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Overview

Tuberculosis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Tuberculosis is a disease that dates as back as the Ancient Egyptian civilization of the Pharaohs. For its presence has been found in the preserved spines of the ancient Egyptian mummies. During the 18th and 19th century, an epidemic of this fearsome disease rampaged throughout North America and Europe, before Robert Koch the German microbiologist discovered the cause of tuberculosis in 1882. Following Robert Koch’s discovery, vaccine and effective drug treatment that was developed, led to the belief that this illness has been almost defeated. At a point of time, even the United Nations, suggested that TB (Tuberculosis) would get eliminated by 2025.

Nevertheless, the counts of the patients suffering from this disease started to rise in the US and worldwide in the mid-80s. In 1993 the WHO (World Health Organization) declared Tuberculosis as a global emergency. Although with proper diet and medications this disease is curable, but without proper treatment experts say that two third of the people suffering from TB will die.

There are two types of Tuberculosis:

  • Latent TB
  • Active TB

In the latent TB cases, the TB bacteria remain in a dormant mode in the body. It doesn’t cause any symptoms of the disease and so is not contagious. However, the latent TB bacteria can become active any point of time. About one third of the world population is believed to have latent TB. Although there is only 10% chance that latent TB will get active, but people who have compromised immune system, have higher risks of triggering this latent disease. In active TB, the disease causing bacteria shows symptoms of TB and this illness is contagious. TB can affect all age groups in all parts of the global demography.

TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. This disease spreads through the air, when someone suffering from this disease sneezes, coughs, laughs, talks or spit. Although TB is contagious, but it is not easy to catch. However, the chances of getting infected with this disease is more from someone you work or live, rather than from a stranger. With people suffering from active TB, it take not more than two weeks to be non-contagious, if they are provided proper medications.

In most of the cases the common diagnostic test for detecting this disease is a skin test whereby a small injection of PPD tuberculin (which is an extract of the TB bacterium) is given below the inside forearm of the patient. The injection site is then checked after 2-3 days. If the site of the injection shows signs of red bump, gets swollen and hard, then it’s likely that the patient is suffering from TB. Apart from that, other tests which are also used for diagnosis of this disease are blood tests, x-ray of the patient’s chest, which are done along with the above mentioned skin test.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Spread through the air or contaminated surfaces
Symptoms
Feeling chilly and having fever. Coughing, which sometimes spurts out mucous and blood. Loss of appetite leading to weight loss. Night sweats and loss of energy during the morning hours of the day.

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Dr. Nikhil Modi 93% (211 ratings)
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Tuberculosis - What Are The Reasons Behind It?

Dr. Prashant Saxena 89% (32 ratings)
MBBS, MD - TB & Chest, Fellowship Training Intensive Care, Fellow College of Chest physicians, European Diploma in Respiratory Medicine, Interventional Pulmonology , Greece, European Diploma in Intensive Care Medicine
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Tuberculosis - What Are The Reasons Behind It?
Although your body is already in possession of the bacteria leading to tuberculosis, your immune system is able to prevent you from becoming sick. Doctors have made a distinction between latent and active tuberculosis (TB). In case of latent TB, the bacteria in the body in a passive state and it causes no symptoms, and therefore it is not contagious. But, in the case of active TB, you would become sick and may even spread the disease to others. It can take place in the first few weeks or even after several months of being infected with TB bacteria. What are the symptoms of active TB? If you are coughing for over three weeks and sometimes even coughing up blood, it can be a sign of TB. Chest pain and pain while coughing and breathing along with fatigue, fever, chills and night sweat are the common symptoms of TB along with loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss. TB may even affect other organs of your body, including your brain, spine and kidneys. When TB takes place outside the lungs, then the signs of TB can vary as per the organs that are involved. For instance, TB in the spine can cause back pain and that in kidneys may cause blood in the urine. What are the causes of TB? TB is stemmed from a bacteria which spreads from individual to individual via the microscopic droplets that are released into the air. This may happen when an affected person is left untreated and he speaks or sneezes or coughs or laughs. Though the disease is contagious, it is not easy to be affected by it. As a result, you are much more likely to get affected with active tuberculosis from a person you live with or come in regular contact with, rather than a stranger. It is important to note here that people who are affected with TB and going through proper medications for over two weeks are no more contagious. Right from the 1980s, the number of individuals affected with TB has increased dramatically, owing to the spread of HIV, which is the virus known for causing AIDS. A person infected with HIV has a weak immunity system as a result of which it becomes difficult for the body to deal with TB bacteria. So those who have AIDS are more likely to be affected with active TB and sometimes the latent form also progresses to an active one very quickly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical assistance and detect if you have any such health complications concerning TB.
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Heart Transplant - When Is The Right Time?

Dr. Ramesh Kawar 90% (145 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Cardiology, DM
Cardiologist, Mumbai
Heart Transplant - When Is The Right Time?
There are many people worldwide who suffer from heart problems (irrespective of their age and sex). While in most cases, the condition improves with proper treatment and medications, in few, the condition is beyond treatment. A heart transplant comes as a savior for such people. It gives them a new lease of life. The transplant involves replacing a heart that has stopped functioning normally (damaged or may be diseased) with a healthy heart (from the donor). Over the years, heart transplant has undergone a sea of change. With the advancement of science and technology, the success rate in a heart transplant has seen an exponential rise. People who need a heart transplant: A heart transplant may be essential in the following cases. A congenital heart disorder (a person born with a heart problem). Defective or diseased heart valves. Amyloidosis (a condition where amyloid fibrils get deposed in the tissues and organs of the body intracellularly or extracellularly). Problems in the coronary artery. Cardiomyopathy (A condition where the muscles of the heart become weak, thereby affecting the normal functioning of the heart). A heart transplant that failed previously. Ventricular Arrhythmias (a condition that originates in the ventricles, in ventricular arrhythmias, the heart rhythms are abnormally rapid). However, under the following circumstances, a heart transplant may not be a wise idea People with infections or chronic lung or kidney disorders. A case of cancer in the past. Age may be a deciding factor.The recovery from a heart transplant may not be 100% in an aged person. The heart transplant procedure: The first step in heart transplant is the availability of a suitable donor. In this case, a donor is a person whose brain is dead but the other organs, including the heart, is healthy and functioning properly. A surgeon performs three operations in a heart transplant. The first operation is essentially the removal of the healthy heart from the donor body. The heart is kept in a cool place, preferably ice (to keep the heart alive and in good condition until the heart transplant takes place). In the second operation, the recipient's damaged or diseased heart is operated out.The situation may, however, be complicated if the patient had a heart surgery in the past. The third and the final surgery involves implanting the donor heart into the recipient body (the recipient's upper heart chambers and the atrial back wall are however not removed). Once the implantation takes place (without any complications), the surgeons sew the heart into place. The blood vessels are then connected back to the heart and the lungs. The heart starts beating again once it is warmed up. To enable the patient to receive the nutrients and oxygen (during the heart transplant), the patient is put on a heart-lung machine. If no complications develop after the transplant, the patient is discharged within a fortnight. In some unfortunate cases, there may be organ rejection. The condition arises when the recipient's immune cells see the transplanted heart as non-self (foreign agents). If left unattended, it may damage the heart. Immunosuppressant drugs can help avert the rejection. However, it is important to monitor the patient closely for any infections that may arise to the administration of the immunosuppressants.
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8 Causes Behind Acute Upper Respiratory Infection!

Dr. Vaibhavi Patel 90% (24 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Respiratory Medicine
Pulmonologist, Bangalore
8 Causes Behind Acute Upper Respiratory Infection!
Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a condition, which involves illness, mainly caused by critical infection in the upper respiratory tract. This region includes the pharynx, larynx, nose and sinus. This infection causes diseases, such as tonsillitis (tonsils get inflamed), pharyngitis (causes sore throat) sinusitis (nasal passage becomes inflamed), laryngitis (voice box in your throat gets inflamed) and common cold. Causes of upper respiratory infection (URI): Both virus and bacteria cause upper respiratory infection (URI). The most common form of virus causing this infection is known as 'rhinovirus.' The immune system of young adults and children are often very vulnerable. Hence, they are more likely to develop upper respiratory tract infection. URI is also contagious and airborne in nature. So if a person comes in contact with an infected person suffering from URI, he/she is likely to develop this infection. Not washing hands before meals can also cause upper respiratory infection because the virus can be transferred easily to the mouth and can travel into your system. If you have any lung problem or heart disease, you are more likely to be susceptible to upper respiratory infection. Those who already have inflamed tonsils can trigger tonsillitis by drinking any cold or spicy beverage like ice-creams or cold milkshakes. Exposure to some flu or cold can cause pharyngitis. It can also be caused by second hand smoking. Birth defects or structural defects in the nasal cavity or nasal polyps can cause sinusitis. Sometimes the inside part of the nose may get swollen due to common cold and block your ducts. This is a common cause for sinusitis. Symptoms of acute upper respiratory infection: Congestion in the lungs or nasal area. Whooping cough Running nose due to common cold. Feelings of fatigue and lethargy throughout the day. Your body will start aching without engaging in any physical exercise. You can also lose consciousness in severe respiratory tract infections. Difficulty in breathing. Oxygen levels in blood drop down drastically. Sometimes in worse cases, acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI) can also cause respiratory failure, respiratory arrest and congestive heart failure. Therefore, it is necessary to book an appointment with a doctor as soon as you start experiencing the above symptoms.
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Briefing On Tuberculosis

Dr. Anant Gupta 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases, DNB
Pulmonologist, Delhi
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Popular Questions & Answers

My mother is 49 years old and she had tb 2 times earlier in her life, now she is a COPD patient and is admitted in a ICU in a hospital and doctors have done Tracheostomy but now yesterday she had fever and doctors are saying she might be having TB again. What are the chances of her survival? Is she at high risk or it can be cured.

Dr. Gaurav Ghatawat 90% (71 ratings)
DNB
Pulmonologist, Mumbai
Certainly she is at risk however you can't just put down to 1 disease in this state. There could be an infection in the lungs and pneumonia Could be due to any bacteria. May not be TB only.
1 person found this helpful

What is TB (tuber closes) it is dangerous disease it can be cause with medicine and what are the symptoms of it.

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 92% (33895 ratings)
MD PULMONARY, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis is TB. It can be cured by medicine. symtoms are cough, fever, weight loss and loss of appetide.
1 person found this helpful

Why I am bleeding from mouth with mix of saliva (with blood with small small quantity? There is no cough. But my past medical I had an tuberculosis so is this is symptoms of same .I consult my doctor he said that there no need to worry it's bleed from your past tuberculosis lungs side place but I can't? So please.

Dr. Shashank Rathod 90% (30 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Rajkot
Have your Chest X-Ray (PA) done. As already your doctor advised to not to worry, but to relieve your anxiety, we can be guided through CXR for ruling out Tuberculosis. Further other tests can be done, if CXR shows anything. Other wise, maintain good oral hygiene. Will be alright.

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis. And what are the medicines for tuberculosis treatment tell me.

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 97% (6881 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
There are number of symptoms depending.on the where is the main infection.. Like low grade fever Weight loss. Lack of appetite Etc... And treatment is Homoeopathic or allopathic according to your choice... Not possible to detail here..

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