A woman suffering from PCOD might not have the same problems like the one suffering from PCOS. PCOD is a condition where the ovaries have small follicular cysts developed due to hormonal imbalances. PCOS is more severe than PCOD.In both cases, timely diagnosis and corrective treatment can help overcome the syndrome and make the road for conception.read more
Today I will be talking about his true laparoscopy hysteroscopy is considered as the gold standard in the evaluation of infertility so what exactly is this hysteroscopy so it consists of two parts that is hysteroscopy and laparoscopy so you're still we introduce a Periscope instrument to the cervix of the mouth of the uterus to visualise the inside of the uterus the why is it so important many many of a patient sir ask me why is hysteroscopy should be really do it it's a major surgical procedure is it really necessary before we understand this let us just revise our knowledge of how conception occurs as you all know every month an egg 1 is released from the ovary and this it travels to the fallopian tube around the same time is intercourse takes place the sperms travel inside the uterus meet the egg inside the tube and form an embryo.
And finally embryo gets implanted inside the uterus suppose there is any problem with ovary with ovulation on with the transport in that you are in the uterus so this process of conception will not histoleproscopy precisely evaluates the reproductive system of the female hysteroscopy what we do if we introduce a Telescopic instrument with the cervix of the mouth of the uterus instrument his introduced inside the uterus we also study the cervix well because of some tremendous it is very tight of Stinos and even the sperms cannot pass through it so you are such a situation we dilate the cervix and then we go inside the uterus slowly and the first thing which we see inside the uterus is the opening of the tubes know the opening of the tubes.
How to be free of editions safe there any additional we can clear it around at the same time what is to see inside of the uterus we notice whether there is enough space because ultimately the baby is going to grow inside the uterus so we just observe whether than enough space for the baby to grow we observe the lining of the uterus and whether the cavity is normal whether there is a Submucous fibroid which is popping in a weather that is a symptom of whether there is a polyp a certain things cannot be visualised by ultrasonography so whenever we do hysteroscopy we get a lot of surprises and the beauty of the specifications you cannot read it was but you can also treat the condition at the same time this is often a company by another procedure called as laparoscopy.
So what we do in laparoscopy is we introduce a Telescopic instrument through the umbilicus through the abdomen to see the outside of the uterus so what do we say from the outside of the uterus we see the ovary the tubes the uterus and the other structures which are surrounding the uterus so what problems can occur wear that can be a cyst in the ovary or the ovaries may be very much and large in a Barclays spec PC OS for they may require drilling or the tubes or maybe some additions which are blocking the tubes are the tubes are getting kinked and some time so we free the tubes from the additions then we observe the uterus so whether the uterus has any tumor has fibroids whether It is a sub serious fibroid all these things we observe whether the uterus the shape of the uterus is normal because some women are born with an abnormal uterine shape so post of the time even this can be treated with laparoscopy.
We do a procedure called as laparoscopic chromotubation so what exactly this procedure be introduced a dye in the cervix and through the mouth of the uterus and we observe whether the die is coming out from both the surprise coming of really that means the cubes are open the patent and they can allow the passage of the site and the embryo suppose that is a block so this blocks can also be treated by hysteroscopy by a procedure called as hysteroscopy tubal cannulation so all these things can be observed in by doing a laparoscopy we can also see other diseases associated diseases like I already mentioned fibroids we can be bought diagnosed as well as we can remove fibroids.
Also then there are conditions for this endometriosis can be diagnosed only and only by laparoscopic photography will not diagnose endometriosis unless the patient has a huge ovarian endometriotic cyst this condition can be suspected what the ultimate diagnosis will only be by laparoscopy in our country that another disease causes genital tuberculosis so people think that tuberculosis only limited to the lungs and the richest known as pulmonary tuberculosis. Under which is known as pulmonary tuberculosis what happens if the patient has a lot of symptoms.
He feels Breathless he keeps popping that is loss of weight has an evening rise of temperature of slight fever all the time this condition can be very well diagnosed by a simple chest X rays especially the conditions genital tuberculosis condition cannot be detected by the actual confirm over diagnosis and in case the person has blocked you resist them will have to be created for a total period of 9 to 12 months so this is how laparoskopi helps us in diagnosing various condition now there are other conditions apart from infertility where leproscopy can we use like tubal patency have already mentioned and conditions like endometrosis or Pelvic conditions where the patient has undergone fewest surgery or there is Tuberculosis endometriosis.
So everything is all stuck together we can free all this structures that acute pelvic region such as ectopic pregnancy very important because it to the pregnancy is something that usually a pregnancy is inside the uterus ectopic means something away the pregnancy growth of an abnormal site and what is the economic side anything other than the uterus will be an abnormal side opposite to be pregnancy is it that you can diagnose it at the same time we can remove the ectopic pregnancy also an impact save the life of the patient then acute appendicitis can be made out salpingitis and inflammation of the fallopian tubes that also can be diagnosed that certain tumors can be taken out by leproscopy laparoscopic and helpful and helps us to even take out the cancerous growth from the uterus in short as of today almost all surgeries which can be done by the open Method can be done by histleproscopy the advantage here as have already told you we can diagnose and treat the condition at the same time it requires a very short Hospital Spain and patient need to spend the patient did not take prolong bedrest or anything you can get back to work very quickly.
So friends any questions about historical Scorpio laparoskopi gunec leproscopy you can always contact me at lybrate.com. Thank you.read more
Today I will be talking on a very hot topic is sonography really needed in pregnancy whenever patients are advanced sonography they always have this fear is sonography harmful to my baby and doctor why are you advising so many sonography. So friends today I'll be clearing your doubts about sonography. Believe me sonography is a very safe investigation because in sonography only sound energy of sound waves called Ultrasonic waves are used and these are very harmless and patient have developed this fear about sonography because in ancient times sometimes pregnant patient is used to be advised to take an x-ray and the doctor is not sure whether there is enough space for the baby to come out during normal delivery.
So to assess that when there was no sonography sometimes a patient should be advised X-rays and X rays are harmful to the foetus but today we are not doing X-rays anymore we are using for sonography and sonography is very safe at any time of pregnancy for when should the first sonography be done lot of people have this may babies small small doctor why are you advising sonography at this stage so when is when should ideally with the first sonography done in pregnancy in the first sonography has to be done between 6 to 8 weeks.
Why you should not do it very early because we won't be able to see anything you should Ideally be done between 6 to 8 weeks and why should we do it so early first of all to confirm the pregnancy and for fetal wellbeing whether the baby is growing well and thirdly we need to see the Heartbeat of the baby I am seeing the habit of the baby is sheer bliss for us and IVF consultant and patience keep calling me experticaly saying that doctor why UPTU has come positive my pregnancy test has come positive so should we do a sonography. I always tell them to be patient weight for 6 to 8 weeks and then do a sonography to see the heartbeat other thing is weather the foetus is single or multiple whether it is only one baby or more than one baby.
The last but not the least to rule out ectopic pregnancy whether the pregnancy is growing inside the uterus which is normal or the pair pregnancy is growing outside the uterus so what happens if the pregnancy is going outside the uterus opos chef in the tubes because tubes is the commonest site for ectopic pregnancy week pregnancy in grows at a site other than the uterus it can cause a lot of complications and life threatening problem suppose it grows in the tube that you can rupture that can be a lot of bleeding the patient can go into shock so for all this things we need to do sonography at early stage between 6 to 8 weeks then when should be the next sonography be done the next sonography is should be done.
I really between 11 to 13 weeks we call it has the early anomaly scan what do you mean by Anomalous the various abnormality is which we can see at that stage of life so 11 to 13 weeks will be the early anomaly scan after that the patient needs to do sonography at 18 to 20 weeks of this is the late anomaly scan so what we do in this sonography is actually a special sonography takes a lot of time on the relations path because the patient needs to see all parts of the baby in the heart the spine the fingers and all these things to know whether the baby is normal or not and then the latest can select 26 to 28 weeks of 34-36 weeks for every time we do a solo graphy it is true in East sonography is it different parameters we don't be the same thing cause has the baby grows that a different things which need attention for Friends rest assured whenever you are doctor advice is sonography please get it done because it is actually a boon for a speak and diagnose so many things by doing sonography and help the mother and the baby to be healthy.
And wish you all a safe and Happy pregnancy thank you if you have any doubt about prgnancy you can contact me at lybrate.comread more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.
So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.
If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.
So today I will be talking about preconception care, the birth of a child is equivalent to planting a tree where we prepare the soil and then sow the seeds and that's not all we have to give it time and nourishment as well. In India, 70% of the pregnancies are unplanned this is occurred by a chance nobody plans for it just happens by itself. So these unplanned pregnancies can cause a lot of problems for both the mother and the baby. People still feel in India that we have to go to the gynecologist in the 7 months of pregnancy ke saatve mahine mein naam dalwane ka hai taki they have to go to the hospital to book themselves for delivery. This concept is not right, we all believe that healthy women make healthy babies so you have to make your body a safe place for your future baby to thrive. So first and foremost is you have to do a lot of introspection about yourself I will talk about age, so today there are a lot of women who are in the workforce they keep postponing the marriage and even if they are married they postpone the childbearing. Why is this a problem because what happens is has a woman grows older her fertility potential keeps on decreasing, her capacity to produce eggs decreases in addition to that the quality of the eggs also decreases. Moreover, if a woman conceives at a later age she has a lot of problems during the pregnancy such as pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes, preterm labor, difficult labor, there can be complications in the baby as well, the baby can be born premature or there is an increased incidence of congenital defects in the baby. So, women, today are not aware of all days they feel after they finish all commitments they can think about childbearing. Now when it comes to preconceptions you have to plan 3 months before your actually planning to conceive, so if you have any medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, seizure disorder or fit disorders, asthma, anaemia, so all these things have to be taken care of and get treated before you even plan to conceive. So don't just conceive preconceive. Then the next is medications ok, so some medication may be quiet safe during pregnancy, some medications are an absolute no-no during pregnancy because they may cause birth defects in the baby and some medications their doses need to be adjusted so as not affect the foetus. So you must be aware of all these things and you have to consult your treating physician and tell him or her that you are planning to conceive and whether the medication can be adjusted and the doses can be adjusted. The next is immunization, usually by this age women are more or less immune to all diseases but if she gets tested for rubella or she is not immunised to rubella then she should get immunised in this period, other immunizations are like Hepatitis B and chickenpox or varicella zoster is equally important because if the women contact these diseases during pregnancy, it is going to be very difficult. Then comes to the lifestyle factors, what are the lifestyle factors your food habits so if you have used to junk food you have to stop eating junk food, eat a very healthy diet, then exercise also exercise reduces the stress level and the fit women will be able to manage her labour pains in a better way. Now coming to weight issues, even if a person woman is underweight she has problem during pregnancy she can give rise to a growth retarded baby and if a woman is overweight before pregnancy again that also can lead to problems because every woman will put on certain weight during pregnancy that is normal that is physiological, but if a woman is overweight before pregnancy she has to compact her weight which is normal for her height by following a sensible diet and exercise regime because if she is overweight she is more prone for pregnancy complications like PIS or Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, diabetes, difficult labour etc. When they are planning to conceive you should also supplement takes supplements of Folic acid .4 milligram along with other multivitamins because this will help to prevent any neural defects because spine is the first thing which is formed in the body, so if there is deficiency of Folic acid there could be a problem in the sign of the baby. Last but not the least men also matter, preconceptional care is not definitely restricted to women alone men have to take care of themselves because their overall health will reflect on the sperm. So a man also has to take control or give up smoking and excessive alcohol or substance abuse, decrease stress levels and inculcate healthy food habits and exercise into its regime. So when it comes to substance abuse suppose a woman is used to smoking or alcohol she has to control this the smoking can have a detrimental effect on the baby, you have to even think about your work life balance how we are going to adjust once the baby comes and develop a good support system as well. You even have to think about your finances and have a proper financial planning in place before you have a baby. Then coming to a family history, family history is whether anybody in your family has had a congenitally abnormal child or whether there is any disease which runs in the family, for example, Thalassemia and your previous reproductive history, that suppose you have an abortion or repeated abortions so these things also have to be taken care off. Then your menstrual history, now menstrual history is very closely related to your fertility status so you have to keep a track of your menses. Nowadays we have so many apps which help you to keep a track you have to note whether your menses are regular or irregular if they are irregular that means that you are not ovulating properly it could be PCOS as well, then coming to the menstrual flow is it very scanty or very less or is it more, so if it is more if it is associated with pain it could mean that you could have a fibroid or suppose you have a very painful menses or you have pain which stops just before menses, it could mean you are suffering from endometrosis or a pelvic inflammatory disease. In spite of following all these precautions if a couple cannot conceive after one year they need to seek the services of a fertility specialist and if the women's age is more than 32 years and even if she's married for less than six months she has to get a fertility status evaluated and seek the help of the fertility specialist.
So friends don't conceive preconceived and before you think of a baby please do plan for it so that you can avoid complications during pregnancy, during labor and can have a healthy and bubbly child, happy parenting.
If you have any queries contact me on Lybrate.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat. I am an IVF consultant, obstetrician and gynaecologist practicing for the last 20 years, I am practicing at Shrishti Fertility Care Centre and women's clinic. Today I will be talking about vaginal discharge, now vaginal discharge is a very common complaint, women of all ages complain of vaginal discharge. So what exactly is it, sometimes it is usually termed as Leucorrhea also. Now the complaint of discharge depends very much on the ideas, observation power and fascinated illness of individuals with women, now this vaginal discharge normal or abnormal should there be vaginal discharge at all. so scientifically the private parts that are the vulva and vagina are normally moised to some extent and this makes the woman comfortable, usually does not stain the under clothing but there are certain conditions in which the vaginal discharge is increased due to hormonal imbalance. So what are those conditions that is at the time of ovulation the discharge suddenly becomes watery a few days before menses it may also become then it becomes thick then it becomes take during pregnancy, after sexual intercourse and excessive discharge is seen in young girls just before they start their first menstrual period and a few years after they start their menstrual period. It is also increased in women who take oral contraceptives or birth control pills. A word about regular douching some women are under the misconception that regular douching improve genital hygiene, however washing away of natural discharge encourages the cervix to produce more discharge. Women magazines sometimes they advocate Deodorant product to sprayed on the private parts and vagina and valva to promote sexual attractiveness but on the contrary the chemicals which are present in this deodorant sprays, they irritate the skin and douching washes away all the protecting lactobacilli alters the pH and there are more chances of the women getting infection. Now what is abnormal discharge, so when can we say that the discharge is abnormal, if the discharge is accompanied with itching or redness, it causes a lot of irritation, unpleasant order or smell, burning sensation during urination, whether the colour of discharge if it is curd-like or yellow or yellowish green and if it is associated with pain during intercourse or dyspareunia. Now what are the causes of this abnormal discharge lot of women ask me why do we get this discharge and I keep myself so clean, so some of the causes are one, of course, it is poor hygiene then sexual intercourse with the Infected partner, public toilets repeated use of public toilets then douching has I have already mentioned, once you start destroying the natural perry of the vagina the women will be more prone to infection and cancer that we should never forget cancer or cancerous growth also give rise to discharge, so if the discharge is blood stained you have to be careful. Now, why should we pay so much attention to vaginal discharge because if this discharge is not treated, it can lead to complications? So what are those complications one is the pelvic inflammatory disease called as PID so here the uterus the tube and the entire reproductive tract gets infected? Then abnormal changes in cervix or mouth of the uterus now this abnormal changes can cause cellular changes, dysplastic changes and later on lead to cancer changes. Now, what about abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnant women does that affect them, yes, of course, it affects then it can cause premature rupture of membrane or the rupture of a bag of water even before the labor pain start or even before delivery. Now, this pack of water is supposed to be a protective shock absorber for the foetus and it protects the foetus from external infection. So when this bag of water ruptures the foetus will be prone to infection and the pregnancy will be at risk. The preterm delivery, what is preterm delivery? if the women deliver before nine months obviously she is going to run into complications, then chorreoamnoities i.e. infection of the Placenta and the fluid which is surrounding the foetus, endometriosis that is an infection of the lining of the uterus. Now, what is the treatment first and foremost self-medication is a straight no why you cannot see your neighbors prescription or your friends prescription and get yourself treated for vaginal discharge no, you have to get examined by a gynecologist she will ascertain the cause for your discharge and treat you accordingly. So how do we treat we usually give antifungal tablets or antibiotic tablets depending upon the cause of the infection, sometimes the treatment of the partner is also necessary to avoid the Ping Pong of infection between the partners. Then suppose a woman is suffering from chronic cervicitis or cervical erosion there are other modalities of treatment such as cryotherapy, laser cautery, then if a malignancy is discovered the treatment of malignancy will be something which is very specialized. Now what you have to do to prevent such type of vagina infection first and foremost routine cleanliness always use cotton underwear which can absorb the discharge avoid synthetic material nylon and avoid douching as I already mentioned because douching destroys the normal barriers of the vagina and makes it more prone for infection, you should avoid any type of sprays, deodorant sprays, safe sex practices and of course general health care and good nutrition which will allow you, which will give you immunity against the diseases. The very important point do not use very hot water to clean your private parts some people feel that if they use hot water they can clear away the infection very easily no and because of vaginal skin and mucosa is very delicate you can use lukewarm water or the tap water. Similarly, do not use medicated soaps like Dettol or Savlon, you can use a mild to mild soap. The thing here is you have to keep the area dry so you can just use a soft tissue paper and just pat it dry, you should not rub the private parts because again it cause the excoriation of the skin and make it more prone for infection.
So please do keep these tips in mind.
Thank You.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat. I am an IVF consultant, obstetrician and gynaecologist practising for the last 20 years, I am practicing at Shrishti Fertility Care Centre and women's clinic. So today I will be talking about what to do if you are planning to have a baby, but have a difficulty in conceiving. If you're married for more than 1 year you are being tried for a baby for more than 1 year having regular sexual intercourse and not using any contraceptive then it is defined as infertility, at that time you should seek the help of infertility specialist or if the women’s age is more than 35 years and if she is married for 6 months she should seek the services of an infertility specialist. So why do we say the age of 34 years or 35 years is important that is because after the age of 30 a woman's reproductive capacity keeps on declining, so when the woman who is over 35 years it will affect her quality of oocytes, the quantity of oocytes and even if she gets pregnant there are more chances of genetic abnormalities in the baby like down syndrome, besides this she can have complications in pregnancy like pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes and difficult labour. So age is very important as far as infertility management is concerned. Now, why is infertility increasing has of today that is because of increasing age of marriage, postponement of childbearing, increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases? Women today are very much into the workforce and they want to settle their career before they are planning to marry or even have a baby. Now there are two types of infertility that is one is primary infertility when the couple has never conceived and secondary infertility when the couple has conceived a child maybe it could be an abortion, it could be a miscarriage but they cannot conceive again. So when you go to an infertility specialist what do you expect firstly the doctor will take a detailed history, history of your age, your lifestyle habits and the number of times you have relations in a week, any previous treatment, any previous illnesses etc for the women a detailed menstrual history will be taken. So menstrual history like the date when you had the last menses whether your periods are regular. What is the interval between the periods, what is the blood flow during the periods is it less, scanty or excessive or is it painful or do you have pain before menses, all these things will be asked. It’s very important for a woman who is planning to conceive to keep a detailed menstrual calendar. So today we have a lot of apps on your mobile so it's very easy to keep track of your menstrual cycle. Then the doctor will ask you about the number of times you have relations in a week then about your lifestyle habits, diet etc. The next will be a physical examination, now in this physical examination we have a general examination and your specific examination so general examination will be the doctor will examine your blood pressure, pulse, whether you have anaemic or whether you are in a best of health, then a specific examination will be a per vaginal examination. So after finishing this she may advise you ultrasonography, ultrasonography is to know the structural defect in the uterus and as we all know the tubes, the reproductive system in a woman consists of a uterus, the tubes and the ovaries at the sides. Now all of us know that these tubes play a role in reproduction because they are the ones who which transport the oocytes and a fertilization takes place inside the tubes the tubes are very important so we cannot take out whether there is a block in the tubes or not just by doing a play ultrasonography. So there a specific test for that and those test are one is hysterosalpingography, where a die is injected inside the uterus and then an x-ray is taken to know whether the tubes are blocked, whether they are patent or not. In some certain cases when the doctor feels that they need more information about this, he may advise you a history of hysterolaparoscopy. Hysteroscopy is when we put an endoscope inside the uterus through the mouth of the uterus and see the inside part of the uterus, so what do we see when we first see the opening of the tubes, whether the uterus is normal, whether it has a symptom, whether it has a polyp, whether it has a fibroid so all these things can be seen. Laparoscopy is we put in another endoscope through the umbilicus of the women to see whether the tubes are patent, whether the shape of the uterus is normal, whether the surrounding organs are normal. Now this procedure of hystrolaparoscopy is preferably done under general anesthesia, at the most a woman will have to stay for few hours in the hospital or she can stay for the one whole day based on a comfort level. Then the doctor will also advise certain blood, certain blood test one are the general blood test that is the haemoglobin, the urine routine micro examination and the few other test and the specific blood test such as FSH, LH, serum prolactin, your thyroid relating hormone then AMH, so all these tests tell us the capacity of the women to produce eggs and the hormonal status in our body.
If you need any help in trying to conceive, you’re planning to conceive, you're trying to conceive for more than one year but you have not gained any success please contact me at lybrate.com.read more
Hi, I am Dr Jayanti Kamath. I am an IVF consultant, practising at Srishti Fertility Care Center and Women's Clinic, Mumbai. So today, I will be talking about the physiology of conception or how babies are made. Before we begin I will tell you about few things about the female reproductive system.
So as you can see in this picture this is a picture of the uterus and these are the tubes, the fallopian tubes and this whitish structure over here it is called as ovary. Now this part is the vagina and this is the mouth of the uterus it is also called as the cervix so once again this is the uterus these are the fallopian tubes on either side this is the ovary this is the mouth of the uterus called as the cervix and this is the Vagina. so how babies are made first of all babies are made by the fertilization of an ovum or the female egg by a sperm from the male. So the female eggs are produced in a structure called as the ovary. So what happens every month, the egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube and the egg grows throughout his journey through the fallopian tube and after sexual intercourse, the sperms enter through the vagina and they meet the egg in the tube and the egg gets fertilized. It keeps on growing and then the embryo or the baby gets implanted inside the uterus and this baby grows up till nine months till the woman delivers. So this is the physiology of conception now why is this important cause when a woman cannot conceive there can be problems in this entire process. For example where the egg is manufactured that is the ovary.
There can be a problem in the ovary, the woman can have a hormonal imbalance such as polycystic ovarian disease where many eggs are produced but they do not grow or they do not become mature then there can be cysts in the ovary such as endometriotic cyst or any other cyst so these are the problems with the ovary. Then coming to the tubes. If there is any blockage in the tubes the oocyte or the XL will not be able to reach the sperm.
Why the blockage occurs?
Blockage can occur due to any infection called as pelvic inflammatory disease or tuberculosis which is a very common disease in our country. So because of that, the tubes can get blocked. So once the tubes are blocked the oocyte has a problem in meeting the sperm, then the main region that is the inside of the uterus, so there can be problems there also. There Can be fibroids, there can be a septum, there can be polyps or there can be the uterus itself can become a tumour called as adenomyosis. So these are the uterine problems which interfere with conception. Now coming lower down there is a mouth of the uterus which is very important. Suppose the mouth of the uterus is closed or there is a very narrow space over there then again the sperms will have difficulty in entering the uterus.
So these are the various problems in the female reproductive system which interfere with conception.
For more information about this or if you have a problem in conceiving please consult me at lybrate.com.
Thank you.read more
Doctor in Kamats Hospital
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Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Family Planning Procedure
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Giving birth is a life-changing event for every mother and it leaves an everlasting impression in your life. Every delivery is unique and you can just gain from the experience of others, but don’t expect it to be the same.
You will experience many changes in your body and will learn to take care of yourself and your growing baby as soon as you find out that you are pregnant. Pain is a part of labour that every woman has to undergo. It is the fear of labour pain that make many pregnant women opt for c-section. However there is no denying the fact that c-section is a major surgery and requires several days to recover.
Keep in mind the following tips to go in for a normal delivery:
- Try to get prenatal education, which guides you about labour, birth and natural labour pain management techniques, such as breathing, self-hypnosis, relaxation and other coping mechanisms. You should check with your hospital too as most of them offer an evening or weekend course.
- Pick a gynaecologist who has a history in delivering babies naturally.
- Keep yourself physically active by doing mild exercises throughout pregnancy.
- You should keep a calm environment in your labour room.
- Don’t gain too much weight as women who aren't overweight do not have much difficulty in delivering babies vaginally.
- Continue with your walks as it helps in relieving the pain.
- Use various positions such as sitting on the toilet, kneeling, and squatting to ease vaginal delivery.
- Massage/back rubs equally help in easing the pain.
- You can also go in for Effleurage which is a light massage of the abdomen to ease your vaginal delivery.
- Apply warm or cold compresses.
- Avoid hearing negative stories about labour.
- Eat a healthy balanced diet as the health and development of your baby depends on your nutrition.
- Stay away from stress and anxiety. Read good books about parenting and be in the company of good lively people.
- Use relaxation/breathing techniques to keep yourself calm.
- Guided meditation and prayers undoubtedly will reinforce your faith in yourself to deliver a baby vaginally.
- Have adequate sleep. Avoid drinking tea or coffee two hours before going to bed in order to have uninterrupted sleep.
Following these tips religiously can definitely increase your chances of having a normal delivery.
In simple terms, the IUI procedure involves placing the sperm inside the womb or uterus, which in turn would assist in fertilization of the egg. As a result of this procedure, the sperm reaches the fallopian tube, which enhances the chances or rate of egg fertilization.
A woman suffering from PCOD might not have the same problems like the one suffering from PCOS. PCOD is a condition where the ovaries have small follicular cysts developed due to hormonal imbalances. PCOS is more severe than PCOD.In both cases, timely diagnosis and corrective treatment can help overcome the syndrome and make the road for conception.
Pregnancy is something, which is quite divisive. The mere prospect of it can really go a long way in scaring people. At the same time, for some others, giving birth to a baby can be the primary cause for a lot of happiness. When a couple is having trouble conceiving, infertility is usually the reason why there is a relationship strain between the two of them. Considering this, doesn’t it make sense to learn a bit about infertility and the truth to all that is said about it so as to separate the wheat from the chafe?
To start with, it is often said that when there is an infertility issue, it is probably due to the lack of fertility of the woman rather than the man. However, this is pretty untrue. It has been found that both men and women are responsible for infertility almost equally. In fact, according to a study, in about a fifth of the cases of infertility, the reason for it was that both the man and the woman were not fertile.
Many people say that, if a woman wishes to have a baby, she should do so before she crosses the age of 35. This is true to some extent as the chances of a woman conceiving do fall to a significant extent after the age of 35. As a matter of fact, a woman can expect to reach the peak of her fertility while she is in her twenties, itself!
Without a shadow of doubt, having sex around the time of ovulation is the key to getting pregnant. However, it is believed by a large number of people that there is no chance of getting pregnant if sex is had too soon or too late after ovulation as sperms only live for a few hours after an intercourse. The truth is that the sperms have the ability to survive uptil 72 hours.
When planning to conceive, many women believe that for about a quarter of a year or three months after they stop making use of the birth control pill, they will not be able to get pregnant. The good news for them is that as soon as the pill is stopped, the levels of a woman’s hormones return back to their pre-pill levels almost immediately and ovulation can be expected to occur at the time of their following cycle. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Boost your fertility
● try charting your menstrual cycle to learn your fertile times. You might like to seek the advice of a fertility awareness teacher to help you on this.
● check your method of contraception. If you are using a hormonal method of contraception, you may want to change to a barrier method or natural family planning method before you conceive.
● improve your diet so you are getting the right amount of all the vitamins and minerals you need. You can consider vitamin supplements, especially for folic acid to prevent spina bifida.
● take care when preparing food and dealing with animals to avoid food infections such as toxoplasmosis and listeriosis.
● protect yourself from toxic chemicals and ionizing radiation in the workplace and at home.
Get into shape
● keep your weight in the fertile range.
● make sure you get enough exercise.
● learn a relaxation technique to help you counter stress and anxiety.
● stop smoking tobacco or using nicotine replacement products.
● cut your alcohol intake to safe levels or consider avoiding it altogether.
Uterine fibroids are abnormal growth that manifests in the uterus of the woman. Hormones and a family history of the same are the usual causes listed for such a growth. As per many medical reports, about 70 to 80% women over the age of 50 years, experience such growths. The most common symptoms of the condition include heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle or even at other times of the month, as well as severe pain in the abdomen.
Read on to know eight facts about these fibroids.
- These fibroids may be caused by a family history of the same and is usually passed down by the mother. The other causes include excessive hormonal imbalance and changes as well as pregnancy and obesity.
- Heavy urination is one of the most common symptoms of this condition, as the fibroids may press against the uterus and cause pressure in the area. Also, for those who have not reached menopause yet, this condition may also cause heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding.
- A Pelvic MRI scan is one of the most common ways of diagnosing the condition with the creation of images that will show any anomalies and growth in the uterus, ovaries and cervix.
- Medication may be used in order to control and regulate the levels of hormone production and release. This can affect the fibroids by making them shrink eventually.
- All fibroids do not point at the progression of cancer. If you have uterine fibroids, it does not mean that you have to have cancer. The symptoms may be similar and the condition is usually called uterine sarcoma. Usually, the diagnosis can only be done with the help of a sugary which will remove the growth and then study the same in the lab to find whether or not it is malignant. This process is known as a biopsy.
- They are the most common reason behind undergoing a hysterectomy. Many women, the world over, have to go through a hysterectomy, which removes the uterus and even the ovaries in some cases. This usually happens when the uterine fibroids become too huge to handle and may give rise to a variety of risks and complications.
- Pregnancy may become a difficulty if you happen to have uterine fibroids. While it is still possible to become pregnant and conceive naturally, many women face problems in doing so easily because these fibroids cause changes in the uterus when it comes to the shape and size of the same.
- Many women do not experience any symptoms of the condition at all. In such cases, no treatment will be required. Yet, even in these cases, the doctor will recommend regular clinical check ups and observation in order to ensure that there are no complications.
A blood clot (also called a thrombosis) is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid.
The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. This can cause damage to body organs and even death.
Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help save both you and your baby.
If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup (before pregnancy) or at your first prenatal care checkup. Also tell your provider if someone in your family (your parent or a brother or sister) has had problems with blood clots. This means the condition may run in your family.
What problems can blood clots cause during pregnancy?
If you have a blood clot or a kind of thrombophilia called antiphospholipid syndrome (also called APS), you may be more likely to have complications that can affect your health and your baby’s health, including:
- Blood clots in the placenta. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. A blood clot in the placenta can stop blood flow to your baby and harm your baby.
- Heart attack. This usually happens when a blood clot blocks blood and oxygen flow to the heart. Without blood and oxygen, the heart can’t pump blood well, and the affected heart muscle can die. A heart attack can lead to lasting heart damage or death.
- Intauterine growth restriction (also called IUGR). This is when your baby grows poorly in the womb.
- Miscarriage. A miscarriage is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Placental insufficiency. This is when the placenta doesn’t work as well as it should so your baby gets less food and oxygen.
- Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Some of these signs include having protein in the urine, changes in vision, and severe headache.
- Premature birth. This is when your baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
- Pulmonary embolism (also called PE). An embolism is a blood clot that moves from where it formed to another place in the body. When the clot moves to a lung, it’s a PE. PE can cause low oxygen levels in your blood and damage your body organs. It’s an emergency and a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms of PE may include:
- Stillbirth. This is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Stroke. This happens when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that brings blood to the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts open. Pregnancy and childbirth cause strokes in about 8 in 100,000 women. Stroke can cause lasting damage to the body or death.
- Thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel and blocks blood flow. It most often happens in the deep veins of the legs but can be in other places of the body:
How are these conditions treated?
Your provider may use tests like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (also called MRI) to find out if you have a blot clot or clotting conditions. Ultrasound uses sound waves and a computer screen to show a picture of your baby inside the womb. MRI is a medical test that makes a detailed picture of the inside of your body. These tests are painless and safe for you and your baby.
If you are pregnant and have a clotting condition, you may need to go for prenatal care checkups more often than women who don’t have these blood clot conditions. At these visits, your provider checks your blood pressure and can use other tests, like blood tests, to monitor your health.
Your gynaecologist also checks your baby’s health in the womb using tests like:
- Ultrasound to check your baby’s growth and development. She may use a special kind of ultrasound called Doppler to check your baby’s blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord connects your baby to the placenta. It carries food and oxygen from the placenta to the baby.
- Fetal heart rate monitoring (also called a nonstress test or NST). This test checks your baby’s heart rate in the womb and sees how the heart rate changes when your baby moves. Your provider uses this test to make sure your baby’s getting enough oxygen.
A blood clot occurs when your body sends cells, called platelets, to interrupt the stream of blood. Typically, this happens when you have a cut, to keep the damage from draining consistently. During pregnancy, your blood will probably cluster as a defense mechanism against losing an excess amount of blood during the process.
Signs and Symptoms
Women have a tendency to be more sensitive and risk-prone of potential difficulties while they are pregnant. Despite the fact that blood clots are far-fetched, there are a couple of signs that can demonstrate the possibility of a blood clot. These include:
- Swelling or pain in one leg
- Pain that increases when you walk
- Veins that look bigger or more swollen than usual
Different components that can additionally raise your odds of growing profound vein related blood clots in pregnancy include:
- Being thirty-five or older while pregnant
- Pre-pregnancy blood clots outside of pregnancy
- Being overweight
- Having a cesarean conveyance (C-section).
However, there are certain solutions to every problem. In order to get rid of blood clots during pregnancy or prevent them from happening, these are the possible solutions:
- Continue moving: In case that you are overweight and inactive, it will affect your blood-stream and increase your risk for profound vein clots in pregnancy. So, remain active and keep up a healthy weight. If you must be on bed rest because of a damage or inconvenience in your pregnancy, your specialist may endorse blood thinners as a careful step.
- Get up during travel: Flying alone is a risk for clots; so pregnant women need to be very careful about that. In case that you need to fly, get up and move around consistently and do a lower leg exercise while you sit. Do a similar thing in case you go for a long journey or have to travel fast.
- Wear pressure tights: Since they enhance the flow and lessen swelling in the legs, pressure tights can bring down your danger of profound clots in pregnancy.
- Drink loads of water: Remaining hydrated during pregnancy forestalls clots by keeping the blood from getting too thick.
The reason pregnant women need to be aware of the connection amongst pregnancy and clot risks is that an untreated clot can possibly break free and go through the circulatory system. The fear is that it will move to the heart or lungs and cause a pneumonic embolism, which can lead to death.