot filter out waste properly. If left untreated, dialysis (a treatment to filter out waste products from the blood) and ultimately a kidney transplant may be needed.
Typically, you won’t notice symptoms of kidney disease until it has advanced. However, if you experience any of the following symptoms, visit your doctor:
The best way to prevent type 2 diabetes-related kidney problems is to have your urine, blood, and blood pressure monitored regularly and to keep your blood sugar and blood pressure under control.
People with type 2 diabetes are at risk of several eye conditions, including diabetic retinopathy (which affects the blood vessels in the eye), glaucoma, and cataracts. If left untreated, these conditions can cause vision loss.
Visit your doctor if you notice any of these warning signs:
HIGH BLOOD SUGAR (HYPERGLYCEMIA)
Hyperglycemia means you have too much sugar in your blood. High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms; therefore, it is important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. When symptoms of hyperglycemia occur, they may include:
The key to preventing many of the complications of diabetes is to keep your blood sugar at a healthy level. To do this eat right, exercise, monitor your blood sugar as recommended by your doctor, and don't smoke.
A healthy lifestyle is your road map for managing diabetes, which is the key to preventing or delaying complications:
Follow a healthy eating plan.
Be physically active for at least 150 minutes a week (just 30 minutes, 5 days a week).
Manage your ABCs:
A regular A1C test to measure your average blood sugar over 2 to 3 months; aim to stay in your target range as much as possible.
Try to keep your blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg (or the target your doctor sets).
Control your cholesterol levels.
For people with diabetes, controlling blood pressure has big benefits: it reduces the risk of heart disease by as much as 50% and the risk of kidney, eye, and nerve disease by about 33%.
Lose weight if you’re overweight—just a 5% to 7% weight loss lowers the risk for complications. That’s 10 to 14 pounds for someone who weighs 200 pounds.
Take medicines as prescribed.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Diabetes is one of the most common problems that are caused by obesity, unhealthy and inactive lifestyle. It is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to store and use energy from food. Being physically inactive and eating unhealthy food are primary causes of diabetes. It is a long term condition which causes high or unstable blood sugar levels in the body.
When a patient suffers from low blood sugar it is called Hypoglycemia, and if the blood sugar levels are too high, it is called Hyperglycemia. Both are extremely harmful for a patient.
Type 1 and Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes-
In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The condition has no known cure and is usually hereditary in nature. Approximately 10% of those suffering from diabetes have Type 1 diabetes. Patients with Type 1 diabetes have to take regular medication, including insulin injections as well as take care of their diet.
Type 2 diabetes happens when the body does not produce enough insulin for its proper functioning. 90% of all diabetic people suffer from Type 2 diabetes. It is usually caused by poor lifestyle choices, like physical inactivity and unhealthy food habits. The disease lasts a lifetime and is usually progressive in nature, but can be managed by taking regular medication, choosing an active lifestyle and maintaining proper body weight.
Diabetes during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. This has to be managed by taking medication or in extreme cases insulin shots. If undetected or untreated, gestational diabetes increases complications during childbirth, and causes unusual weight gain in the baby. However, gestational diabetes usually ends after the baby is born and women can go back to their normal lifestyle and eating habits post delivery.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Who is at greatest risk for developing diabetes?
What is pre-diabetes?
Pre-diabetes is a condition of elevated blood glucose level that has not yet reached a diabetic level. Along with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes causes no symptoms. An individual may be pre-diabetic for years without knowing it. Pre-diabetes increases your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Weight loss and exercise may halt the onset of diabetes from pre-diabetes by returning blood glucose levels to a normal range.
Diabetes is the fifth-leading cause of death by disease. Diabetes leads to the death of many people each year across the globe. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.