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Overview

Culture AFB Test

Culture AFB Test

Culture-AFB is the gold standard test for detecting the presence of tuberculosis causing microorganisms. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is an acid fast bacillus. Your doctor may suggest this test if you show symptoms related to lung infection or pulmonary tuberculosis. Common symptoms include chronic cough which produces sputum with bloody streaks, loss of appetite, fever, night sweats, chills, chest pain and unexplained weight loss. The symptoms of tuberculosis or other mycobacterial infections vary depending on the part of the body that is affected, such as the spine or the bone marrow.

For this test, it is advisable to be prepared early in the morning before breakfast. Rinse your mouth thoroughly as you will have to give a sputum sample. There is no special preparation required. You may however check with your doctor if you have any specific measures to take before arriving for the test. If your doctor intends to take Gastric Lavage specimens, you may have to fast overnight. This type of specimen is taken if the patient has difficulty in coughing up sputum. Usually, specimen from children and infants is taken through Gastric Lavage.

This test helps identify which mycobacterium is causing disease in the patient. The test culture will also help identify which drugs may or may not work on the bacteria. A positive test after several weeks of treatment may indicate that the treatment is not effective and will have to be changed. A negative test means that you do not have an active mycobacterial infection. In case of latent infection, it is possible that you may not have any symptoms, but the test will show positive result. If you are undergoing treatment for tuberculosis, you doctor will order an AFB culture every month to monitor effectiveness of treatment.

For this test, you will have to cough up several times to collect sputum in a sterile cup. If you are not able to cough up enough sample, you will be asked to inhale a warm sterile solution that will make you cough. Even if this method does not work, a tube will be inserted via your mouth or nose into the stomach to collect swallowed sputum. If this also fails, a bronchoscope may be put into your lungs to remove tissue or sputum sample. This is done under anesthesia, so you won’t feel any pain.

Type Gender Age-Group Value
AFB Culture
Unisex
All age groups
positive culture is seen in cases
Average price range of the test is between Rs.150 to Rs.1000 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

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Popular Questions & Answers

Hello mere ct scan mai show kar raha hai ke likey tb. But maine skin test sputum test blod culture test urine test kiya for tb jo normal aye .lekin doctor muje bena confirm kiya tb ke medicine de raha hai. Tho kya bena confirm kiye tb agar nahe hai or medicine lehta hu 6to 7 month tb ka tho kya ye mere body ya muje harm kareha .kyoke tb confirm nahe hai and oo muje medicne ke liye bole raha hai.

DNB Respiratory Medicine, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Mumbai
Hello mere ct scan mai show kar raha hai ke likey tb. But maine skin test sputum test blod culture test urine test ki...
There is something known as suspected TB and decision to treat it on clinical suspicion. If your doctor is advising there must be something significant to suggest in that line. Still if are not sure take a second opinion from another pulmonologist.
1 person found this helpful

Hello Doctors, Last one week I have burning sensation in my penis after ejaculation (masturbation). I did urine and blood culture. There is no abnormal findings. What could be reason?

Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Ayurveda, Indore
Hello Doctors, Last one week I have burning sensation in my penis after ejaculation (masturbation). I did urine and b...
Masturbation addiction is, simply put, the compulsive need to masturbate. The need becomes so overwhelming that the addict does not have the power to keep from masturbating. This overpowering desire is at the base of most forms of sexual addiction. The need to view pornography is usually a precursor to masturbation. Involving with prostitutes and illicit sexual activity is the next stage to it. It should be stopped as it has done lots of damage to you mentally/physically. It ruins once sexual health and even further lead them to impotency. Opt for my ayurvedic medicines (with counselling given on phone) that will help you stop this addiction. Proper medication will be given to control the urge of sexual desires and to recover the loss/damage given to the body Including penis curve and also penis enlargement. Conslt me privatly for further guidance. Do not worry Tc.
3 people found this helpful

Dear Doctor I am a 58 year old male. Two days before I noticed a lot of blood in my under wear. Also a light trace in my bath towel. I didn't notice any cuts or wounds in my private parts, also no trace of blood in the urine. What could be the reason for this symptom. Please give me an early answer in the below provided email. Regards.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Ahmedabad
Dear Doctor I am a 58 year old male. Two days before I noticed a lot of blood in my under wear. Also a light trace in...
It could be bladder related problem. Check for bladder& kidney sonography. Urine routine, urine culture to rule out infection. Urine for malignant cells to look for possibility of malignancy.
51 people found this helpful

I have lower back pain. I can't sit. I went to doctor he asked me to do x ray. He said its a spasm as your back looks stiff he told me to rest for a week and have multivitamin and calcium + a pain killer after week I was better now its hurting again.

BHMS
Homeopath, Chennai
I have lower back pain. I can't sit. I went to doctor he asked me to do x ray. He said its a spasm as your back looks...
The usual cause of low back pain is the sedentary lifestyle that we lead these days. There is hardly any movement. We remain seated most of the time and stand for very short periods of time. Unfortunately walking, running and cycling like activities are also not a part of our daily routine. To add to it, our diet consists more and more of junk food. Fresh fruits, vegetables and high fibre foods are consumed less and less. This is a worldwide trend and is seen across all ages and cultures. These daily practices lead to obesity. The increased body weight puts lot of pressure on the spine which has to bear all the extra unwanted weight. The back muscles which are already weak due to lack of exercise and wrong posture are unable to cope with this increased load. This causes pain in the back muscles. When it comes to the medicinal treatment, homeopathic medicines are very helpful. They not only treat the acute stages but are also very helpful in the chronic stage of back pain. It must be said here that homeopathy offers a much better alternative for the permanent cure for low back pain. The focus of the homeopath is not just to relieve the immediate pain but to also eliminate the root cause of the pain. That is precisely why the homeopath asks so many questions which may or may not seem related to your immediate problem. A common cause that is easily overlooked is the presence of stress in an individual. Mental stress can also contribute to low back pain and should be taken into account while taking the details of the patient. This is absolutely necessary if you want a lasting cure You can easily take an online consultation for further treatment guidance and permanent cure without any side effects.
2 people found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Sores And Swelling In Vaginal Area - Ways To Treat It!

GYNAE ONCOLOGY
Gynaecologist, Jaipur
Sores And Swelling In Vaginal Area - Ways To Treat It!

Are you experiencing swelling, bump and lesions in your vaginal area? These might be an indication of female vaginal sores. They may be itchy, quite painful, are usually tender and may also produce discharge. The sores usually develop because of skin disorders. Most cases of genital sores are symptoms of some kind sexually transmitted infection (STI). 

Diagnosis of female genital sores
A physical examination is undertaken for finding out the exact cause of genital sores and swelling in women. A pelvic test may also be carried out and you will be required to provide your doctor with your medical history reports. Blood tests, including blood work and a culture of the sore are also used for diagnosis. A culture is referred to as the method of taking a sample from your genital sore and testing it for the detection of bacteria. An ideal treatment method is suggested by your doctor after proper diagnosis. 

Self Care 
Based on the symptoms you experience and observe, you can cure vaginal sores by using simple self-care methods before consulting a doctor. A sitz bath is effective for getting relief from pain and discomfort. You can prepare a sitz bath at home by filling your bathtub with warm water and adding a saline solution or baking soda to the water in the bathtub. The water should be up to your hips when you get into the bathtub. You may even purchase a small basin meant for a sitz bath, which is available at all drug stores. 


Treatment
There are various ways of treating vaginal sores and the exact treatment depends on the cause of the sores. Here is a list of the most common treatment methods:

  1. Use certain oral and topical medicines for treating the sores and getting relief from pain.
  2. Try other medicines which include pain relievers, antibiotics, corticosteroids, antiviral medications, and certain anti-itch medicines for treating vaginal sores. 
  3. Some forms of genital sores do not require treatment, but you can get rid of them if they are bothering you. A noncancerous cyst is such a type of sore.  
  4. The long term outlook for vaginal sores depends on the cause. Sores accompanied by swelling occur due to chronic skin conditions, which are likely to affect you again in the future. You should get an existing STI treated for avoiding the recurrence of vaginal sores. 
  5. The best way to keep away from vaginal sores is to have safe sex using protection, such as condoms. This will prevent the infection from being transmitted to your sexual partners. You must not hide the fact that you are having vaginal sores to avoid harassment, and should always open up and seek proper treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
2596 people found this helpful

Why Garlic Is Important For Your Health?

MD - Ayurveda, Fellowship in Cardiac Rehabilitation, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Yoga Instructors Certificate
Ayurveda, Bangalore
Why Garlic Is Important For Your Health?

Although a vegetable, garlic is primarily classified as a spice and is used in many dishes across cultures. However, apart from the pungent smell which is the most known characteristic of garlic, it also has medicinal properties and thus, was even used by healers for various ailments before the advent of modern medicine.

Some of the reasons garlic is considered healthy: 
Garlic is considered healthy for a multitude of reasons. Let's look at some of the ailments that garlic can prevent as well as help in healing.

  1. Great Against Common Cold: Garlic and garlic based homemade treatments are great ways to ward off the common cold. Garlic contains the chemical "allicin" which is known to aid health within the body. Having a few cloves or garlic can help you fight the common cold infection.
  2. It is Known to Improve Bone Health: Garlic is known to be very beneficial for bone health, especially in menopausal women. Women may encounter bone loss during menopause as the production of estrogen is lowered. Garlic encourages estrogen production which can stop bone loss and even protect against bone problems such as osteoarthritis.
  3. Is an effective agent in Lowering Blood Pressure: Hypertension is a known killer all across the world. Garlic contains polysulfides which are effective in vasodilation or the widening of the blood vessels and also relaxation of the muscles. This helps blood pressure being lowered within the body and is an effective home remedy if consumed in controlled amounts.
  4. Reduces Fatigue and is a Performance Enhancer: Garlic is known to reduce fatigue within people as it controls the heart rate by lowering blood pressure. Whether it is an athletic performance or other physical work related performance requirements, this spice tends to give an extra boost.
  5. Controls LDL Cholesterol, thereby reducing chances of Heart Disease: LDL cholesterol, also known as bad cholesterol, is controlled by allicin as it improves liver functions. The liver can then break down LDL cholesterol easily and thus also helps in preventing arteriosclerosis. Garlic is also known to prevent blood clots that lead to heart attacks.
  6. Garlic has anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial properties: Garlic has been known throughout the ages to be an effective anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic agent. Garlic extracts or small amounts of garlic in your diet can help you build up immunity and also kill infections within your system effectively. It is also known to be very effective against tapeworm infestations within the gut. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.
10163 people found this helpful

Penis Health Diet: Optimal Food Choices!

MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Penis Health Diet: Optimal Food Choices!

Guys into maintaining the fitness of their body understand the important role diet plays in staying healthy. The right food choices can make a huge difference in overall health; indeed, these same food choices can be instrumental in improving penis health as well. But what are some foods men should consider consuming if maintaining proper penis health is their goal? The following list includes some helpful choices.

1. Bananas

It's not just because of their phallic shape that bananas are recommended for improving penis health. Most fruits are a good choice for men, but the banana has several things going for it. First, it is a good source of potassium, which is great for heart health and blood circulation, both of which are helpful in erectile function. (Remember, the spongy tissue in the penis soaks up the blood to become erect. Better blood circulation aids this process, and the heart has to be in good shape to keep pumping that blood around.) Potassium also helps reduce sodium levels in the blood. Second, the banana contains tyrosine, an amino acid that helps produce the neurotransmitters that increase sex drive. People also get dietary fiber from bananas, and that can help lower cholesterol, keeping a guy in better shape for sexual shenanigans.

2. Cashews

Cashew nuts make a great snack, something to keep a guy going when he needs a little pick me up. They also are a good source of zinc, and the penis likes that. Zinc helps to block the enzyme responsible for breaking testosterone down into estrogen - thereby helping to keep testosterone levels higher, which can have an impact on sexual performance.

3. Blueberries

They're sometimes called Nature's Viagra, and while that may be carrying things a little far, there is a reason blueberries are associated with sexual performance. Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which help those penile blood vessels relax and stay ready for an influx of blood. As with bananas, blueberries contain good fiber content, helping to eliminate "bad" cholesterol which can lead to blockages.

4. Tomatoes

The secret ingredient in tomatoes is lycopene, a phytochemical that is another strong player in the increased blood flow sweepstakes. In addition to being an aid in erectile issues, tomatoes help keep the prostate healthy, further benefiting a man's sexual life.

5. Brussels sprouts

While Brussels sprouts historically have a reputation as "good for you but bad to taste," their recent prominence in the foodie culture has made them more palatable. Whether they suit a man's taste or not, they can still be quite helpful. These vegetables contain indole-3-carbinol, a compound helpful in boosting sex drive. Like zinc, it lowers estrogen levels, thus keeping testosterone at a higher level.

6. Pomegranates

A man gets benefits from consuming either the fruit itself or its juice. Antioxidant-rich, it's also high in fiber and potassium, making it a good bet for helping with penile blood flow issues. Some researchers believe it can be beneficial in keeping the genitals properly sensitized.

7. Shitake mushrooms

This little guy can pack a punch. It has high levels of zinc, the benefits of which have been discussed previously. It's also filled with vitamin D; the absence of enough vitamin D can lower sex drive. And it's a source for choline, which helps stimulate one of the neurotransmitters that get things revved up for a guy.

These food choices can help maintain penis health, especially if a guy also regularly uses a top drawer penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). If the crème contains alpha lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant, it can add a boost to the antioxidants in the foods listed above. The crème should also contain L-arginine, which can further aid in keeping open those penile blood vessels so that the organ can be ready and receptive for increased blood flow at appropriate times.

4 people found this helpful

STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

In most diseases, early detection of the disease is the key to control the symptoms, cure, reduce progression and improve prognosis. This holds true for sexually transmitted diseases too. As soon as there is a mild degree of suspicious of having contracted a sexually transmitted disease, it is advisable to go for a test. Most of the STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) can develop into serious complications over a period of time, ranging from infertility to even death.

Complications: Why early diagnosis is important: When left undiagnosed and untreated, most STDs progress to cause severe damage from sterility to cancer to even death. Listed below are some complications associated with each of the common STDs.

  1. Chlamydia: If left untreated, can lead to epididymitis and testicles shrinking and infertility in males. This is a condition where there is pus formation in the scrotum. In women, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease which is deep-seated and unable to cure completely. This brings with it symptoms ranging from abdominal pain to uterine infections to sterility.
  2. Syphillis: Undiagnosed syphilis can lead to blindness and deafness. It can also be passed onto the newborn and lead to severe disabilities.
  3. Gonorrhea: If diagnosed early, it can be cured completely with antibiotics. However, if left untreated, it can lead to infertility.
  4. HIV/AIDS: Early diagnosis can help in curtailing the disease. If detected late, then the damage is quite extensive and treatment is both expensive and cannot help restore a lot of functions. 

Symptoms of Sexually transmitted diseases: If there is a doubt of having contracted an STD, then it is very important to get tested for the same. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below.

  1. Women: The most common symptoms in women including painful urination, burning sensation, abnormal vaginal discharge (sometimes bleeding), warts, and abdominal pain.
  2. Men: Testicular pain, urethral pain, painful urination, pain and inflammation in the prostate, sores, fever, and abdominal pain.

Prevention: Always practice safe sexual practices. When in doubt, refrain from sex until diagnosis and treatment is complete.

Testing for STDs: Some of the standard tests include:

  1. 1. Herpes- HSV I & II - 
    2. Testing HIV-- Kits and ELISA available for testing 
    3. Blood test for syphilis antibodies 
    4. Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea - from urine as well as swabs for culture

It is understandable that getting tested for STDs is an embarrassing situation. However, there are options available where anonymity can be maintained when getting tested for STDs. This is a wise choice to make as the risk is not just for the person affected but for the partner and in some cases even for the fetus. Early testing can help prevent complications like infertility and cancer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

2727 people found this helpful

All About Typhoid Fever!

MBBS
General Physician, Chittorgarh

What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.

What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).

Risk factors include:

  • Travelling to areas where typhoid fever is a common disease.
  • Being in a profession where contamination with bacteria is likely. Like those working in laboratories.
  • Coming in close contact with a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Drinking/ eating contaminated water or food.

How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ˚f (40.5 ˚c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).

Investigations include:

  • Blood tests: typhidot test igm and igg antibodies, blood culture to test for salmonella typhi.
  • Stool and urine analysis
  • Bone marrow culture: it is the most sensitive test, but it is rarely required except in patients who have already received antibiotics and not getting any better.
  • Widal antigen test: this test can be done, but there is a longer waiting phase of about 10 days till results can be seen, it is time-consuming and could give false positive results.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever?

What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.

A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.

How can typhoid fever be prevented?

  • Typhoid fever can be prevented by improving sanitation facilities and drinking clean drinking water.
  • Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using restrooms, before eating or cooking food.
  • Maintaining optimum personal hygiene is the key to preventing this disease.
  • Travellers should not drink untreated water; avoid adding ice to their drinks and should not eat ice creams or milk products or street foods that are a rich source of the infection.
  • Vaccines are available that give partial protection. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are travelling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
15 people found this helpful