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Osteoarthritis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a medical condition which occurs when a protective cartilage which is placed at the ends of your bones wears down due to wear and tear. It usually affects the joints of your spine, hips, knees and hands. Osteoarthritis is considered the most common form of arthritis. Being active and leading a healthy lifestyle can slow down the development of this disease. Certain medications can also improve the joint function and improve pain.

What causes Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis usually occurs when the cartilage (a slippery and firm tissue that allows frictionless joint motion) which cushions the bones inside your joints start deteriorating. The surface beneath the cartilage starts becoming rough. If the cartilage is damaged completely, the bones can be rubbing together without a protective barrier in between. This can cause immense pain and discomfort.

Risk factors which can make you susceptible in developing Osteoarthritis:

  • Old age- When you start aging, your bones tend to grow weaker. This can cause Osteoarthritis.
  • Sex- Studies state that women are more prone in developing Osteoarthritis.
  • Obesity- Extra body weight can add more pressure and stress on the joints of your body, which can make the cartilage on your knees, hips and joints prone to more friction. Fat tissues also produce proteins which can cause chronic inflammation on your joints leading to Osteoarthritis.
  • Joint injuries- Injuries which occur while playing sports or from a fatal accident can increase your chances of developing Osteoarthritis. Injuries that have occurred several years ago can also make you develop Osteoarthritis in the future.
  • Some occupations- Certain jobs include tasks which put continuous stress on a particular joint. This region can easily get affected by Osteoarthritis.
  • Genetics- If one or both parents have Osteoarthritis, the child is also prone in developing Osteoarthritis.
  • Bone deformities- People who are born with a defective cartilage or malformed joint are more susceptible in developing Osteoarthritis.


Osteoarthritis can be diagnosed by an orthopedic specialist. Usually tests like Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or X-rays are performed. These tests confirm the cartilage loss and bone spurs surrounding the affected joint. Sometimes, lab tests like blood test and Joint fluid analysis is carried out to analyze joint or blood fluid levels in your bone. These tests also confirm whether or not you have Osteoarthritis. Sometimes symptoms of Osteoarthritis can be similar to joint infection, gout or rheumatoid arthritis.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Usually self diagnosable Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Joint pain in the hands, neck, lower back, knees and hips Loss of flexibility. Grating sensation in the affected bones.

Popular Health Tips

Use Of PRP Therapy In Orthopaedics!

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, DNB - Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Use Of PRP Therapy In Orthopaedics!

It is considered as the medical speciality, which caters to injuries and various diseases in the musculoskeletal system of the human body. This constitutes the joints, bones, tendons, nerves and muscles that enables a human being to move, be active and work. Orthopaedic surgeons perform special problems like diagnosis of the injury or disorder, treatment with right medication, rehabilitation that is by prescribing exercises and physical therapy in order to restore back movement, function and strength and finally prevention by providing information and plans of treatment to prevent the injury or reduce the progression of the disease.

Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy (PRP)
PRP is the next generation injection method which is used commonly for conditions like knee, hip, shoulder and spine osteoarthritis, cuff tears, ACL injuries, pelvic instability, tennis elbow, back and neck injuries, ankle sprains, ligament sprains and tendinitis. It includes higher blood rate platelet concentrations and the patient experiences fewer chances of inflammatory side effects due to its pure PRP mixture.

How does it heal the body?

  1. The human body at first responds to the soft tissues injury which is to have the platelet cells.
  2. They are packed with healing factors that initiate repair and also attract critical assistance of the stem cells.
  3. The process intensifies the human body’s efforts which directly delivers a higher platelet concentration into the area of need.
  4. To create the PRP, a small section of the patient’s blood is drawn and it is placed into centrifuge which spins blood at a higher speed and separates the platelets from the components.
  5. It is injected into and at around the mark of injury and it significantly strengthens the process of healing.
  6. Just because the patient’s own blood is used in the process there is no risk of transmissible infection and also has less chance of allergic reaction.
  7. The procedure takes a couple of hours inclusive of the recovery and preparation time. It offers instant recovery as well avoids a long stay in the hospitals and application of anesthesia.

Outcome of PRP?

As the goal of PRP therapy is just to resolve pain by healing, it can prove to have long-lasting results. Initially, improvements are seen within few weeks eventually increases with the healing progress. The research studies have shown that PRP therapy is safe and effective and enables the patient to get back to their normal daily routine.

The PRP is very rich in platelets and it is a very old therapy that is adopted. It is a simple process and has multiple injections lasting 60-90 minutes and above all, it has natural end results, for example, PRP therapy is applied in hair restoration that provides natural appearing end results. It is a reliable process and therapy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3451 people found this helpful

Suffering From Osteoarthritis - What You Should Know?

MBBS, MD-Medicine, DM - Clinical Immunology
Rheumatologist, Jaipur
Suffering From Osteoarthritis - What You Should Know?

There are so many things we take for granted. For example, have you ever thought about how your fingers bend or how your knees open and fold to help you walk? It is only when these simple acts start becoming uncomfortable that we take a closer look at them. Osteoarthritis is a common musculoskeletal condition that affects the cartilage in our joints. As the cartilage breaks down, bones lose the buffer between them and every movement becomes stiff and painful.

Here are a few things you should know about osteoarthritis.

  1. Osteoarthritis is common: Osteoarthritis can affect both men and women but men have a higher risk of osteoarthritis as compared to women. This risk increases with age. Other risk factors associated with osteoarthritis include obesity, genetics, muscle weakness and previous joint injuries. The joints most commonly affected by osteoarthritis include the knees, hips, and spine. It is important to note that though this condition is common, it is not inevitable.
  2. You can reduce your risk of Osteoarthritis: By making a few lifestyle changes you can reduce the chances of suffering from this condition. Controlling your blood sugar and weight are primary amongst these. Regular exercise is also necessary as it increases flexibility and keeps the joints supple. It also strengthens the bones and muscles. If your work involves heavy lifting avoid placing stress on your knees and instead lift the weight with your hips.
  3. Different people have different symptoms: This condition has a very slow progression rate and hence may go unnoticed in its early stages. While some people experience pain in the early stages, others may not realize anything is amiss until an X-ray shows the degenerated cartilage. It also progresses at different rates for each individual. The condition will progress faster in the case of people living with heavy stress or those with a sedentary lifestyle. Some of the common symptoms associated with osteoarthritis include pain, stiffness, and swelling of the joints. Along with an X ray, blood tests will also be conducted to diagnose osteoarthritis. This helps rule out any other type of arthritis. In rare cases, osteoarthritis can cause joint deformities.
  4. Exercise is the best treatment for osteoarthritis: At present, there is no known cure for this disease. Medication can help relieve the pain caused by movement but cannot help stop the cartilage degeneration or help new cartilage grow. However, exercise can be very beneficial. This helps strengthen the muscles around the joint and can even slow down the rate of degeneration. Low-intensity exercises such as walking, swimming, yoga, and cycling are ideal for osteoarthritis patients as they do not put any pressure on the joints.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4272 people found this helpful

Osteoarthritis - Common Factors That Put You At Risk!

MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Bathinda
Osteoarthritis - Common Factors That Put You At Risk!

Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes cartilages in the joints of a human body to wear away. The joints in your body are made of bones and the ends of each bone have cartilages to prevent friction between them. Certain factors like age, nutrition or health threats can cause the cartilages to break down into bits and pieces. As a result, bones come into direct contact with one another causing the joints to swell or to turn tender.

Take a look at the following factors that can cause osteoarthritis

  1. Stress on specific joints due to certain postures: The triggering cause behind acute joint pain could be the way you sit for long hours in a day. A sportsperson might face joint pains due to his or her occupation. Similarly, any person required to sit or stand for a long stretch of time due to his/her jobs can suffer from osteoarthritis as well.
  2. There might be a deformity in any of your joints: A person born with joint deformities might suffer from arthritic problems later in life. Severe accidents can lead to deformities too.
  3. You may have suffered injuries that resulted in the condition: Joint pains needn’t always require an impactful injury. Mild or heavy injuries can lead to arthritis all the same. Defects in the joint cartilage could be passed on through genes.
  4. Age could also be a contributing factor: If a person is aging, his or her chances of developing osteoarthritis increase manifold. Age can make your bones and cartilages go weak. As you grow older, the capacity of your bones to absorb nutrition also decreases.

Prevalent symptoms that help you identify osteoarthritis

  1. A grinding sensation in the joints: A person suffering from osteoarthritis will experience continual bouts of grinding pain in the joints. This may keep him or her from walking, sitting, working or even resting. The grinding sensation is indeed disabling.
  2. You tend to face stiffness in the bones: Patients with this kind of arthritis have been reported with lacking flexibility in their joints. If they are sitting for too long, or have been inactive for some time or might have just woken up from sleep, they are likely to experience stiffness in their bones. Joints even turn sore in such situations.
  3. Extra bits of bones could create trouble: Extra bits of bones that develop at a later age are also referred to as bone spurs. They stick around the sore area and make movement a real challenge.

Modes of treatment
If osteoarthritis is detected at an early age, it can be fought against using medications. However, when the disease is really discomforting, treatment procedures like acupuncture or regimented exercising can help a patient. Yoga also does wonders to remedy joint pain. Surgical procedures are also available but they should be fallen back upon as a lender of the last resort. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.

3766 people found this helpful

Knee Osteoarthritis - 6 Signs You Are Suffering From It!

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, DNB - Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Pune
Knee Osteoarthritis - 6 Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Osteoarthritis, although a disorder occurring in old age, can affect young people too. What exactly is osteoarthritis? It is a condition in which the cartilage in the joints, which act as cushioning between two bones, start wearing away. This causes the bones of the joints to rub against each other, thereby resulting in pain, stiffness, swelling, inability to move freely and sometimes formation of bone spurs. Also, the bones become susceptible to more damage because the shock absorbing capacity is decreased.

The most common cause of osteoarthritis is age and almost everybody will develop some degree of this disorder at some point. However, there are risks of developing this disorder at earlier ages too. The possible reasons are listed below.

  1. As already discussed, age is one of the main reasons for the wearing off of the cartilage tissues.
  2. Excess weight causes a lot of increased pressure on the joints, especially knees, thereby causing the cartilage to wear out faster, leading to osteoarthritis.
  3. Some people develop osteoarthritis in the knee due to inherited abnormalities from previous generations.
  4. Women are more susceptible to this disorder than men. Women above 55 years are likely to experience osteoarthritis in the knee.
  5. The occupation of an individual can also be a reason for this disorder. Those individuals who have jobs in which repetitive stress to the joints is normal, they tend to suffer from osteoarthritis in the knees earlier.
  6. Athletes who are involved in football, tennis, running, etc. are also susceptible to osteoarthritis in the knees. However, regular and moderate exercise helps in strengthening the joints and thereby decreasing the risks of this disorder.
  7. People with metabolic disorders, who have excess iron or excess growth hormones, tend to have a higher risk of osteoarthritis.


  1. Engaging oneself in a number of physical activities causes an increase in pain, but it gets better with rest.
  2. Swelling around the knee area occurs.
  3. Joints feel warm.
  4. The knee becomes stiff, which occurs most when one has been sitting for a long time.
  5. Mobility of the knee is decreased and it becomes difficult to sit and get up after sitting.
  6. Crackly and creaking sounds are heard when the knee moves.

There are various treatments of osteoarthritis, but one of the main remedies is weight loss. Doctors recommend certain specific exercises to reduce the pain. For medications, certain anti-inflammatory drugs and pain relievers are suggested. There are many more treatment methods, but these are some of the most effective ones. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4446 people found this helpful

All about Osteoarthritis

Fellowship in Joint Replacement , M.Ch , MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
All about Osteoarthritis

Movement of the human body happens as a result of coordinated movement between the bones and the muscles. There are also cartilages that enable bones to move over and against each other, enabling body movement. Like other body parts, these are also prone to normal wear and tear. This causes bone movement to become less elastic, more rigid, and painful. This pain and inflammation of the bone joints is termed medically as osteoarthritis. It is one of the degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the bones and is a chronic condition.


As noted above, the main cause of osteoarthritis is aging. However, injuries with damage to the bones and muscles also cause osteoarthritis. With obesity on the rise, many patients are experiencing osteoarthritis as a result of increased weight gain also, as the bones are not able to take the excessive weight.


The most common symptoms include painful and stiff joints. When the movement becomes painful, there is lesser mobility, thereby leading to more weight gain. In severe cases, there could also be swelling of the joints. There could be a "crackling" sound that is typical of onset of osteoarthritis. The stiffness is more common during the later hours of the day and after prolonged period of inactivity, for instance, sitting for long hours.


Though the symptoms associated with injury and/or old age can be quite diagnostic, a doctor can confirm with a formal checkup if it is indeed osteoarthritis. X-rays and test of the joint fluid can also be used for further confirmation.


Osteoarthritis needs to be treated in a multi-pronged approach. As noted earlier, this condition leads to a vicious cycle leading to weight gain. Therefore, the treatment should be aimed at improving movement, reducing pain, reducing weight, and adapting a healthier lifestyle. Also, though it may not be completely prevented, the onset can be delayed by choosing a healthier lifestyle during the younger years of life. Exercise and weight control can definitely prolong the onset of the condition.

There is a strong genetic component that is mapped to this condition. So, if you are aware of an existing family history, it should trigger you to undertake preventive measures earlier in life. Adapting a healthy lifestyle definitely can be helpful in numerous way, prolonging and reducing the severity of osteoarthritis being one of them. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.

2346 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Does Ayurveda give relief to people suffering from osteoarthritis. What treatment is the best? Which hospitals/centers are the best.

MS. ORTHOPAEDICS DNB ORTHOPAEDICS Fellowship in spine surgery
Orthopedist, Mumbai
Sir, Osteoarthritis is an ageing problem, So it need to be properly evaluated and yes both Ayurveda and allopathy gives a good relief. But avoid taking long term steroids as these are been prescribed a lots by ayurvedic practitioner. Stay away from these medicines.
1 person found this helpful

I have developed Arthritis on my right knee which is getting to be an impediment to my active life. Can it be reversed or cured?

MS - Orthopaedics, National Board Of Examination, St John's medical college
Orthopedist, Ahmedabad
Primary Osteoarthritis is not a disease. It's a part of normal aging process. Just like with advancing age the hair turn grey, wrinkles appear on the face, teeth fall off. Its normal aging process and its irreversible. It also is a painful condition. Due to degenerated and worn out cartilage the raw bone surfaces rub against eachother during movement causing pain and hence restriction of activity. Few tips to avoid pain 1. Do yoga within the limits of pain 2. Quadriceps and hamstring strengthening exercises. 3. Painkillers only when the pain is too severe to tolerate. 4. Not to squat, sit cross legged in the floor and to use western commode/specially designed chairs for passing stool in sitting position in the toilets. 5. Avoiding using the staircase both going up and down. Both are equally bad. 6. If the arthritis is early you can even consider an intra articular injection of hyaluronic acid. The results are quite promising in early arthritis. You may consider consulting an orthopedic surgeon if needed.
1 person found this helpful

I am suffering from Osteoarthritis on both knees for last 3 years. I can walk 200 meters at a time but be feeling pain if I stand more than 10 minutes. Kindly advised me suitably, regards.

Orthopedist, Delhi
Arthritis ll cause pain n restrict your movement. Esp climbing stairs sitting crosd legged or squattig. But if you r not even able to stand for 10 mins I wud suggest you get doppler studies of both lower limbs. Arterial n venous doppler both lower limbs. To rule out vascular or ischaemic cause of pain. If your xray says severe Osteoarthritis knee. Den needs knee replacement.

If a person has osteo arthritis then how that person should take care of himself. Does regular checkup required? Does again test required? What kind of food I should eat? What physical activity I should do or can do? Can he go for tracking?

ms orthopaedics, mbbs
Orthopedist, Noida
Ry: 1. Regular knee quadriceps exercises (static and knee bending). 2. Ice pack application will help 3.Medications like Cartigen DN and Enzomac forte will help. 4. Intraarticular injections offer great help. Tests monthly once is sufficient. No food restriction. You can do all sort of activities. Just avoid squatting in floor and using Indian lavatories.
2 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Osteoarthritis?

What causes Osteoarthritis?


Play video
Osteoarthritis Of The Knee
Few typical symptoms of knee osteoarthritis are gradual onset of knee pain, stiffness and swelling. It can result from injury or infection or even from being overweight. Here the natural cushioning between joints -- cartilage -- wears away. Its always advisable to consult a good doctor for guidance and treatment.
Play video
Osteoarthritis Of Knee Joint

My name is Dr Deepak Kumar Arora. I am joint replacement and orthopaedic surgeon. Today I will tell you about osteoarthritis of knee joint.

Osteoarthritis is a very disabling disease of old age. In osteoarthritis a healthy cartilage of knee is worn down post pain and knee stiffness of knee joint and the treatment of osteoarthritis depends upon the grade of osteoarthritis. In grade 1-2, usually require medications and in grade 3 usually require intra RTO injections which lubricate knee joints. Sometimes in rare cases the patient requires Arthoscopy to relieve the pain in grade 4 if the patient remains symptomatic in spite of all measures then total knee replacement is the best available option total knee replacement nowadays it is very successful surgery.

In total knee replacement we replace the roll out cartilage with body friendly implants and bone and the muscles remain same total knee replacement is a simple procedure of 7 days in which patient remains hospitalized for 7 days first De we investigate the patient for surgical fitness on second day we operate the patient it takes about 2 hours for both knees and third day we start with physiotherapy 4th and 5th day we make the patients sit walk and stand go for washroom everything 7th day patient goes home.

Play video
Degenerative Joint Disease

I am not a Hardik Gondia practicing Orthopaedic surgeon in Mumbai. So, today I would like to speak about osteoarthritis of the knee joint there are various type of Arthritis of the knee joint broadly they are divided into a primary and secondary osteoarthritis is comes in the primary category of the secondary categories post-traumatic for post-infectious Arthritis. However, today I will talk only about the osteoarthritis of the knee osteoarthritis is a progressive form of Arthritis is characterized by breakdown of the cartilage of the knee joint it is also called as wear and Tear Arthritis it is usually found in the people more than 60 years of age however young people can also have it the common joints affected for the Arthritis is the knee joint spine is also affected Indians.

In some Western countries hip joint is also affected the common symptom of operators is the pain which is gradually increasing over a period of time and which is disability disabling to the patient. The other symptoms being stiffness is usually present in the morning times and as the patient vox stiffness comes down the other symptoms of the deformity of the legs in which the bro the bones become crooked the last thing is the bone grating sensation as the patient makes the movement of the knee joints.

The bones rub against each other which causes the patient to gives a grating sensation when the patient moves his knees the most common factor for the osteoarthritis is the age as one gross cold osteoarthritis is pretty much evident for the needs in the knees are the factors being the gender females are more affected in osteoarthritis then the mails maybe because of postmenopausal arthritis most winner whistle osteoporosis which leads to the Apparatus weight being III important factor which causes osteoarthritis why did the weight is less the stress and strain is reduced at the joint which causes delayed osteoporosis. osteoporosis also one of the important actors causing osteoarthritis if the calcium levels of the bones are less the Bourne grating and the Oscar for osteoarthritis increases there is no specific treatment for osteoarthritis.

How to join functions can be improved with daily exercises in the form of swimming swimming is the best exercise for the patient is osteoarthritis II exercises is the walking routine works of at least 30 minutes per day is sufficient enough the other exercises are by cycling yoga can be done loss of weight is the most important modifying factor for the osteoarthritis various Plains are available for osteoarthritis which help in preventing the deformity of the lake medications are available in the form of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs steroids or disease-modifying agents with all these medications and the exercises with a weight loss if the deformity and the pain causes the last option to go in his for total knee replacement knee replacement is actuary surfacing of the bones of the needs in which a part of a leg bone and part of a thigh bone is cut and it is replaced by metallic objects with a plastic part in between the metallic objects so that the bone grating is avoided the metal parts bride against the plastic and hence the pain of the knee joint is almost negligible and the movements are preserved.

Play video
Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Play video
Osteoarthritis Pain
Causes, symptoms, and treatment of Osteoarthritis

Hi, this is Dr. Jayini P Ram Mohen, chief consultant, orthopedic surgeon, Pace Hospitals, Hitech City-Hyderabad.

See out of my experience, I practice in this place for eleven years. Out of my experience, I have seen most of the software people they present to me with all sorts of pains such as upper back and lower back pains, knee pains and sheen pains. What I have observed is most of these patients suffer from Vitamin D Deficiency rather than any orthopedic problems. Vitamin D Deficiency is an endemic condition which we are seeing in this modern era. Actually, Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. A commonly known thing about vitamin D it s synthesized when a person is exposed to sunlight. But in the modern lifestyle even though you are exposed to sunlight, people work in a closed environment, morning to evening, they are not exposed to sunlight.

So, what is happening is inevitably everybody is ending up with vitamin D deficiency. The symptoms are fatigue; you feel tired at your working place, you feel bone pain whenever you are walking, whenever you are straining, like regular activities also you feel strained. And you feel pain in the joint and you are thinking capabilities goes down, it affects every metabolism of the body from the head to toes.

Most of us know that we get vitamin D in our body from the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. But the modern lifestyle does not allow you to fulfill that. So, for most of my patients, I prescribe vitamin D supplements on a regular basis along with calcium supplements because Vitamin D is part and parcel of calcium metabolism. You compulsory need calcium and vitamin D together in our metabolism. So the other ways which promote improving your calcium metabolism are by doing regular exercise for 10-15 minutes in a day. This keeps you in a good condition for a long time.
Causes, symptoms and treatment of Osteoarthritis
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice