Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Overview

Tuberculosis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Tuberculosis is a disease that dates as back as the Ancient Egyptian civilization of the Pharaohs. For its presence has been found in the preserved spines of the ancient Egyptian mummies. During the 18th and 19th century, an epidemic of this fearsome disease rampaged throughout North America and Europe, before Robert Koch the German microbiologist discovered the cause of tuberculosis in 1882. Following Robert Koch’s discovery, vaccine and effective drug treatment that was developed, led to the belief that this illness has been almost defeated. At a point of time, even the United Nations, suggested that TB (Tuberculosis) would get eliminated by 2025.

Nevertheless, the counts of the patients suffering from this disease started to rise in the US and worldwide in the mid-80s. In 1993 the WHO (World Health Organization) declared Tuberculosis as a global emergency. Although with proper diet and medications this disease is curable, but without proper treatment experts say that two third of the people suffering from TB will die.

There are two types of Tuberculosis:

  • Latent TB
  • Active TB

In the latent TB cases, the TB bacteria remain in a dormant mode in the body. It doesn’t cause any symptoms of the disease and so is not contagious. However, the latent TB bacteria can become active any point of time. About one third of the world population is believed to have latent TB. Although there is only 10% chance that latent TB will get active, but people who have compromised immune system, have higher risks of triggering this latent disease. In active TB, the disease causing bacteria shows symptoms of TB and this illness is contagious. TB can affect all age groups in all parts of the global demography.

TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. This disease spreads through the air, when someone suffering from this disease sneezes, coughs, laughs, talks or spit. Although TB is contagious, but it is not easy to catch. However, the chances of getting infected with this disease is more from someone you work or live, rather than from a stranger. With people suffering from active TB, it take not more than two weeks to be non-contagious, if they are provided proper medications.

In most of the cases the common diagnostic test for detecting this disease is a skin test whereby a small injection of PPD tuberculin (which is an extract of the TB bacterium) is given below the inside forearm of the patient. The injection site is then checked after 2-3 days. If the site of the injection shows signs of red bump, gets swollen and hard, then it’s likely that the patient is suffering from TB. Apart from that, other tests which are also used for diagnosis of this disease are blood tests, x-ray of the patient’s chest, which are done along with the above mentioned skin test.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Spread through the air or contaminated surfaces
Symptoms
Feeling chilly and having fever. Coughing, which sometimes spurts out mucous and blood. Loss of appetite leading to weight loss. Night sweats and loss of energy during the morning hours of the day.

Popular Health Tips

Lung or Pulmonary Diseases: What You Need To Know?

Dr. Anand N Yannawar 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In HIV, DNB - Respiratory Diseases, V P Chest Delhi
Pulmonologist, Pune
Lung or Pulmonary Diseases: What You Need To Know?
Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled. Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.
1 person found this helpful

Tuberculosis - How To Control The Infection?

Dr. Virendra Kumar Raju 91% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Tuberculosis - How To Control The Infection?
Tuberculosis can affect any part of the body, however, it primarily enters the body through the respiratory tract by inhaling bacteria emitted by a Lung TB affected person. Only those who suffer from lung TB can infect others. It is a disease that is caused by bacteria known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis spreads through the air and is a highly contagious disease that can be transmitted through coughing, sneezing and spitting. The symptoms of this condition include coughing, blood discharge while coughing, fever, extreme weight loss, and chills. Against general myths, this disease can be treated and is curable too. Effective, timely diagnosis and treatment with the correct methods and medication are required. Let us find out the various means for effective treatment of tuberculosis. Diagnosis: Let us first look at the diagnosis method that will help in detecting the presence of the bacteria in the body. The doctor will take a blood sample and conduct a series of lab tests in order to diagnose the condition. Also, the doctor will check the medical history of the patient so as to understand what kind of complications the person may be prone to. For this, the doctor will also find out if the patient is suffering from diseases like diabetes, malnutrition and other conditions arising out of tobacco abuse. Diagnosis of Pulmonary TB is by sputum for AFB examination and some blood test may also be required. Medication: Usually, the best way to treat this condition is with the help of a six-month long course of antibiotics that may also last 12 months, depending on the prognosis. The patient will be put in quarantine as well so that he or she does not end up spreading this disease to anyone else. A voluntary medical practitioner or trained health worker will help in caregiving and medicine administration under the instructions of the doctor. The medication will usually consist of four antimicrobial drugs or antibiotics, which will stop the release of nutrition and oxygen to the bacteria so that it cannot develop and grow. This will also ensure that the bacteria is killed eventually. Control of Infection: The spread of the infection is such that a single sneeze or cough can infect up to ten to fifteen people who are near the patient without proper masks and other gear to prevent the transmission. Therefore, it is the job of the hospital to ensure that proper infection control takes place by using ultraviolet light to sterilize the air around the area where the TB patients have been admitted. One thing that the patient must remember about the treatment is that immediate and timely treatment with medication must be taken so that the patient is able to get cured. If the patient skips medicines or does not get treated on time, then the infection will come back again and again. And after a point, the patient's body and the bacteria will not be able to react to the medicines.
6543 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis: How To Control The Infection?

Dr. Anand N Yannawar 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In HIV, DNB - Respiratory Diseases, V P Chest Delhi
Pulmonologist, Pune
Tuberculosis: How To Control The Infection?
Tuberculosis is a lung related disease that is caused by bacteria known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis spreads through the air and is a highly contagious disease that can be transmitted through coughing, sneezing and spitting. The symptoms of this condition include coughing, blood discharge while coughing, fever, extreme weight loss, and chills. Against general myths, this disease can be treated and is curable too. Effective, timely diagnosis and treatment with the correct methods and medication are required. Let us find out the various means for effective treatment of tuberculosis. Diagnosis: Let us first look at the diagnosis method that will help in detecting the presence of the bacteria in the body. The doctor will take a blood sample and conduct a series of lab tests in order to diagnose the condition. Also, the doctor will check the medical history of the patient so as to understand what kind of complications the person may be prone to. For this, the doctor will also find out if the patient is suffering from diseases like diabetes, malnutrition and other conditions arising out of tobacco abuse. Diagnosis of Pulmonary TB is by sputum for AFB examination and some blood test may also be required. Medication: Usually, the best way to treat this condition is with the help of a six month long course of antibiotics that may also last 12 months, depending on the prognosis. The patient will be put in quarantine as well, so that he or she does not end up spreading this disease to anyone else. A voluntary medical practitioner or trained health worker will help in care giving and medicine administration under the instructions of the doctor. The medication will usually consist of four antimicrobial drugs or antibiotics, which will stop the release of nutrition and oxygen to the bacteria so that it cannot develop and grow. This will also ensure that the bacteria gets killed eventually. Control of Infection: The spread of the infection is such that a single sneeze or cough can infect up to ten to fifteen people who are near the patient without proper masks and other gear to prevent the transmission. Therefore, it is the job of the hospital to ensure that proper infection control takes place by using ultraviolet light to sterilise the air around the area where the TB patients have been admitted. One thing that the patient must remember about the treatment is that immediate and timely treatment with medication must be taken so that the patient is able to get cured. If the patient skips medicines or does not get treated on time, then the infection will come back again and again. And after a point, the patient's body and the bacteria will not be able to react to the medicines.
3075 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis: Different Types Of It!

Dr. Nikhil Modi 90% (211 ratings)
MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Tuberculosis: Different Types Of It!
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious and potentially fatal disease which primarily affects the lungs. It is highly contagious and can infect other people via the tiny water droplets released by an infected person while coughing or sneezing. There are two types of tuberculosis, that are pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: 1. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a type of disease in which bacteria invade your lungs. It is possible that the bacteria in your lungs could kill you. However, fortunately if you have been taking the right medicines for your bacterial infection you can get cured immediately. The name of the bacteria which causes tuberculosis is known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is worth noting that latent tuberculosis has no symptoms and there is no way you can pass it to another person either. However, it is still crucial that you take treatment for it. If you do not complete your treatment, then your tuberculosis will progress to a very dangerous form of tuberculosis. This is known as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is sometimes abbreviated as MDR TB. 2. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is when tuberculosis affects in parts of the body other than the lungs. There are many parts of the body which tuberculosis can affect, including the lymph nodes, nervous system as well as the bone and joints. Luckily, it is easily curable. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has pretty much the same symptoms as pulmonary tuberculosis. This is because extrapulmonary tuberculosis is the exact same disease which occurs to the patient, it is just that it affects a different body part. Therefore, the exact treatment recommended for pulmonary tuberculosis can be used to cure extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

Anyone Can Get Tuberculosis (TB)

Dr. Kalpana Gautam 89% (57 ratings)
Homeopathy, BHMS, Msc dietitics & food service management, PG DHA
Homeopath, Delhi
Whenever I doubt patient of chronic cough if I inquire whether he had any history of tb, he gets reluctant to answer. Many doctors face this situation and find difficulty in getting the information. Tb has always been a taboo in our society and accepting having the disease brings on resistance from society. Even after rigorous efforts of world health organization (who) that memorializes each year world tb day on march 24 to raise awareness about the consequence of tuberculosis (tb) on health, poor response from masses is observed. Due to social stigma, delayed reporting, not realizing that anyone can get it or for any other reason treatment is delayed, its outcome can be worst to deadly. Certainly despite significant efforts over the last years this deadly disease continues to claim over 4500 lives a day.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Is there any test which can detect both rifampicin. As well as isoniazid resistance for tb? What is the test name which can detect sensitivity for both drugs,?

Dr. Amit Kumar Poddar 92% (323 ratings)
MBBS, MD TUBERCULOSIS AND CHEST DISEASES, Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases, Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pulmonologist, Kolkata
Gene Xpert will diagnose Rifampicin resistance. And it is a surrogate marker of INH resistance. Consult a Pulmonologist with the reports.

When Normal TB test is negative in months, sputum And in sputum gene expert show MTB then what I shall do for surety and which treatment is better Govt. & Pvt.

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 90% (34247 ratings)
MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
If Genexpert is positive with no prior h/o TB, then likly to be TB. Get sputum culture for TB and consult a respiratory physician in either of facility.
1 person found this helpful

Health Quizzes

Meningitis - What Should You Know?

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Meningitis is a fatal disease and can cause permanent damage. True or False? Attempt this quiz to find out the correct answer.
Start Quiz
21 people took this quiz

Popular Health Packages

ENQUIRE
30 Days validity  •  Medicines included
₹14600
ENQUIRE
30 Days validity  •  Medicines included
₹2500